Quantum repeater chains can be used to distribute bipartite entanglement among two end nodes. We study the limits of entanglement distribution using a chain of quantum repeaters that have quantum memories. A maximum storage time, known as cutoff, is enforced on these memories to ensure high-quality end-to-end entanglement. To generate end-to-end entanglement, the nodes can perform the following operations: wait, attempt the generation of an elementary entangled link with its neighbor(s), or perform an entanglement swapping measurement. Nodes follow a policy that determines what operation they must perform in each time step. Global-knowledge policies take into account all the information about the entanglement already produced. Here, we find global-knowledge policies that minimize the expected time to produce end-to-end entanglement. We model the evolution of this system as a Markov decision process, and find optimal policies using value and policy iteration. We compare optimal global-knowledge policies to a policy in which nodes only use local information. The advantage in expected delivery time provided by an optimal global-knowledge policy increases with increasing number of nodes and decreasing probability of successful entanglement swap. The advantage displays a non-trivial behavior with respect to the cutoff time and the probability of successful entanglement generation at the elementary link level. Our work sheds light on how to distribute entangled pairs in large quantum networks using a chain of intermediate repeaters with cutoffs.

As quantum technologies (QT) have been becoming more and more realized, their potential impact on and relation with society has been developing into a pressing issue for exploration. In this paper, we investigate the topic of democratization in the context of QT, particularly quantum computing. The paper contains three main sections. First, we briefly introduce different theories of democracy (participatory, representative, and deliberative), and how the concept of democratization can be formulated with respect to these frameworks. Second, we give an overview of how the concept of democratization is utilized by the actors in the QT field. Democratization is mainly adopted by companies working on quantum computing and used in a very narrow understanding of the concept. We provide a discussion on where to locate this formulation of democratization used by the QT community within the overall conceptual landscape of democracy theories. Third, we explore various narratives and counter-narratives concerning democratization in QT and we propose a five-step approach to operationalizing the concept of democratization with respect to different theories of democracy. Finally, we explore the concept of democratization in QT beyond quantum computing. In conclusion, we argue that although the ongoing efforts in the democratization of QT are necessary steps towards the democratization of this set of emerging technologies, they should not be accepted as sufficient to argue that QT is a democratized field. We argue that more reflexivity and responsiveness regarding the narratives and actions adopted by the actors in the QT field and making the underlying assumptions of ongoing efforts on democratization of QT can result in a better technology for the society.

An explicit Wigner formulation of Minkowski particle states for non-inertial observers is unknown. Here, we derive a general prescription to compute the characteristic function for Minkowski-Fock states in accelerated frames. For the special case of single-particle and two-particle states, this method enables to derive mean values of particle numbers and correlation function in the momentum space, and the way they are affected by the acceleration of the observer. We show an indistinguishability between Minkowski single-particle and two-particle states in terms of Rindler particle distribution that can be regarded as a way for the observer to detect any acceleration of the frame. We find that for two-particle states the observer is also able to detect acceleration by measuring the correlation between Rindler particles with different momenta.

Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental developments in the physics of hyperbolic crystals, we study the noncommutative Bloch transform of Fuchsian groups that we call the hyperbolic Bloch transform. First, we prove that the hyperbolic Bloch transform is injective and "asymptotically unitary" already in the simplest case, that is when the Hilbert space is the regular representation of the Fuchsian group, $\Gamma$. Second, when $\Gamma \subset \mathrm{PSU} (1, 1)$ acts isometrically on the hyperbolic plane, $\mathbb{H}$, and the Hilbert space is $L^2 \left( \mathbb{H} \right)$, then we define a modified, geometric Bloch transform, that sends wave functions to sections of stable, flat bundles over $\Sigma = \mathbb{H} / \Gamma$ and transforms the hyperbolic Laplacian into the covariant Laplacian.

The interplay of topology and non-Hermiticity has led to diverse, exciting manifestations in a plethora of systems. In this work, we systematically investigate the role of non-Hermiticity in the Chern insulating Haldane model on a dice lattice. Due to the presence of a non-dispersive flat band, the dice-Haldane model hosts a topologically rich phase diagram with the non-trivial phases accommodating Chern numbers $\pm 2$. We introduce non-Hermiticity into this model in two ways -- through balanced non-Hermitian gain and loss, and by non-reciprocal hopping in one direction. Both these types of non-Hermiticity induce higher-order exceptional points of order three. We substantiate the presence and the order of these higher-order exceptional points using the phase rigidity and its scaling. Further, we construct a phase diagram to identify and locate the occurrence of these exceptional points in the parameter space. Non-Hermiticity has yet more interesting consequences on a finite-sized lattice. Unlike for balanced gain and loss, in the case of non-reciprocal hopping, the nearest-neighbour dice lattice system under periodic boundary conditions accommodates a finite, non-zero spectral area in the complex plane. This manifests as the non-Hermitian skin effect when open boundary conditions are invoked. In the more general case of the dice-Haldane lattice model, the non-Hermitian skin effect can be caused by both gain and loss or non-reciprocity. Fascinatingly, the direction of localization of the eigenstates depends on the nature and strength of the non-Hermiticity. We establish the occurrence of the skin effect using the local density of states, inverse participation ratio and the edge probability, and demonstrate its robustness to disorder. Our results place the dice-Haldane model as an exciting platform to explore non-Hermitian physics.

Randomized benchmarking (RB) protocols are the most widely used methods for assessing the performance of quantum gates. However, the existing RB methods either do not scale to many qubits or cannot benchmark a universal gate set. Here, we introduce and demonstrate a technique for scalable RB of many universal and continuously parameterized gate sets, using a class of circuits called randomized mirror circuits. Our technique can be applied to a gate set containing an entangling Clifford gate and the set of arbitrary single-qubit gates, as well as gate sets containing controlled rotations about the Pauli axes. We use our technique to benchmark universal gate sets on four qubits of the Advanced Quantum Testbed, including a gate set containing a controlled-S gate and its inverse, and we investigate how the observed error rate is impacted by the inclusion of non-Clifford gates. Finally, we demonstrate that our technique scales to many qubits with experiments on a 27-qubit IBM Q processor. We use our technique to quantify the impact of crosstalk on this 27-qubit device, and we find that it contributes approximately 2/3 of the total error per gate in random many-qubit circuit layers.

Since Shor's proposition of the method for factoring products of prime numbers using quantum computing, there has been a quest to implement efficient quantum arithmetic algorithms. These algorithms are capable of applying arithmetic operations simultaneously on large sets of values using quantum parallelism. Draper proposed an addition algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transform whose operands are two quantum registers, which I refer to as register-by-register addition. However, for cases where there is the need to be added a constant value to a target register, Draper's algorithm is more complex than necessary in terms of number of operations and number of qubits used. In this paper, I present a more efficient addition algorithm than Draper's for cases where there needs to be added just a constant to a target register.

Efficient computation of molecular energies is an exciting application of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, but current noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices can only execute shallow circuits, limiting existing variational quantum algorithms, which require deep entangling quantum circuit ansatzes to capture correlations, to small molecules. Here we demonstrate a variational NISQ-friendly algorithm that generates a set of mean-field Hartree-Fock (HF) ansatzes using multiple shallow circuits with depth linear in the number of qubits to estimate electronic correlation energies via perturbation theory up to the second order. We tested the algorithm on several small molecules, both with classical simulations including noise models and on cloud quantum processors, showing that it not only reproduces the equilibrium molecular energies but it also captures the perturbative electronic correlation effects at longer bond distances. As fidelities of quantum processors continue to improve our algorithm will enable the study of larger molecules compared to other approaches requiring higher-order polynomial circuit depth.

We study how the number of employed modes impacts the ability to witness non-Markovian evolutions via correlation backflows in continuous-variable quantum dynamics. We first prove the existence of non-Markovian Gaussian evolutions that do not show any revivals in the correlations between the mode evolving through the dynamics and a single ancillary mode. We then demonstrate how this scenario radically changes when two ancillary modes are considered. Indeed, we show that the same evolutions can show correlation backflows along a specific bipartition when three-mode states are employed, and where only one mode is subjected to the evolution. These results can be interpreted as a form of activation phenomenon in non-Markovianity detection and are proven for two types of correlations, entanglement and steering, and two classes of Gaussian evolutions, a classical noise model and the quantum Brownian motion model.

Theories of spontaneous wavefunction collapse offer an explanation of the possible breakdown of quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems. However, the challenge of resolving predicted collapse signatures above background noise has precluded conclusive tests. Here, we propose to overcome this challenge using a superconducting qubit to precisely readout the collapse-induced heating of a mechanical resonator. We show that the ability to strongly couple the qubit to the resonator can enable both fast measurements and initialization of the qubit close to its ground state. Combined this greatly suppresses the influence of quasiparticle heating of the qubit, which we predict to be the dominant noise source. We find that bulk acoustic wave resonances can amplify the collapse induced heating due to their ultra-low dissipation. Together, this could enable a conclusive test of collapse models.

Unitary synthesis is an optimization technique that can achieve optimal multi-qubit gate counts while mapping quantum circuits to restrictive qubit topologies. Because synthesis algorithms are limited in scalability by their exponentially growing run time and memory requirements, application to circuits wider than 5 qubits requires divide-and-conquer partitioning of circuits into smaller components. In this work, we will explore methods to reduce the depth (program run time) and multi-qubit gate instruction count of wide (16-100 qubit) mapped quantum circuits optimized with synthesis. Reducing circuit depth and gate count directly impacts program performance and the likelihood of successful execution for quantum circuits on parallel quantum machines.

We present TopAS, a topology aware synthesis tool built with the \emph{BQSKit} framework that preconditions quantum circuits before mapping. Partitioned subcircuits are optimized and fitted to sparse qubit subtopologies in a way that balances the often opposing demands of synthesis and mapping algorithms. This technique can be used to reduce the depth and gate count of wide quantum circuits mapped to the sparse qubit topologies of Google and IBM. Compared to large scale synthesis algorithms which focus on optimizing quantum circuits after mapping, TopAS is able to reduce depth by an average of 35.2% and CNOT gate count an average of 11.5% when targeting a 2D mesh topology. When compared with traditional quantum compilers using peephole optimization and mapping algorithms from the Qiskit or $t|ket\rangle$ toolkits, our approach is able to provide significant improvements in performance, reducing CNOT counts by 30.3% and depth by 38.2% on average.

Author(s): Efekan Kökcü, Thomas Steckmann, Yan Wang, J. K. Freericks, Eugene F. Dumitrescu, and Alexander F. Kemper

Simulating quantum dynamics on classical computers is challenging for large systems due to the significant memory requirements. Simulation on quantum computers is a promising alternative, but fully optimizing quantum circuits to minimize limited quantum resources remains an open problem. We tackle t…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 070501] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Author(s): Samgeeth Puliyil, Manik Banik, and Mir Alimuddin

The theory of bipartite entanglement shares profound similarities with thermodynamics. In this Letter we extend this connection to multipartite quantum systems where entanglement appears in different forms with genuine entanglement being the most exotic one. We propose thermodynamic quantities that …

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 070601] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Author(s): Rachel Berkowitz

A three-qubit transistor design offers a way to manipulate the system’s heat flow by hitting one of the qubits with a laser.

[Physics 15, s103] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Matteo Rini

A compact, high-power laser could be made using gratings made of plasma.

[Physics 15, s108] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Chloe Kim and Eric Chitambar

After the appearance of the no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning machines (QCMs) has become a well-studied subject in quantum information theory. Among several measures to quantify the performance of a QCM, single-qudit fidelity and global fidelity have been most widely used. In this pape…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022405] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Author(s): Stefano Barison, Davide E. Galli, and Mario Motta

Quantum simulations of molecular systems on quantum computers often employ minimal basis sets of Gaussian orbitals. In comparison with more realistic basis sets, quantum simulations employing minimal basis sets require fewer qubits and quantum gates but yield results of lower accuracy. A natural str…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022404] Published Tue Aug 09, 2022

Author(s): Matthew Zepf

A laser-fusion scheme has achieved ignition—an important step on the road to energy production.

[Physics 15, 67] Published Mon Aug 08, 2022

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Rohit Kumar Shukla and Sunil Kumar Mishra

We study characteristic, dynamic, and saturation regimes of the out-of-time-order correlation (OTOC) in the constant-field Floquet system with and without longitudinal field. In the calculation of OTOC, we take local spins in longitudinal and transverse directions as observables which are local and …

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022403] Published Mon Aug 08, 2022

Developing hardware for high-dimensional unitary operators plays a vital role in implementing quantum computations and deep learning accelerations. Programmable photonic circuits are singularly promising candidates for universal unitaries owing to intrinsic unitarity, ultrafast tunability, and energy efficiency of photonic platforms. Nonetheless, when the scale of a photonic circuit increases, the effects of noise on the fidelity of quantum operators and deep learning weight matrices become more severe. Here we demonstrate a nontrivial stochastic nature of large-scale programmable photonic circuits-heavy-tailed distributions of rotation operators-that enables the development of high-fidelity universal unitaries through designed pruning of superfluous rotations. The power law and the Pareto principle for the conventional architecture of programmable photonic circuits are revealed with the presence of hub phase shifters, allowing for the application of network pruning to the design of photonic hardware. We extract a universal architecture for pruning random unitary matrices and prove that "the bad is sometimes better to be removed" to achieve high fidelity and energy efficiency. This result lowers the hurdle for high fidelity in large-scale quantum computing and photonic deep learning accelerators.