We prove that quantum expander codes can be combined with quantum fault-tolerance techniques to achieve constant overhead: the ratio between the total number of physical qubits required for a quantum computation with faulty hardware and the number of logical qubits involved in the ideal computation is asymptotically constant, and can even be taken arbitrarily close to 1 in the limit of small physical error rate. This improves on the polylogarithmic overhead promised by the standard threshold theorem.

To achieve this, we exploit a framework introduced by Gottesman together with a family of constant rate quantum codes, quantum expander codes. Our main technical contribution is to analyze an efficient decoding algorithm for these codes and prove that it remains robust in the presence of noisy syndrome measurements, a property which is crucial for fault-tolerant circuits. We also establish two additional features of the decoding algorithm that make it attractive for quantum computation: it can be parallelized to run in logarithmic depth, and is single-shot, meaning that it only requires a single round of noisy syndrome measurement.

We address the estimation of a one-parameter family of isometries taking one input into two output systems. This primarily allows us to consider imperfect estimation by accessing only one output system, i.e. through a quantum channel. Then, on the one hand, we consider separate and adversarial control of the two output systems to introduce the concept of \emph{privacy of estimation}. On the other hand we conceive the possibility of separate but cooperative control of the two output systems. Optimal estimation strategies are found according to the minimum mean square error. This also implies the generalization of Personik's theorem to the case of local measurements. Finally, applications to two-qubit unitaries (with one qubit in a fixed input state) are discussed.

These are the notes for a lecture which I presented at the International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics in Kolymbari, Crete in July, 2018. They review an idea which posits a phase of a two-dimensional system of cold N-component Fermions which exhibits spontaneously broken approximate scale symmetry when studied in the large N expansion. Near criticality, the phase exhibits anomalously small pressure and large compressibility. Some of the consequences of the approximate scale symmetry, such as the existence of a dilaton and its properties are discussed.

We investigate the detection problem of quantum nonlocal correlation by two qubit detectors. The detectors with an initial product state interact with a massless scalar field in the vacuum state, and then the out-state of the detectors are correlated after the interaction. Under the perturbative treatment in the second order of the coupling, the detectors' state can be entangled but satisfies the Bell-CHSH inequality. It is known that the violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality for such an entangled state is obtained after a local filtering operation. In this paper, we construct the optimal filtering operation for the qubit detectors and derive the success probability of the filtering operation, which characterizes the reliability of revealing the Bell-CHSH nonlocality by the filtering operations. By applying the optimal filtering, it is shown that the detected Bell-CHSH nonlocality depends on the coherence of the detectors' state and the spontaneous emission of scalar particles from each detector. We also comment on a trade-off relation between the success probability and the size of the parameter region showing quantum correlation.

Scalable and fault-tolerant quantum computation will require error correction. This will demand constant measurement of many-qubit observables, implemented using a vast number of CNOT gates. Indeed, practically all operations performed by a fault-tolerant device will be these CNOTs, or equivalent two-qubit controlled operations. It is therefore important to devise benchmarks for these gates that explicitly quantify their effectiveness at this task. Here we develop such benchmarks, and demonstrate their use by applying them to a range of differently implemented controlled gates and a particular quantum error correcting code. Specifically, we consider spin qubits confined to quantum dots that are coupled either directly or via floating gates to implement the minimal 17-qubit instance of the surface code. Our results show that small differences in the gate fidelity can lead to large differences in the performance of the surface code. This shows that gate fidelity is not, in general, a good predictor of code performance.

Quantum processes of inherent dynamical nature, such as quantum walks (QWs), defy a description in terms of an equilibrium statistical physics ensemble. Up to now, it has remained a key challenge to identify general principles behind the underlying unitary quantum dynamics. Here, we show and experimentally observe that split-step QWs admit a characterization in terms of a dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP). This integer-quantized DTOP measures, at a given time, the winding of the geometric phase accumulated by the wave-function during the QW. We observe distinct dynamical regimes in our experimentally realized QWs each of which can be attributed to a qualitatively different temporal behavior of the DTOP. Upon identifying an equivalent many-body problem, we reveal an intriguing connection between the nonanalytic changes of the DTOP in QWs and the occurrence of dynamical quantum phase transitions.

We study the $(1+1)$ dimensional generalized Dirac oscillator with a position-dependent mass. In particular, bound states with zero energy as well as non zero energy have been obtained for suitable choices of the mass function/oscillator interaction. It has also been shown that in the presence of an electric field, bound states exist if the magnitude of the electric field does not exceed a critical value.

We examine angular distribution of the probability of correlated fluorescence photon emission from a linear chain of identical equidistant two-level atoms. We selectively excite one of the atoms by a resonant laser field. The atoms are coupled to each other via the dipole-dipole interaction and collective spontaneous emission. Our attention is focused on the simultaneous observation of correlated pairs of photons. It is found that the interference between the emitting atoms can result in a highly directional emission of photon pairs. These pairs of photons posses strong correlations and their emission is highly concentrated into specific detection directions. We demonstrate the crucial role of the selective coherent excitation in such a geometrical configuration. Shifting the driving field from an atom located at one end of the chain to the other causes the radiation pattern to flip to the opposite half of the detection plane. Furthermore, we find that atomic systems in which only an atom situated at a particular position within the linear chain is driven by a laser field can radiate correlated twin photons in directions along which the radiation of single photons is significantly reduced. Alternatively, superbunching in the emitted photon statistics preferentially occurs in directions of negligible or vanishing single photon emission. The effect of superbunching strengthens as more emitters are added to the chain. Depending on the number of atoms and the position of the driven atom within the chain, the strongly correlated pairs of photons can be emitted into well-defined single, two or four directions.

Strong coupling between an atom and an electromagnetic resonator is an important condition in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). While strong coupling in various physical systems has been achieved so far, it remained elusive for single atomic ions. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the coupling of a single ion to an optical cavity with a coupling strength exceeding both atomic and cavity decay rates. We use cavity assisted Raman spectroscopy to precisely characterize the ion-cavity coupling strength and observe a spectrum featuring the normal mode splitting in the cavity transmission due to the ion-cavity interaction. Our work paves the way towards new applications of cavity QED utilizing single trapped ions in the strong coupling regime for quantum optics and quantum technologies.

The concept of weak invariants is examined in the thermodynamic context. Discussions are made about the temporally-local equilibrium states, corrections to them, and isoenergetic processes based on the quantum master equations of the Lindblad type that admit time-dependent Hamiltonians as weak invariants. Then, the theory is applied to the time-dependent harmonic oscillator as a simple example, and the power output and the work along an isoenergetic process are evaluated within the framework of finite-time quantum thermodynamics.

We have designed and realized new magnetic trapping geometries for ultracold atoms based on permanent magnetic films. Magnetic chip based experiments give a high level of control over trap barriers and geometric boundaries in a compact experimental setup. These structures can be used to study quantum spin physics in a wide range of energies and length scales. By introducing defects into a triangular lattice Kagome and hexagonal lattice structures can be created. Rectangular lattices and (quasi)-one-dimensional structures such as ladders and diamond chain trapping potentials have also been created. Quantum spin models can be studied in all these geometries with Rydberg atoms which allow for controlled interactions over several micrometer. We also present some non-periodic geometries where the length scale of the traps are varied over a wide range. These tapered structures offer a new way to transport large numbers of atoms adiabatically into sub-wavelength traps and back.

We recall that in order to obtain the classical limit of quantum mechanics one needs to take the $\hbar\rightarrow 0$ limit. In addition, one also needs an explanation for the absence of macroscopic quantum superposition of position states. One possible explanation for the latter is the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) model of spontaneous localisation. Here we describe how spontaneous localisation modifies the path integral formulation of density matrix evolution in quantum mechanics. (Such a formulation has been derived earlier by Pearle and Soucek; we provide two new derivations of their result). We then show how the von Neumann equation and the Liouville equation for the density matrix arise in the quantum and classical limit, respectively, from the GRW path integral. Thus we provide a rigorous demonstration of the quantum to classical transition.

Quantum dissipation is studied for a discrete system that linearly interacts with a reservoir of harmonic oscillators at thermal equilibrium. Initial correlations between system and reservoir are assumed to be absent. The dissipative dynamics as determined by the unitary evolution of system and reservoir is described by a Kraus map consisting of an infinite number of matrices. For all Laplace-transformed Kraus matrices exact solutions are constructed in terms of continued fractions that depend on the pair correlation functions of the reservoir.

The Page-Wootters mechanism questioned the fundamental nature of time in quantum physics. The mechanism explored the notion that a given physical quantity is always defined and measured relative to a reference frame, in general, not explained in the theoretical description of quantum physical experiments. Recently, the resource theory of asymmetry deals explicitly with what are the physical conditions for a quantum system to serve as a good reference frame. Nonetheless, to quantify a quantum reference frame in relation to another one it is a important task to establish an internal description of quantum theory, i.e., without the need of a classical reference frame. In this work we address this issue by the concept of mutual asymmetry and use this machinery in the Page-Wootters mechanism by identifying the concept of mutual asymmetry as mutual or internal coherence. To do so, the notion of quantum coherence in relation of a quantum reference frame is revisited and a quantifier is proposed in this scenario. Also, this open space to investigate the link of internal coherence and correlations, as proposed by Page and Wootters, under a resource theory approach.

We introduce the notions of algorithmic mutual information and rarity of quantum states. These definitions enjoy conservation inequalities over unitary transformations and partial traces. We show that a large majority of pure states have minute self algorithmic information. We provide an algorithmic variant to the no-cloning theorem, by showing that only a small minority of quantum pure states can clone a non negligible amount of algorithmic information. We also provide a chain rule inequality for quantum algorithmic entropy. We show that rarity does not increase under POVM measurements.

Realization of an on-chip quantum network is a major goal in the field of integrated quantum photonics. A typical network scalable on-chip demands optical integration of single photon sources, optical circuitry and detectors for routing and processing of quantum information. Current solutions either notoriously experience considerable decoherence or suffer from extended footprint dimensions limiting their on-chip scaling. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a robust on-chip quantum network based on an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material, whose dielectric function has the real part close to zero. We show that ENZ materials strongly protect quantum information against decoherence and losses during its propagation in the dense network. As an example, we model a feasible implementation of an ENZ network and demonstrate that quantum information can be reliably sent across a titanium nitride grid with a coherence length of 434 nm, operating at room temperature, which is more than 40 times larger than state-of-the-art plasmonic analogs. Our results can, therefore, enable practical realization of large multi-node quantum photonic networks and circuits on-a-chip.

Estimating the density of states of systems with rugged free energy landscapes is a notoriously difficult task of the utmost importance in many areas of physics ranging from spin glasses to biopolymers to quantum computing. Some of the standard approaches suffer from a spurious convergence of the estimates to metastable minima, and these cases are particularly hard to detect. Here, we introduce a sampling technique based on population annealing enhanced with a multi-histogram analysis and report on its performance for spin glasses. We demonstrate its ability to overcome the pitfalls of other entropic samplers, resulting in some cases in orders of magnitude scaling advantages that can result in the uncovering of new physics. To do that we devise several schemes that allow us to achieve exact counts of the degeneracies of the tested instances.

We demonstrate a novel method for coherent optical manipulation of individual nuclear spins in the solid state, mediated by the electronic states of a proximal quantum emitter. Specifically, using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond, we demonstrate control of a proximal $^{14}$N nuclear spin via an all-optical Raman technique. We evaluate the extent to which the intrinsic physical properties of the NV center limit the performance of coherent control, and find that it is ultimately constrained by the relative rates of transverse hyperfine coupling and radiative decay in the NV center's excited state. Possible extensions and applications to other color centers are discussed.

We present some numerical results for nonlinear quantum walks (NLQWs) studied by the authors analytically \cite{MSSSS18DCDS, MSSSS18QIP}. It was shown that if the nonlinearity is weak, then the long time behavior of NLQWs are approximated by linear quantum walks. In this paper, we observe the linear decay of NLQWs for range of nonlinearity wider than studied in \cite{MSSSS18DCDS}. In addition, we treat the strong nonlinear regime and show that the solitonic behavior of solutions appears. There are several kinds of soliton solutions and the dynamics becomes complicated. However, we see that there are some special cases so that we can calculate explicit form of solutions. In order to understand the nonlinear dynamics, we systematically study the collision between soliton solutions. We can find a relationship between our model and a nonlinear differential equation.

The nuclear spin state of a phosphorus donor ($^{31}$P) in isotopically enriched silicon-28 is an excellent host to store quantum information in the solid state. The spin's insensitivity to electric fields yields a solid-state qubit with record coherence times, but also renders coupling to other quantum systems very challenging. Here, we describe how to generate a strong electric dipole ($>100$ Debye) at microwave frequencies for the nuclear spin. This is achieved by applying a magnetic drive to the spin of the donor-bound electron, while simultaneously controlling its charge state with electric fields. Under certain conditions, the microwave magnetic drive also renders the nuclear spin resonance frequency and electric dipole strongly insensitive to electrical noise, yielding long ($>1$ ms) dephasing times and robust gate operations. The nuclear spin could then be strongly coupled to microwave resonators, with a vacuum Rabi splitting of order 1 MHz, or to other nuclear spins, nearly half a micrometer apart, via strong electric dipole-dipole interaction. This work brings the $^{31}$P nuclear qubit into the realm of hybrid quantum systems and opens up new avenues in quantum information processing.