When it comes to applying the adiabatic theorem in practice, the key question to be answered is how slow "slowly enough" is. This question can be an intricate one, especially for many-body systems, where the limits of slow driving and large system size may not commute. Recently we have shown how the quantum adiabaticity in many-body systems is related to the generalized orthogonality catastrophe [Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 200401 (2017)]. We have proven a rigorous inequality relating these two phenomena and applied it to establish conditions for the quantized transport in the topological Thouless pump. In the present contribution we (i) review these developments and (ii) apply the inequality to establish the conditions for adiabaticity in a one-dimensional system consisting of a quantum fluid and an impurity particle pulled through the fluid by an external force. The latter analysis is vital for the correct quantitative description of the phenomenon of quasi Bloch oscillations in a one-dimensional translation invariant impurity-fluid system.

In this paper, we consider two different subjects: the algebra of universal characters $S_{[\lambda,\mu]}({\bf x},{\bf y})$ (a generalization of Schur functions) and the phase model of strongly correlated bosons. We find that the two-site generalized phase model can be realized in the algebra of universal characters, and the entries in the monodromy matrix of the phase model can be represented by the vertex operators $\Gamma_i^\pm(z) (i=1,2)$ which generate universal characters. Meanwhile, we find that these vertex operators can also be used to obtain the A-model topological string partition function on $\mathbb C^3$.

We describe a numerical method which allows us to go beyond the classical approximation for the real-time dynamics of many-body systems by approximating the many-body Wigner function by the most general Gaussian function with time-dependent mean and dispersion. On a simple example of a classically chaotic system with two degrees of freedom we demonstrate that this Gaussian state approximation is accurate for significantly smaller field strengths and longer times than the classical one. Applying this approximation to matrix quantum mechanics, we demonstrate that the quantum Lyapunov exponents are in general smaller than their classical counterparts, and even seem to vanish below some temperature. This behavior resembles the finite-temperature phase transition which was found for this system in Monte-Carlo simulations, and ensures that the system does not violate the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford bound $\lambda_L < 2 \pi T$, while the classical dynamics inevitably breaks the bound.

Beginning with the quaternionic generalization of the quantum wave equation, we construct a simple model of relativistic quantum electrodynamics for massive dyons. A new quaternionic form of unified relativistic wave equation consisting of vector and scalar functions is obtained, and also satisfy the quaternionic momentum eigenvalue equation. Keeping in mind the importance of quantum field theory, we investigate the relativistic quantum structure of electromagnetic wave propagation of dyons. The present quantum theory of electromagnetism leads to generalized Lorentz gauge conditions for the electric and magnetic charge of dyons. We also demonstrate the universal quantum wave equations for two four-potentials as well as two four-currents of dyons. The generalized continuity equations for massive dyons in case of quantum fields are expressed. Furthermore, we concluded that the quantum generalization of electromagnetic field equations of dyons can be related to analogous London field equations (i.e., current to electromagnetic fields in and around a superconductor).

We show that the central finite difference formula for the first and the second derivative of a function can be derived, in the context of quantum mechanics, as matrix elements of the momentum and kinetic energy operators using, as a basis set, the discrete coordinate eigenkets $\vert x_n\rangle$ defined on the uniform grid $x_n=na$. Simple closed form expressions of the matrix elements are obtained starting from integrals involving the canonical commutation $\left[\widehat{x},\widehat{p}\right] =i\hbar\widehat{I}$. A detailed analysis of the convergence toward the continuum limit with respect to both the grid spacing and the approximation order is presented. It is shown that the convergence from below of the eigenvalues in a electronic structure calculation is an intrinsic feature of the finite difference method.

A new lower bound for the maximal length of a multivector is obtained. It is much closer to the best known upper bound than previously reported lower bound estimates. The maximal length appears to be unexpectedly large for $n$-vectors, with n>2, since the few exactly known values seem to grow linearly with vector space dimension, whereas the new lower bound has a polynomial order equal to n-1 like the best known upper bound. This result has implications for quantum chemistry.

Our manuscript investigates a self-consistent solution of the statistical atom model proposed by Berthold-Georg Englert and Julian Schwinger (the ES model) and benchmarks it against atomic Kohn-Sham and two orbital-free models of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD)-$\lambda$vW family. Results show that the ES model generally offers the same accuracy as the well-known TFD-$\frac{1}{5}$vW model; however, the ES model corrects the failure in Pauli potential near-nucleus region. We also point to the inability of describing low-$Z$ atoms as the foremost concern in improving the present model.

One attractive interpretation of quantum mechanics is the ensemble interpretation, where Quantum Mechanics merely describes a statistical ensemble of systems rather than individual systems. However, such interpretation does not address why the wave-function plays a central role in the calculations of probabilities, unlike most other interpretations of quantum mechanics. We first show that for a quantum system defined in a 2-dimensional real Hilbert space, the role of the wave-function is identical to the role of the Euler's formula in engineering, while the collapse of the wave-function is identical to selecting the real part of a complex number. We will then show that the wave-function is merely one possible parametrization of any probability distribution describing an ensemble: a surjective map from an hypersphere to the set of all possible probability distributions. The fact that the hypersphere is a surface of constant radius reflects the fact that the integral of the probability distribution is always 1. Any transformation of a probability distribution is represented by a rotation of the hypersphere. It is thus a very good parametrization which allows us to apply group theory to the hypersphere, despite the fact that a stochastic process is not always a Markov process. The collapse of the wave-function is required to compensate the fact that physical transformations on the probability distribution are not linear transformations.

We construct bi-frequency solitary waves of the nonlinear Dirac equation with the scalar self-interaction (the Soler model) and the Dirac--Klein--Gordon with Yukawa self-interaction. These solitary waves provide a natural implementation of qubit and qudit states in the theory of quantum computing. We show the relation of $\pm 2\omega\mathrm{i}$ eigenvalues of the linearization at a solitary wave, Bogoliubov $\mathbf{SU}(1,1)$ symmetry, and the existence of bi-frequency solitary waves. We show that the spectral stability of these waves reduces to spectral stability of usual (one-frequency) solitary waves.

A possible avenue towards a non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT) on Minkowski space is the constructive approach which employs the Euclidian path integral formulation, in the presence of both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regulators, as starting point. The UV regulator is to be taken away by renormalisation group techniques which in case of success leads to a measure on the space of generalised Euclidian fields in finite volume. The IR regulator corresponds to the thermodynamic limit of the system in the statistical physics sense. If the resulting measure obeys the Osterwalder-Schrader axioms, the actual QFT on Minkowski space is then obtained by Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction. In this work we study the question whether it is possible to reformulate the renormalisation group non-perturbatively directly at the operator (Hamiltonian) level. Hamiltonian renormalisation would be the natural route to follow if one had easier access to an interacting Hamiltonian operator rather than to a path integral, at least in the presence of UV and/or IR cut-off, which is generically the case in complicated gauge theories such as General Relativity. Our guiding principle for the definition of the direct Hamiltonian renormalisation group is that it results in the same continuum theory as the covariant (path integral) renormalisation group. In order to achieve this, we invert the Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction, which may be called Osterwalder-Schrader construction of a Wiener measure from the underlying Hamiltonian theory. The resulting correspondence between reflection positive measures and Osterwalder-Schrader data consisting of a Hilbert space, a Hamiltonian and a ground state vector allows us to monitor the effect of the renormalisation flow of measures in terms of their Osterwalder-Schrader data which motivates a natural direct Hamiltonian renormalisation scheme.

This is the third paper in a series of four in which a renormalisation flow is introduced which acts directly on the Osterwalder-Schrader data (OS data) without recourse to a path integral. Here the OS data consist of a Hilbert space, a cyclic vacuum vector therein and a Hamiltonian annihilating the vacuum which can be obtained from an OS measure, that is a measure respecting (a subset of) the OS axioms.

In the previous paper we successfully tested our proposal for the two-dimensional massive Klein-Gordon model, that is, we could confirm that our framework finds the correct fixed point starting from a natural initial naive discretisation of the finite resolution Hamiltonians, in particular the underlying Laplacian on a lattice, and a natural coarse graining map that drives the renormalisation flow. However, several questions remained unanswered. How generic can the initial discretisation and the coarse graining map be in order that the fixed point is not changed or is at least not lost, in other words, how universal is the fixed point structure? Is the fix point in fact stable, that is, is the fixed point actually a limit of the renormalisation sequence? We will address these questions in the present paper.

In this article we extend the test of Hamiltonian Renormalisation proposed in this series of articles to the D-dimensional case using a massive free scalar field. The concepts we introduce are explicitly computed for the D=2 case but transfer immediately to higher dimensions. In this article we define and verify a criterion that monitors, at finite resolution defined by a cubic lattice, whether the flow approaches a rotationally invariant fixed point.

We present a Heisenberg-Langevin formalism to study the effective dynamics of a superconducting qubit coupled to an open multimode resonator, without resorting to the rotating wave, two level, Born or Markov approximations. Our effective equations are derived by eliminating resonator degrees of freedom while encoding their effect in the Green's function of the electromagnetic background. We account for the openness of the resonator exactly by employing a spectral representation for the Green's function in terms of a set of non-Hermitian modes. A well-behaved time domain perturbation theory is derived to systematically account for the nonlinearity of weakly nonlinear qubits like transmon. We apply this method to the problem of spontaneous emission, capturing accurately the non-Markovian features of the qubit dynamics, valid for any qubit-resonator coupling strength. Any discrete-level quantum system coupled to the electromagnetic continuum is subject to radiative decay and renormalization of its energy levels. When inside a cavity, these quantities can be strongly modified with respect to vacuum. Generally, this modification can be captured by including only the closest resonant cavity mode. In circuit-QED architecture, with substantial coupling strengths, it is however found that such rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes. A multimode calculation over the infinite set of cavity modes leads to divergences unless an artificial cutoff is imposed. Previous studies have not pointed out what the source of this divergence is. We show that unless the effect of $A^2$ is accounted for up to all orders exactly, any multimode calculations of circuit-QED quantities is bound to diverge. Subsequently, we present the calculation of finite radiative corrections to qubit properties that is free of an artificially introduced high frequency cut-off.

The emergence of preferred classical variables within a many-body wavefunction is encoded in its entanglement structure in the form of redundant classical information shared between many spatially local subsystems. We show how such structure can be generated via cosmological dynamics from the vacuum state of a massless field, causing the wavefunction to branch into classical field configurations on large scales. An accelerating epoch first excites the vacuum into a superposition of classical fields as well as a highly sensitive bath of squeezed super-horizon modes. During a subsequent decelerating epoch, gravitational interactions allow these modes to collect information about longer-wavelength fluctuations. This information disperses spatially, creating long-range redundant correlations in the wavefunction. The resulting classical observables, preferred basis for decoherence, and system/environment decomposition emerge from the translation invariant wavefunction and Hamiltonian, rather than being fixed by hand. We discuss the role of squeezing, the cosmological horizon scale, and phase information in the wavefunction, as well as aspects of wavefunction branching for continuous variables and in field theories.

We report the first observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an isotopically purified Nd$^{3+}$:YLiF$_4$ crystal. This crystal demonstrates inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions of about 35 MHz. EIT is observed in a symmetrical $\Lambda$-like system formed by two hyperfine sublevels of the ground state corresponding to a zero first order Zeeman (ZEFOZ) transition and a hyperfine sublevel of the excited state, which is not coupled to other ground-state sublevels. It is found that transmission of the probe field as a function of the two-photon detuning demonstrates a comb-like structure that can be attributed to superhyperfine coupling between Nd$^{3+}$ ions and fluorine nuclei. The observed structure can be resolved only in the vicinity of the ZEFOZ point where the homogeneous linewidth of the spin transition is sufficiently small. The results pave the way for implementing solid-state quantum memories based on off-resonant Raman interaction without spectral tailoring of optical transitions.

It is well known that in a two-slit interference experiment, if the information, on which of the two paths the particle followed, is stored in a quantum path detector, the interference is destroyed. However, in a setup where this path information is "erased", the interference can reappear. Such a setup is known as a quantum eraser. A generalization of quantum eraser to a three-slit interference is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that three complementary interference patterns can arise out of the quantum erasing process.

We give an exposition of the Horn inequalities and their triple role characterizing tensor product invariants, eigenvalues of sums of Hermitian matrices, and intersections of Schubert varieties. We follow Belkale's geometric method, but assume only basic representation theory and algebraic geometry, aiming for self-contained, concrete proofs. In particular, we do not assume the Littlewood-Richardson rule nor an a priori relation between intersections of Schubert cells and tensor product invariants. Our motivation is largely pedagogical, but the desire for concrete approaches is also motivated by current research in computational complexity theory and effective algorithms.

In this paper, we theoretically propose an optomechanical scheme to explore the possibility of simulating the propagation of the collective excitations of the photon fluid in a curved spacetime. For this purpose, we introduce two theoretical models for two-dimensional photon gas in a planar optomechanical microcavity and a two-dimensional array of coupled optomechanical systems. In the reversed dissipation regime (RDR) of cavity optomechanics where the mechanical oscillator reaches equilibrium with its thermal reservoir much faster than the cavity modes, the mechanical degrees of freedom can adiabatically be eliminated. The adiabatic elimination of the mechanical mode provides an effective nonlinear Kerr-type photon-photon interaction. Using the nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation (NLSE), we show that the phase fluctuations in the two-dimensional photon fluid obey the Klein-Gordon equation for a massless scalar field propagating in a curved spacetime. The results reveal that the photon fluid as well as the corresponding metric can be controlled by manipulating the system parameters.

We present a theoretical scheme to simulate quantum field theory in a discrete curved spacetime based on the Bose-Hubbard model describing a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical lattice. Using the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we first introduce a hydrodynamic presentation of the system evolution in discrete space. We then show that the phase (density) fluctuations of the trapped bosons inside an optical lattice in the superfluid (Mott insulator) state obey the Klein-Gordon equation for a massless scalar field propagating in a discrete curved spacetime. We derive the effective metrics associated with the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases and, in particular, we find that in the superfluid phase the metric exhibits a singularity which can be considered as a the manifestation of an analog acoustic black hole. The proposed approach is found to provide a suitable platform for quantum simulation of various spacetime metrics through adjusting the system parameters.

Starting from an idea of S.L. Adler~\cite{Adler2015}, we develop a novel model of gravity-induced spontaneous wave-function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength $\xi$ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that $\xi\geq 10^{-26}$ in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time $\xi \leq 10^{-20}$ in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of $\xi \sim 10^{-21}$.