We examine the problem of determining if a 2-local Hamiltonian is stoquastic by local basis changes. We analyze this problem for two-qubit Hamiltonians, presenting some basic tools and giving a concrete example where using unitaries beyond Clifford rotations is required in order to decide stoquasticity. We report on simple results for $n$-qubit Hamiltonians with identical 2-local terms on bipartite graphs. We give an efficient algorithm to determine whether an arbitrary $n$-qubit XYZ Heisenberg Hamiltonian is stoquastic by local basis changes, which is our most significant result. We also present some evidence that the problem of deciding stoquasticity by local basis changes for a 2-local Hamiltonian $H$ is hard by proving that deciding whether $H$ can be made real by local Clifford rotations is NP-complete.

The unavoidable effect of the environmental noise due to nuclear spins and charge traps is included in the study of the hybrid qubit dynamics. Hybrid qubit dues its name to the advantageous combination of manipulation speed of a charge qubit with the longevity of a spin qubit. It consists of three electrons confined through external gate voltages in a double quantum dot and deserves special interest in quantum computation applications due to its advantages in terms of fabrication, control and only electrical manipulation. Hybrid qubit is protected against global magnetic fluctuations since it is a decoherence-free subspace qubit. It is only affected by local fluctuations, such as the Overhauser field, in addition to charge fluctuations on the electrostatic gates. In the configuration studied, the control parameters, that are the gate voltages, are always turned on. Coherence time of the hybrid qubit is extracted when model parameters take values achievable experimentally in the nuclear free isotope $^{28}$Si, natural Si and GaAs hosts.

We characterise non-selective global projective measurements capable of increasing quantum entanglement between two particles. We show that non-selective global projective measurements are capable of increasing entanglement between two particles, in particular, entanglement of any pure non-maximally entangled state can be improved in this way (but not of any mixed state) and we provide detailed analysis for two qubits. It is then shown that Markovian open system dynamics can only approximate such measurements, but this approximation converges exponentially fast as illustrated using Araki-Zurek model. We conclude with numerical evidence that macroscopic bodies in a random pure state do not gain entanglement in a random non-selective global measurement.

In this paper we provide a consistent framework to address the notorious decomposition of the single-photon total angular momentum (TAM) into a spin (SAM) and an orbital (OAM) component. In particular, we find that the canonical SAM and OAM, generators of internal and spatial rotations respectively in the space of physical states, are mutually compatible but unsharp quantum observables, therefore POVM (Positive Operator-Valued Measures) describe their joint measurements. On the other hand, a non-canonical SAM and OAM can be constructed that is mutually incompatible but represent sharp quantum observables, thus PVM (Projector-Valued Measurements), reflecting their consistency with the transversality condition characterizing singlephoton wavefunctions. We discuss the implementations on joint measurements for both decompositions and provide an explicit calculation of all these quantities for circularly polarized Gaussian single-photon states.

Sagnac speed meter (SSM) topology is known as an alternative technique to reduce quantum back-action in gravitational-wave interferometers. However, any potential imbalance of the main beamsplitter was shown to reduce the quantum noise superiority of speed meter at low frequencies, caused due to increased laser noise coupling to the detection port. In this paper, we show that implementing balanced homodyne readout scheme and for a particular choice of the local oscillator (LO) delivery port, the excess laser noise contribution to quantum noise limited sensitivity (QNLS) is partly compensated and the speed meter sensitivity can outperform state-of-the-art position meters. This can be achieved by picking the local oscillator from interferometer reflection (\textit{co-moving} LO) or the main beamsplitter anti-reflective coating surface (BSAR LO). We also show that this relaxes the relative intensity noise (RIN) requirement of the input laser. For example, for a beam splitter imbalance of $0.1 \%$ in Glasgow speed meter proof of concept experiment, the RIN requirement at frequency of 100Hz decreases from $4\times 10^{-10}/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ to $4\times 10^{-7}/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$, moving the RIN requirement from a not practical achievable value to one which is routinely achieved with moderate effort.

Coherent superposition states of a mesoscopic quantum object play a major role in our understanding of the quantum to classical boundary, as well as in quantum-enhanced metrology and computing. However, their practical realization and manipulation remains challenging, requiring a high degree of control of the system and its coupling to the environment. Here, we use dysprosium atoms - the most magnetic element in its ground state - to realize coherent superpositions between electronic spin states of opposite orientation, with a mesoscopic spin size J=8. We drive coherent spin states to quantum superpositions using non-linear light-spin interactions, observing a series of collapses and revivals of quantum coherence. These states feature highly non-classical behavior, with a sensitivity to magnetic fields enhanced by a factor 13.9(1.1) compared to coherent spin states - close to the Heisenberg limit 2J=16 - and an intrinsic fragility to environmental noise.

Deterministic quantum computation with one qubit (DQC1) is iconic in highlighting that exponential quantum speedup may be achieved with negligible entanglement. Its discovery catalyzed heated study of general quantum resources, and various conjectures regarding their role in DQC1's performance advantage. Coherence and discord are prominent candidates, respectively characterizing non-classicality within localized and correlated systems. Here we realize DQC1 within a superconducting system, engineered such that the dynamics of coherence and discord can be tracked throughout its execution. We experimentally confirm that DQC1 acts as a resource converter, consuming coherence to generate discord during its operation. Our results highlight superconducting circuits as a promising platform for both realizing DQC1 and related algorithms, and experimentally characterizing resource dynamics within quantum protocols.

Using the language of the Geometric Algebra, we recast the massive Dirac bispinor as a set of Lorentz scalar, vector, bivector, pseudovector, and pseudoscalar fields that obey a generalized form of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. This field-based formulation requires careful distinction between geometric and non-geometric implementations of the imaginary unit scalar in the Dirac algebra. This distinction, which is obscured in conventional treatments, allows us to find alternative constructions of the field bilinears and a more natural interpretation of the discrete C, P, and T transformations.

We theoretically study the quantum Fisher information (QFI) of the SU(1,1) interferometer with phase shifts in two arms taking account of realistic noise effects. A generalized phase transform including the phase diffusion effect is presented by the purification process. Based on this transform, the analytical QFI and the bound to the quantum precision are derived when considering the effects of phase diffusion and photon losses simultaneously. To beat the standard quantum limit with the reduced precision of phase estimation due to noisy, the upper bounds of decoherence coefficients as a function of total mean photon number are given.

We propose a scheme for simulating 3+1, 2+1, 1+1 Dirac equation for a free spin-1/2 particle with superconducting josephson circuits consisting of five qubits, four qubits, two qubits respectively. In 3+1D and 2+1D, the flux qubit1 driven by a resonant pulse is in the superposition state of its own two eigenstatesis, and it is used as a bus to induce the (blue)red-sideband excitation consisting of a magnetic pulse acting resonantly on two levels of the flux qubit2 and the energy levels of one phase qubit, which yields two (Anti)Jaynes-Cummings interactions with one driving pulse and reduces the damage of the driving pulses to the system consequently. Numerical results show that decoherence time is several times longer than transition time supposing set appropriate experimental parameters. Therefore experiments verifying the dynamics of electron and neutrino, such as Zitterberwung effect in 3+1, 2+1 and 1+1 dimensions, can be implemented by microelectronic chips composed of the qubits as artificial atoms.

Quantum states with genuine multipartite entanglement, such as hypergraph states, are of central interest in quantum information processing and foundational studies. Efficient verification of these states is a key to various applications. Here we propose a simple method for verifying hypergraph states which requires only two distinct Pauli measurements for each party, but its efficiency is comparable to the best nonlocal collective strategy. For a given state, the overhead is bounded by the chromatic number and degree of the underlying hypergraph. Our protocol is exponentially more efficient than all known candidates based on local measurements, including tomography and direct fidelity estimation. Moreover, our protocol enables the verification of hypergraph states and genuine multipartite entanglement of thousands of qubits. Furthermore, our approach can be applied even in the adversarial scenario and is thus particularly appealing to applications like blind measurement-based quantum computation.

This note is devoted to the investigation of proposal of Susskind concerning the correspondence between the operator growth in chaotic theories and the radial momenta of the particle falling in the AdS black hole. We study this proposal and consider the simple example of an operator with the global charge described by the charged particle falling to the Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black hole. Different charges of the particle lead to qualitatively different behavior of the particle momenta and consequently change of the operator size behavior. This holographic result is supported by different examples of melonic models with a finite chemical potential where the suppression of chaos has been observed.

Spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry into a discrete one is related to time crystal formation. While the phenomenon is not possible in the ground state of a time-independent many-body system, it can occur in an excited eigenstate. Here, we concentrate on bosons on a ring with attractive contact interactions and analyze a quantum quench from the time crystal regime to the non-interacting regime. We show that dynamical quantum phase transitions can be observed where the return probability of the system to the initial state before the quench reveals a non-analytical behavior in time. The problem we consider constitutes an example of the dynamical quantum phase transitions in a system where both time and space continuous translation symmetries are broken.

We introduce a simple single-system game inspired by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game. For qubit systems subjected to unitary gates and projective measurements, we prove that any strategy in our game can be mapped to a strategy in the CHSH game, which implies that Tsirelson's bound also holds in our setting. More generally, we show that the optimal success probability depends on the reversible or irreversible character of the gates, the quantum or classical nature of the system and the system dimension. We analyse the bounds obtained in light of Landauer's principle, showing the entropic costs of the erasure associated with the game. This shows a connection between the reversibility in fundamental operations embodied by Landauer's principle and Tsirelson's bound, that arises from the restricted physics of a unitarily-evolving single-qubit system.

Cold atoms with laser-induced spin-orbit (SO) interactions provide promising platforms to explore novel quantum physics, in particular the exotic topological phases, beyond natural conditions of solids. The past several years have witnessed important progresses in both theory and experiment in the study of SO coupling and novel quantum states for ultracold atoms. Here we review the physics of the SO coupled quantum gases, focusing on the latest theoretical and experimental progresses of realizing SO couplings beyond one-dimension (1D), and the further investigation of novel topological quantum phases in such systems, including the topological insulating phases and topological superfluids. A pedagogical introduction to the SO coupling for ultracold atoms and topological quantum phases is presented. We show that the so-called optical Raman lattice schemes, which combine the creation of the conventional optical lattice and Raman lattice with topological stability, can provide minimal methods with high experimental feasibility to realize 1D to 3D SO couplings. The optical Raman lattices exhibit novel intrinsic symmetries, which enable the natural realization of topological phases belonging to different symmetry classes, with the topology being detectable through minimal measurement strategies. We introduce how the non-Abelian Majorana modes emerge in the SO coupled superfluid phases which can be topologically nontrivial or trivial, for which a few fundamental theorems are presented and discussed. The experimental schemes for achieving non-Abelian superfluid phases are given. Finally, we point out the future important issues in this rapidly growing research field.

We experimentally demonstrate a hybrid configuration for Quantum Key Distribution, that combines the simplicity of Distributed Phase Reference protocols with the self-referencing features and polarization insensitivity of the so-called Plug & Play system. Additionally, all the components are arranged in a server-client scheme to allow for practical key distribution. Blank, coherent pulse pair trains are generated at the reception end of the link by means of a pulse sequence and an unbalanced interferometer, and sent to the other end. The emitter writes the qubits by erasing one of the pulses from the pair as in a Coherent-One Way protocol. Detection, as well as eavesdropping monitoring is performed at the receiver side, using the same interferometer that was used to generate the initial phase-referenced pulses.

We identify precision limits for the simultaneous estimation of multiple parameters in multimode interferometers. Quantum strategies to enhance the multiparameter sensitivity are based on entanglement among particles, modes or combining both. The maximum attainable sensitivity of particle-separable states defines the multiparameter shot-noise limit, which can be surpassed without mode entanglement. Further enhancements up to the multiparameter Heisenberg limit are possible by adding mode entanglement. Optimal strategies which saturate the precision bounds are provided.

We consider a family of norms (called operator E-norms) on the algebra $B(H)$ of all bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space $H$ induced by a positive densely defined operator $G$ on $H$. Each norm of this family produces the same topology on $B(H)$ depending on $G$. By choosing different generating operator $G$ one can obtain operator E-norms producing different topologies, in particular, the strong operator topology on bounded subsets of $B(H)$. We obtain a generalised version of the Kretschmann-Schlingemann-Werner theorem, which shows continuity of the Stinespring representation of CP linear maps w.r.t. the energy-constrained $cb$-norm (diamond norm) on the set of CP maps and the operator E-norm on the set of Stinespring operators. We describe two Banach spaces: the completion of $B(H)$ w.r.t. the operator E-norm and the maximal extension of $B(H)$ on which the operator E-norms are well defined. Some results concerning extensions of energy-limited quantum channels and operations to unbounded observables are presented in the last part of the paper.

Note: This preprint has been superseded by arXiv:1409.3846.

Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to control individual quantum mechanical objects with unprecedented accuracy, opening the door for both quantum and extreme-scale conventional computing applications. As these devices become larger and more complex, the ability to design them such that they can be simply controlled becomes a daunting and computationally infeasible task. Here, motivated by ideas from compressed sensing, we introduce a protocol for the Compressed Optimization of Device Architectures (CODA). It leads naturally to a metric for benchmarking device performance and optimizing device designs, and provides a scheme for automating the control of gate operations and reducing their complexity. Because CODA is computationally efficient, it is readily extensible to large systems. We demonstrate the CODA benchmarking and optimization protocols through simulations of up to eight quantum dots in devices that are currently being developed experimentally for quantum computation.

We theoretically present the quantum Cram\'{e}r-Rao bounds (QCRB) of an SU(1,1) interferometer for Gaussian states input with and without the internal photonic losses. The phase shifts in the single arm and in the double arms are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of quantum Fisher information with Gaussian input states are presented. Different from the traditional Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the QCRB of single arm case is slightly higher or lower than that of double arms case depending on the input states. With a fixed mean photon number and for pure Gaussian state input, the optimal sensitivity is achieved with a squeezed vacuum input in one mode and the vacuum input in the other. We compare the QCRB with the standard quantum limit and Heisenberg limit. In the case of small internal losses the QCRB can beat the standard quantum limit.