We have theoretically studied the supercurrent profiles in three-dimensional normal metal and ferromagnetic Josephson configurations, where the magnitude of the superconducting gaps in the superconducting leads are unequal, i.e., $\Delta_1\neq \Delta_2$, creating asymmetric $S_1NS_2$ and $S_1FS_2$ systems. Our results reveal that by increasing the ratio of the superconducting gaps $\Delta_2/\Delta_1$, the critical supercurrent in a ballistic $S_1NS_2$ system can be enhanced by more than $100\%$, and reaches a saturation point, or decays away, depending on the junction thickness, magnetization strength, and chemical potential. The total critical current in a diffusive $S_1NS_2$ system was found to be enhanced by more than $50\%$ parabolically, and reaches saturation by increasing one of the superconducting gaps. In a uniform ferromagnetic junction, the supercurrent undergoes reversal by increasing $\Delta_2/\Delta_1>1$. Through decomposing the total supercurrent into its supergap and subgap components, our results illustrate their crucial relative contributions to the Josephson current flow. It was found that the competition of subgap and supergap currents in a $S_1FS_2$ junction results in the emergence of second harmonics in the current-phase relation. In contrast to a diffusive asymmetric Josephson configuration, the behavior of the supercurrent in a ballistic system with $\Delta_2/\Delta_1=1$ can be properly described by the subgap current component only, in a wide range of parameter sets, including Fermi level mismatch, magnetization strength, and junction thickness. Interestingly, when $\Delta_2/\Delta_1>1$, our results have found multiple parameter sets where the total supercurrent is driven by the supergap component. Therefore, our comprehensive study highlights the importance of subgap and supergap supercurrent components in both the ballistic and diffusive regimes.

Minimizing the micromotion of the single trapped ion in a linear Paul trap is a tedious and time-consuming work,but is of great importance in cooling the ion into the motional ground state as well as maintaining long coherence time, which is crucial for quantum information processing and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate that systematic machine learning based on artificial neural networks can quickly and efficiently find optimal voltage settings for the electrodes using rf-photon correlation technique, consequently minimizing the micromotion to the minimum. Our approach achieves a very high level of control for the ion micromotion, and can be extended to other configurations of Paul trap.

This article reviews recent progress in quasi-phasematched $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear nanophotonics, with a particular focus on dispersion-engineered nonlinear interactions. Throughout this article, we establish design rules for the bandwidth and interaction lengths of various nonlinear processes, and provide examples for how these processes can be engineered in nanophotonic devices. In particular, we apply these rules towards the design of sources of non-classical light and show that dispersion-engineered devices can outperform their conventional counterparts. Examples include ultra-broadband optical parametric amplification as a resource for measurement-based quantum computation, dispersion-engineered spontaneous parametric downconversion as a source of separable biphotons, and synchronously pumped nonlinear resonators as a potential route towards single-photon nonlinearities.

We train convolutional neural networks to predict whether or not a set of measurements is informationally complete to uniquely reconstruct any given quantum state with no prior information. In addition, we perform fidelity benchmarking based on this measurement set without explicitly carrying out state tomography. The networks are trained to recognize the fidelity and a reliable measure for informational completeness through collective encoding of quantum measurements, data and target states into grayscale images. By gradually accumulating measurements and data, these convolutional networks can efficiently certify a low-measurement-cost quantum-state characterization scheme. We confirm the potential of this machine-learning approach by presenting experimental results for both spatial-mode and multiphoton systems of large dimensions. These predictions are further shown to improve with noise recognition when the networks are trained with additional bootstrapped training sets from real experimental data.

We explore the spatial enantioseparation of gas chiral molecules for the cyclic three-level systems coupled with three electromagnetic fields. Due to molecular rotations, the specific requirements of the polarization directions of the three electromagnetic fields lead to the space-dependent part of the overall phase of the coupling strengths. Thus, the overall phase of the coupling strengths, which differs with $\pi$ for the enantiomers in the cyclic three-level model of chiral molecules, varies intensely in the length scale of the typical wavelength of the applied electromagnetic fields. Under the induced gauge potentials resulting from the space-dependent part of the overall phase and the space-dependent intensities of coupling strengths, we further show spatial enantioseparation for typical parameters of gas chiral molecules.

Cycling processes are important in many areas of physics ranging from lasers to topological insulators, often offering surprising insights into dynamical and structural aspects of the respective system. Here we report on a quantum-nonlinear wave-mixing experiment where resonant lasers and an optical cavity define a closed cycle between several ground and excited states of a single atom. We show that, for strong atom-cavity coupling and steady-state driving, the entanglement between the atomic states and intracavity photon number suppresses the excited-state population via quantum interference, effectively reducing the cycle to the atomic ground states. The system dynamics then result from transitions within a harmonic ladder of entangled dark states, one for each cavity photon number, and a quantum Zeno blockade that generates antibunching in the photons emitted from the cavity. The reduced cycle suppresses unwanted optical pumping into atomic states outside the cycle, thereby enhancing the number of emitted photons.

The interaction between an atomic system and a few-cycle ultrafast pulse carries rich physics and a considerable application prospect in quantum-coherence control. However, theoretical understanding of its general behaviors has been hindered by the lack of an analytical description in this regime, especially with regard to the impact of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Here, we present an analytical theory that describes a two-level atom driven by a far-off-resonance, few-cycle square pulse. A simple, closed-form solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained under the first-order perturbation without invoking the rotating-wave approximation or the slowly varying envelope approximation. Further investigation reveals an arithmetic relation between the final inversion of the atom and the CEP of the pulse. Despite its mathematical simplicity, the relation is able to capture some of the key features of the interaction, which prove to be robust against generalization of pulse shapes and show good agreements with numerical solutions. The theory can potentially offer a general guidance in future studies of CEP-sensitive quantum coherence.

Entanglement swapping can generate entanglement between particles that never interacted, which is essential in quantum information processing. In this paper, we start from considering the entanglement swapping scheme between two Bell states proposed by Zukowski et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26) 4287], and then study the entanglement swapping between any number of Bell states. In addition, we introduce a class of multi-particle GHZ states, and consider entanglement swapping schemes for any number of the GHZ states. Finally, we show that the proposed entanglement swapping schemes are useful for quantum information processing.

An $n\overset{p}{\mapsto}m$ random access code (RAC) is an encoding of $n$ bits into $m$ bits such that any initial bit can be recovered with probability at least $p$, while in a quantum RAC (QRAC), the $n$ bits are encoded into $m$ qubits. Since its proposal, the idea of RACs was generalized in many different ways, e.g. allowing the use of shared entanglement (called entanglement-assisted random access code, or simply EARAC) or recovering multiple bits instead of one. In this paper we generalize the idea of RACs to recovering the value of a given Boolean function $f$ on any subset of fixed size of the initial bits, which we call $f$-random access codes. We study and give protocols for $f$-random access codes with classical ($f$-RAC) and quantum ($f$-QRAC) encoding, together with many different resources, e.g. private or shared randomness, shared entanglement ($f$-EARAC) and Popescu-Rohrlich boxes ($f$-PRRAC). The success probability of our protocols is characterized by the \emph{noise stability} of the Boolean function $f$. Moreover, we give an \emph{upper bound} on the success probability of any $f$-QRAC with shared randomness that matches its success probability up to a multiplicative constant (and $f$-RACs by extension), meaning that quantum protocols can only achieve a limited advantage over their classical counterparts.

Within the matrix product state framework, we study the non-Markovian feedback dynamics of a two-level system interacting with the electromagnetic field inside a semi-infinite waveguide where the excitation of an atom-photon bound state is possible. Taking the steady-state excitation of the emitter as a figure of merit, we compare the trapped excitation for an initially excited quantum emitter and an emitter prepared via quantized pulses containing up to four photons. In the latter case, we find that for large feedback delay times, multi-photon pulses can yield a significantly higher steady-state excitation than possible with an initially excited emitter since the stimulated emission process can enhance the trapping probability in comparison to the spontaneous decay of an initially excited emitter.

Quantum computers are expected to break today's public key cryptography within a few decades. New cryptosystems are being designed and standardised for the post-quantum era, and a significant proportion of these rely on the hardness of problems like the Shortest Vector Problem to a quantum adversary. In this paper we describe two variants of a quantum Ising algorithm to solve this problem. One variant is spatially efficient, requiring only O(NlogN) qubits where N is the lattice dimension, while the other variant is more robust to noise. Analysis of the algorithms' performance on a quantum annealer and in numerical simulations show that the more qubit-efficient variant will outperform in the long run, while the other variant is more suitable for near-term implementation.

This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of anomalous transport in spin chains, viewed through the lens of integrability. Numerical advances, based on tensor-network methods, have shown that transport in many canonical integrable spin chains -- most famously the Heisenberg model -- is anomalous. Concurrently, the framework of generalized hydrodynamics has been extended to explain some of the mechanisms underlying anomalous transport. We present what is currently understood about these mechanisms, and discuss how they resemble (and differ from) the mechanisms for anomalous transport in other contexts. We also briefly review potential transport anomalies in systems where integrability is an emergent or approximate property. We survey instances of anomalous transport and dynamics that remain to be understood.

We propose a novel type of a Bose-Hubbard ladder model based on an open quantum-gas--cavity-QED setup to study the physics of dynamical gauge potentials. Atomic tunneling along opposite directions in the two legs of the ladder is mediated by photon scattering from transverse pump lasers to two distinct cavity modes. The resulting interplay between cavity photon dissipation and the optomechanical atomic back-action then induces an average-density-dependent dynamical gauge field. The dissipation-stabilized steady-state atomic motion along the legs of the ladder leads either to a pure chiral current, screening the induced dynamical magnetic field as in the Meissner effect, or generates simultaneously chiral and particle currents. For sufficiently strong pump the system enters into a dynamically unstable regime exhibiting limit-cycle and period-doubled oscillations. Intriguingly, an electromotive force is induced in this dynamical regime as expected from an interpretation based on Faraday's law of induction for the time-dependent synthetic magnetic flux.

The interaction of quantum light with matter like that inside a cavity is known to give rise to mixed light-matter states called polaritons. We discuss the impact of rotation of the cavity on the polaritons. It is shown that the number of polaritons increases due to this rotation. The structure of the original polaritons is modified and new ones are induced by the rotation that strongly depend on the angular velocity and the choice of axis of rotation. In molecules the rotation can change the number of light-induced conical intersections and their dimensionality and hence strongly impact their quantum dynamics. General consequences are discussed.

Most of the work involving entanglement measurement focuses on systems that can be modeled by two interacting qubits. This is due to the fact that there are few studies presenting entanglement analytical calculations in systems with spins $s > 1/2$. In this paper we present for the first time an analytical way of calculating thermal entanglement in a dimension $2\otimes3$ Heisenberg chain through the distance between states. We use the Hilbert-Schmidt norm to obtain entanglement. The result obtained can be used to calculate entanglement in chains with spin-$1/2$ coupling with spin-$1$, such as ferrimagnetic compounds as well as compounds with dimer-trimer coupling.

Recently a novel approach to find approximate exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory (DFT) was presented (U. Mordovina et. al., JCTC 15, 5209 (2019)), which relies on approximations to the interacting wave function using density-matrix embedding theory (DMET). This approximate interacting wave function is constructed by using a projection determined by an iterative procedure that makes parts of the reduced density matrix of an auxiliary system the same as the approximate interacting density matrix. If only the diagonal of both systems are connected this leads to an approximation of the interacting-to-non-interacting mapping of the Kohn-Sham approach to DFT. Yet other choices are possible and allow to connect DMET with other DFTs such as kinetic-energy DFT or reduced density-matrix functional theory. In this work we give a detailed review of the basics of the DMET procedure from a DFT perspective and show how both approaches can be used to supplement each other. We do so explicitly for the case of a one-dimensional lattice system, as this is the simplest setting where we can apply DMET and the one that was originally presented. Among others we highlight how the mappings of DFTs can be used to identify uniquely defined auxiliary systems and auxiliary projections in DMET and how to construct approximations for different DFTs using DMET inspired projections. Such alternative approximation strategies become especially important for DFTs that are based on non-linearly coupled observables such as kinetic-energy DFT, where the Kohn-Sham fields are no longer simply obtainable by functional differentiation of an energy expression, or for reduced density-matrix functional theories, where a straightforward Kohn-Sham construction is not feasible.

We investigate the most general mechanisms that lead to perfect synchronization of the quantum states of all subsystems of an open quantum system starting from an arbitrary initial state. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for such "quantum-state synchronization", prove tight lower bounds on the dimension of the environment's Hilbert space in two main classes of quantum-state synchronizers, and give an analytical solution for their construction. The functioning of the found quantum-state synchronizer of two qubits is demonstrated experimentally on an IBM quantum computer and we show that the remaining asynchronicity is a sensitive measure of the quantum computer's imperfection.

Quantum machine learning algorithms, the extensions of machine learning to quantum regimes, are believed to be more powerful as they leverage the power of quantum properties. Quantum machine learning methods have been employed to solve quantum many-body systems and have demonstrated accurate electronic structure calculations of lattice models, molecular systems, and recently periodic systems. A hybrid approach using restricted Boltzmann machines and a quantum algorithm to obtain the probability distribution that can be optimized classically is a promising method due to its efficiency and ease of implementation. Here we implement the benchmark test of the hybrid quantum machine learning on the IBM-Q quantum computer to calculate the electronic structure of typical 2-dimensional crystal structures: hexagonal-Boron Nitride and graphene. The band structures of these systems calculated using the hybrid quantum machine learning are in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional electronic structure calculation. This benchmark result implies that the hybrid quantum machine learning, empowered by quantum computers, could provide a new way of calculating the electronic structures of quantum many-body systems.

We introduce a graphical language for coherent control of general quantum channels inspired by practical quantum optical setups involving polarising beam splitters (PBS). As standard completely positive trace preserving maps are known not to be appropriate to represent coherently controlled quantum channels, we propose to instead use purified channels, an extension of Stinespring's dilation. We characterise the observational equivalence of purified channels in various coherent-control contexts, paving the way towards a faithful representation of quantum channels under coherent control.

We consider the problem of communicating a general bivariate function of two classical sources observed at the encoders of a classical-quantum multiple access channel. Building on the techniques developed for the case of a classical channel, we propose and analyze a coding scheme based on coset codes. The proposed technique enables the decoder recover the desired function without recovering the sources themselves. We derive a new set of sufficient conditions that are weaker than the current known for identified examples. This work is based on a new ensemble of coset codes that are proven to achieve the capacity of a classical-quantum point-to-point channel.