This article is a tutorial on the quantum treatment of superconducting electrical circuits. It is intended for new researchers with limited or no experience with the field, but should be accessible to anyone with a bachelor's degree in physics or similar. The tutorial has three parts. The first part introduces the basic methods used in quantum circuit analysis, starting from a circuit diagram and ending with a quantized Hamiltonian truncated to the lowest levels. The second part introduces more advanced methods supplementing the methods presented in the first part. The third part is a collection of worked examples of superconducting circuits. Besides the examples in the third part, the two first parts also includes examples in parallel with the introduction of the methods.

Preparing the ground state of a Hamiltonian is a problem of great significance in physics with deep implications in the field of combinatorial optimization. The adiabatic algorithm is known to return the ground state for sufficiently long preparation times which depend on the a priori unknown spectral gap. Our work relates in a twofold way. First, we propose a method to obtain information about the spectral profile of the adiabatic evolution. Second, we present the concept of a variational quantum adiabatic algorithm (VQAA) for optimized adiabatic paths. We aim at combining the strengths of the adiabatic and the variational approaches for fast and high-fidelity ground state preparation while keeping the number of measurements as low as possible. Our algorithms build upon ancilla protocols which we present that allow to directly evaluate the ground state overlap. We benchmark for a non-integrable spin-1/2 transverse and longitudinal Ising chain with $N=53$ sites using tensor network techniques. Using a black box, gradient-based approach, we report a reduction in the total evolution time for a given desired ground state overlap by a factor of ten, which makes our method suitable for the limited decoherence time of noisy-intermediate scale quantum devices.

One of the most basic notions in physics is the partitioning of a system into subsystems, and the study of correlations among its parts. In this work, we explore these notions in the context of quantum reference frame (QRF) covariance, in which this partitioning is subject to a symmetry constraint. We demonstrate that different reference frame perspectives induce different sets of subsystem observable algebras, which leads to a gauge-invariant, frame-dependent notion of subsystems and entanglement. We further demonstrate that subalgebras which commute before imposing the symmetry constraint can translate into non-commuting algebras in a given QRF perspective after symmetry imposition. Such a QRF perspective does not inherit the distinction between subsystems in terms of the corresponding tensor factorizability of the kinematical Hilbert space and observable algebra. Since the condition for this to occur is contingent on the choice of QRF, the notion of subsystem locality is frame-dependent.

Large-scale quantum devices provide insights beyond the reach of classical simulations. However, for a reliable and verifiable quantum simulation, the building blocks of the quantum device require exquisite benchmarking. This benchmarking of large scale dynamical quantum systems represents a major challenge due to lack of efficient tools for their simulation. Here, we present a scalable algorithm based on neural networks for Hamiltonian tomography in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our approach using a model for a forefront quantum simulation platform: ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Specifically, we show that our algorithm is able to reconstruct the Hamiltonian of an arbitrary size quasi-1D bosonic system using an accessible amount of experimental measurements. We are able to significantly increase the previously known parameter precision.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy usually requires high magnetic fields to create spectral resolution among different proton species. At low fields, chemical shift dispersion is insufficient to separate the species, and the spectrum exhibits just a single line. In this work, we demonstrate that spectra can nevertheless be acquired at low field using a novel pulse sequence called spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC). This probes energy level crossings induced by a weak spin-locking pulse and produces a unique J-coupling spectrum for most organic molecules. Unlike other forms of low-field J-coupling spectroscopy, our technique does not require the presence of heteronuclei and can be used for most compounds in their native state. We performed SLIC spectroscopy on a number of small molecules at 276 kHz and 20.8 MHZ, and we show that SLIC spectra can be simulated in good agreement with measurements.

Alkali-metal atomic magnetometers suffer from heading errors in geomagnetic fields as the measured magnetic field depends on the orientation of the sensor with respect to the field. In addition to the nonlinear Zeeman splitting, the difference between Zeeman resonances in the two hyperfine ground states can also generate heading errors depending on initial spin polarization. We examine heading errors in an all-optical scalar magnetometer that uses free precession of polarized $^{87}\text{Rb}$ atoms by varying the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field at different spin polarization regimes. In the high polarization limit where the lower hyperfine ground state $F = 1$ is almost depopulated, we show that heading errors can be corrected with an analytical expression, reducing the errors by two orders of magnitude in Earth's field. We also verify the linearity of the measured Zeeman precession frequency with the magnetic field. With lower spin polarization, we find that the splitting of the Zeeman resonances for the two hyperfine states causes beating in the precession signals and nonlinearity of the measured precession frequency with the magnetic field. We correct for the frequency shifts by using the unique probe geometry where two orthogonal probe beams measure opposite relative phases between the two hyperfine states during the spin precession.

The Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics divides naturally into two parts: first, the interpretation of the structure of the quantum state, in terms of branching, and second, the interpretation of this branching structure in terms of probability. This is the first of two reviews of the Everett interpretation, and focuses on structure, with particular attention to the role of decoherence theory. Written in terms of the quantum histories formalism, decoherence theory just is the theory of branching structure, in Everett's sense.

The stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) shows an efficient technique that accurately transfers population between two discrete quantum states with the same parity, in three-level quantum systems based on adiabatic evolution. This technique has widely theoretical and experimental applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. Here, we present a generally robust approach to speed up STIRAP with invariant-based shortcut to adiabaticity. By controlling the dynamical process, we inversely design a family of Hamiltonians that can realize fast and accurate population transfer from the first to the third level, while the systematic error is largely suppressed in general. Furthermore, a detailed trade-off relation between the population of the intermediate state and the amplitudes of Rabi frequencies in the transfer process is illustrated. These results provide an optimal route toward manipulating the evolution of three-level quantum systems in future quantum information processing.

We present the fundamental solutions for the spin-1/2 fields propagating in the spacetimes with power type expansion/contraction and the fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for the Dirac equation. The derivation of these fundamental solutions is based on formulas for the solutions to the generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation, which are obtained by the integral transform approach.

In this paper, we study measures of quantum non-Markovianity based on the conditional mutual information. We obtain such measures by considering multiple parts of the total environment such that the conditional mutual informations can be defined in this multipartite setup. The benefit of this approach is that the conditional mutual information is closely related to recovery maps and Markov chains; we also point out its relations with the change of distinguishability. Moreover, we show how to extend the non-Markovianity measures to the case in which the initial system-environment state is correlated.

We present two fast algorithms which apply inclusion-exclusion principle to sum over the bosonic diagrams in bare diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo (dQMC) and inchworm Monte Carlo method, respectively. In the case of inchworm Monte Carlo, the proposed fast algorithm gives an extension to the work ["Inclusion-exclusion principle for many-body diagrammatics", Phys. Rev. B, 98:115152, 2018] from fermionic to bosonic systems. We prove that the proposed fast algorithms reduce the computational complexity from double factorial to exponential. Numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and to compare the efficiency of the methods.

It has been discovered that open quantum walks diffusively distribute in space, since they were introduced in 2012. Indeed, some limit distributions have been demonstrated and most of them are described by Gaussian distributions. We operate an open quantum walk on $\mathbb{Z}=\left\{0, \pm 1, \pm 2,\ldots\right\}$ with parameterized operations in this paper, and study its 1st and 2nd moments so that we find its standard deviation. The standard deviation tells us whether the open quantum walker shows diffusive or ballistic behavior, which results in a phase transition of the walker.

Superconducting circuit testing and materials loss characterization requires robust and reliable methods for the extraction of internal and coupling quality factors of microwave resonators. A common method, imposed by limitations on the device design or experimental configuration, is the single-port reflection geometry, i.e. reflection-mode. However, impedance mismatches in cryogenic systems must be accounted for through calibration of the measurement chain while it is at low temperatures. In this paper, we demonstrate a data-based, single-port calibration using commercial microwave standards and a vector network analyzer (VNA) with samples at millikelvin temperature in a dilution refrigerator, making this method useful for measurements of quantum phenomena. Finally, we cross reference our data-based, single-port calibration and reflection measurement with over-coupled 2D- and 3D-resonators against well established two-port techniques corroborating the validity of our method.

We train convolutional neural networks to predict whether or not a given set of measurements is informationally complete to uniquely reconstruct any quantum state with no prior information. In addition, we perform fidelity benchmarking to validate the reconstruction without explicitly carrying out state tomography. These networks are trained to recognize the fidelity and a reliable measure for informational completeness through collective encoding of quantum measurements, data and target states into grayscale images. We confirm the potential of this machine-learning approach by presenting experimental results for both spatial-mode and multiphoton systems of large dimensions. These predictions are further shown to improve with noise recognition when the networks are trained with additional bootstrapped training sets from real experimental data.

Using group-theoretical approach we found a family of four nine-parameter quantum states for the two-spin-1/2 Heisenberg system in an external magnetic field and with multiple components of Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) and Kaplan-Shekhtman-Entin-Wohlman-Aharony (KSEA) interactions. Exact analytical formulas are derived for the entanglement of formation for the quantum states found. The influence of DM and KSEA interactions on the behavior of entanglement and on the shape of disentangled region is studied. A connection between the two-qubit quantum states and the reduced density matrices of many-particle systems is discussed.

In the spirit of device-independent cryptography, we present a two-party quantum authorization primitive with non-locality as its fueling resource. Therein, users are attributed authorization levels granting them access to a private database accordingly. The authorization levels are encoded in the non-local resources distributed to the users, and subsequently confirmed by their ability to win CHSH games using such resources. We formalize the protocol, prove its security, and frame it in the device-independent setting employing the notion of CHSH self-testing via simulation. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation using the Qiskit open-source framework.

The Continuous Spontaneous Localisation (CSL) theory in the cosmological context is subject to uncertainties related to the choice of the collapse operator. In this paper, we constrain its form based on generic arguments. We show that, if the collapse operator is even in the field variables, it is unable to induce the collapse of the wavefunction. Instead, if it is odd, we find that only linear operators are such that the outcomes are distributed according to Gaussian statistics, as required by measurements of the cosmic microwave background. We discuss implications of these results for previously proposed collapse operators. We conclude that the cosmological CSL collapse operator should be linear in the field variables.

We present PyQUBO, an open-source, Python library for constructing quadratic unconstrained binary optimizations (QUBOs) from the objective functions and the constraints of optimization problems. PyQUBO enables users to prepare QUBOs or Ising models for various combinatorial optimization problems with ease thanks to the abstraction of expressions and the extensibility of the program. QUBOs and Ising models formulated using PyQUBO are solvable by Ising machines, including quantum annealing machines. We introduce the features of PyQUBO with applications in the number partitioning problem, knapsack problem, graph coloring problem, and integer factorization using a binary multiplier. Moreover, we demonstrate how PyQUBO can be applied to production-scale problems through integration with quantum annealing machines. Through its flexibility and ease of use, PyQUBO has the potential to make quantum annealing a more practical tool among researchers.

Mutual information is a measure of classical and quantum correlations of great interest in quantum information. It is also relevant in quantum many-body physics, by virtue of satisfying an area law for thermal states and bounding all correlation functions. However, calculating it exactly or approximately is often challenging in practice. Here, we consider alternative definitions based on R\'enyi divergences. Their main advantage over their von Neumann counterpart is that they can be expressed as a variational problem whose cost function can be efficiently evaluated for families of states like matrix product operators while preserving all desirable properties of a measure of correlations. In particular, we show that they obey a thermal area law in great generality, and that they upper bound all correlation functions. We also investigate their behavior on certain tensor network states and on classical thermal distributions.

For a particle moving on a half-line or in an interval the operator $\hat p = - i \partial_x$ is not self-adjoint and thus does not qualify as the physical momentum. Consequently canonical quantization based on $\hat p$ fails. Based upon a new concept for a self-adjoint momentum operator $\hat p_R$, we show that canonical quantization can indeed be implemented on the half-line and on an interval. Both the Hamiltonian $\hat H$ and the momentum operator $\hat p_R$ are endowed with self-adjoint extension parameters that characterize the corresponding domains $D(\hat H)$ and $D(\hat p_R)$ in the Hilbert space. When one replaces Poisson brackets by commutators, one obtains meaningful results only if the corresponding operator domains are properly taken into account. The new concept for the momentum is used to describe the results of momentum measurements of a quantum mechanical particle that is reflected at impenetrable boundaries, either at the end of the half-line or at the two ends of an interval.