Author(s): Alessandro Alberucci, Chandroth P. Jisha, Ulf Peschel, and Stefan Nolte

We discuss a class of interactions between self-confined optical beams breaking the action-reaction principle. The effective force intertwining the beams does not satisfy momentum conservation, paving the way to the potential existence of situations where both beams are pushed in the same direction,...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 011802(R)] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Riccardo Rota and Vincenzo Savona

We propose a class of quantum simulators for antiferromagnetic spin systems based on coupled photonic cavities in the presence of two-photon driving and dissipation. By modeling the coupling between the different cavities through a hopping term with negative amplitude, we solve numerically the quant...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 013838] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Simanraj Sadana, Debadrita Ghosh, Kaushik Joarder, A. Naga Lakshmi, Barry C. Sanders, and Urbasi Sinha

The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is considered a signature of the quantumness of light, as the dip in coincidence probability using semiclassical theories has an upper bound of 50%. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that, with proper phase control of the signals, classical pulses can mimic a ...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 013839] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Timothy J. Proctor, Arnaud Carignan-Dugas, Kenneth Rudinger, Erik Nielsen, Robin Blume-Kohout, and Kevin Young

Benchmarking methods that can be adapted to multiqubit systems are essential for assessing the overall or “holistic” performance of nascent quantum processors. The current industry standard is Clifford randomized benchmarking (RB), which measures a single error rate that quantifies overall performan...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 030503] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Alex Rigby, J. C. Olivier, and Peter Jarvis

Quantum low-density parity-check codes can be decoded using a syndrome based GF(4) belief propagation decoder (where GF denotes Galois field). However, the performance of this decoder is limited both by unavoidable 4-cycles in the code's factor graph and the degenerate nature of quantum errors. For ...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 012330] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Debajyoti Bera and Tharrmashastha P. V.

We present a technique to reduce the error probability of quantum algorithms that determine whether its input has a specified property of interest. The standard process of reducing this error is statistical processing of the results of multiple independent executions of an algorithm. Denoting by ρ a...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 012331] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

We consider the quench of an atomic impurity via a single Rydberg excitation in a degenerate Fermi gas. The Rydberg interaction with the background gas particles induces an ultralong-range potential that binds particles to form dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc. Such oligomeric molecules were recently observed in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work, we demonstrate with a functional determinant approach that quantum statistics and fluctuations have observable spectral consequences. We show that the occupation of molecular states is predicated on the Fermi statistics, which suppresses molecular formation in an emergent molecular shell structure. At large gas densities this leads to spectral narrowing, which can serve as a probe of the quantum gas thermodynamic properties.

We review recent progresses towards an understanding of the Skyrmion Hall transport in insulating as well as conducting materials. First, we consider a theoretical breakthrough based on the quantum field theory Ward identity, a first principle analysis, relying on symmetries and conservation laws. Broken parity (inversion) symmetry plays a crucial role in Skyrmion Hall transport. In addition to the well known thermal and electric Hall conductivities, our analysis has led us to the discovery of a new and unforeseen physical quantity, Hall viscosity - an anti-symmetric part of the viscosity tensor. We propose a simple way to confirm the existence of Hall viscosity in the measurements of Hall conductivity as a function of momentum. We provide various background materials to assist the readers to understand the quantum field theory Ward identity.

In the second part, we review recent theoretical and experimental advancements of the Skyrmion Hall effects and the topological (Magnon) Hall effects for conducting (insulting) magnets. For this purpose, we consider two enveloping themes: spin torque and thermo-electromagnetic effect. First, we overview various spin torques, such as spin transfer torque, spin-orbit torque, and spin Hall torque, and generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations and Thiele equations using a phenomenological approach. Second, we consider irreversible thermodynamics to survey possible thermo-electromagnetic effects, such as Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects in the presence of the electric currents, along with the Hall effects in the presence of a background magnetic field. Recently developed spin Seebeck effects are also a significant part of the survey. We also accommodate extensive background materials to make this review self-contained. Finally, we revisit the Skyrmion Hall transport from the Ward identity view point.

We present a generalization of the Holevo theorem by means of distances used in the definition of distinguishability of states, showing that each one leads to an alternative Holevo theorem. This result involves two quantities: the generalized Holevo information and the generalized accessible information. Additionally, we apply the new inequalities to qubits ensembles showing that for the Kolmogorov notion of distinguishability (for the case of an ensemble of two qubits) the generalized quantities are equal. On the other hand, by using a known example, we show that the Bhattacharyya notion captures not only the non-commutativity of the ensemble but also its purity.

Superfluid helium at milli-Kelvin temperatures is a dielectric liquid with an extremely low loss tangent at microwave frequencies. As such, it is a promising candidate for incorporation into hybrid quantum systems containing superconducting qubits. We demonstrate the viability of this hybrid systems approach by controllably immersing a three-dimensional superconducting transmon qubit in superfluid $^4$He. By measuring spectroscopic and coherence properties we find that the cavity, the qubit, and their coupling are all modified by the presence of the dielectric superfluid, which we analyze within the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). At temperatures relevant to quantum computing experiments, the energy relaxation time of the qubit is not significantly changed by the presence of the superfluid, while the pure dephasing time modestly increases, which we attribute to improved thermalization via the superfluid.

We present new bounds on the existence of quantum maximum distance separable codes (QMDS): the length $n$ of all non-trivial QMDS codes with local dimension $D$ and distance $d$ is bounded by $n \leq D^2 + d - 2$. We obtain their weight distribution and present additional bounds that arise from Rains' shadow inequalities. Our main result can be seen as a generalization of bounds that are known for the two special cases of stabilizer QMDS codes and absolutely maximally entangled states, and confirms the quantum MDS conjecture in the special case of distance-three codes. As the existence of QMDS codes is linked to that of highly entangled subspaces (in which every vector has uniform $r$-body marginals) of maximal dimension, our methods directly carry over to address questions in multipartite entanglement.

We present a thermodynamic framework for the refined weak coupling limit. In this limit the interaction between system and environment is weak, but not negligible. As a result, the system dynamics becomes non-Markovian breaking divisibility conditions. Nevertheless, we propose a derivation of the first and second law just in terms of the reduced system dynamics. To this end, we extend the refined weak coupling limit for allowing slow-varying external drivings, and reconsider the definition of internal energy due to the non-negligible interaction.

Long-lived sub-levels of the electronic ground-state manifold of rare-earth ions in crystals can be used as atomic population reservoirs for photon echo-based quantum memories. We measure the dynamics of the Zeeman sub-levels of erbium ions that are doped into a lithium niobate waveguide, finding population lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures as long as seconds. Then, using these levels, we prepare and characterize atomic frequency combs, which can serve as a memory for quantum light at 1532 nm wavelength. The results allow predicting a 0.1\% memory efficiency, mainly limited by unwanted background absorption that we conjecture to be caused by the coupling between two-level systems (TLS) and erbium spins. Hence, while it should be possible to create an AFC-based quantum memory in Er$^{3+}$:Ti$^{3+}$:LiNbO$_3$, improved crystal growth together with optimized AFC preparation will be required to make it suitable for applications in quantum communication.

Knowledge of the nitrogen-vacancy center formation kinetics in diamond is critical to engineering sensors and quantum information devices based on this defect. Here we utilize the longitudinal tracking of single NV centers to elucidate NV defect kinetics during high-temperature annealing from 800-1100 $^\circ$C in high-purity chemical-vapor-deposition diamond. We observe three phenomena which can coexist: NV formation, NV quenching, and NV orientation changes. Of relevance to NV-based applications, a 6 to 24-fold enhancement in the NV density, in the absence of sample irradiation, is observed by annealing at 980 $^\circ$C, and NV orientation changes are observed at 1050 $^\circ$C. With respect to the fundamental understanding of defect kinetics in ultra-pure diamond, our results indicate a significant vacancy source can be activated for NV creation between 950-980 $^\circ$C and suggests that native hydrogen from NVH$_y$ complexes plays a dominant role in NV quenching, in agreement with recent {\it ab initio} calculations. Finally, the direct observation of orientation changes allows us to estimate an NV diffusion barrier of 5.1~eV.

We present a derivation of the holographic dual of logarithmic negativity in $AdS_3/CFT_2$ that was recently conjectured in [Phys. Rev. D 99, 106014 (2019)]. This is given by the area of an extremal cosmic brane that terminates on the boundary of the entanglement wedge. The derivation consists of relating the recently introduced R\'enyi reflected entropy to the logarithmic negativity in holographic conformal field theories. Furthermore, we clarify previously mysterious aspects of negativity at large central charge seen in conformal blocks and comment on generalizations to generic dimensions, dynamical settings, and quantum corrections.

We introduce a formalism that exploits the many-input many-output nature of nodes in quantum circuits. There is a diagrammatic and an algebraic version, the latter similar to the spinor formalism of general relativity. This allows us to work in truly basis independent ways, clarifying and simplifying many aspects of quantum state processing. The narrative is at times interrupted by antics of characters from quantum age fairy tales.

Measuring the expectation value of Pauli operators on prepared quantum states is a fundamental task in a multitude of quantum algorithms. Simultaneously measuring sets of operators allows for fewer measurements and an overall speedup of the measurement process. We investigate the task of partitioning a random subset of Pauli operators into simultaneously-measurable parts. Using heuristics from coloring random graphs, we give an upper bound for the expected number of parts in our partition. We go on to conjecture that allowing arbitrary Clifford operators before measurement, rather than single-qubit operations, leads to a decrease in the number of parts which is linear with respect to the lengths of the operators. We give evidence to confirm this conjecture and comment on the importance of this result for a specific near-term application: speeding up the measurement process of the variational quantum eigensolver.

Resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) is a leading probe of valence band order in materials best known for establishing the existence of charge density wave order in the copper-oxide superconductors. One of the biggest limitations on the RSXS technique is the presence of a severe fluorescence background which, like the RSXS cross section itself, is enhanced under resonance conditions. This background prevents the study of weak signals such as diffuse scattering from glassy or fluctuating order that is spread widely over momentum space. Recent advances in superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) detectors have led to major improvements in resolution and detection efficiency in the soft x-ray range. Here, we perform a RSXS study of stripe-ordered La$_{2-x}$Ba$_x$CuO$_4$ at the Cu $L_{3/2}$ edge (932.2 eV) using a TES detector with 1.5 eV resolution, to evaluate its utility for mitigating the fluorescence background problem. We find that, for suitable degree of detuning from the resonance, the TES could be used to reject the fluorescence background, leading to a 5 to 10 times improvement in the statistical quality of the data compared to an equivalent, energy-integrated measurement. We conclude that a TES presents a promising approach to reducing background in RSXS studies and may lead to new discoveries in materials exhibiting valence band order that is fluctuating or glassy.

We investigate the statistical distribution that governs an ideal gases of N bosons confined in a limited cubic volume V . By adjusting the spatial sizes and imposing the boundary conditions that can be manipulated by the phase factors, we numerically calculate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation to analyse the statistical properties in these systems. We find that, the smaller spatial sizes can sufficiently increase the magnitude of the critical temperature. And the critical temperature exhibits a periodic variation of 2{\pi} with the phase, particularly, the counterperiodic boundary condition is more capable of increasing the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.

High-dimensional entangled states of light provide novel possibilities for quantum information, from fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to enhanced computation and communication protocols. In this context, the frequency degree of freedom combines the assets of robustness to propagation and easy handling with standard telecommunication components. Here we use an integrated semiconductor chip to engineer the wavefunction and exchange statistics of frequency-entangled photon pairs directly at the generation stage, without post-manipulation. Tuning the spatial properties of the pump beam allows to generate frequency-anticorrelated, correlated and separable states, and to control the symmetry of the spectral wavefunction to induce either bosonic or fermionic behaviors. These results, supported by analytical and numerical calculations, open promising perspectives for the quantum simulation of fermionic problems with photons on an integrated platform, as well as for communication and computation protocols exploiting antisymmetric high-dimensional quantum states.