Journals

An example of use of Variational Methods in Quantum Machine Learning. (arXiv:2208.04316v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

This paper introduces a deep learning system based on a quantum neural network for the binary classification of points of a specific geometric pattern (Two-Moons Classification problem) on a plane. We believe that the use of hybrid deep learning systems (classical + quantum) can reasonably bring benefits, not only in terms of computational acceleration but in understanding the underlying phenomena and mechanisms; that will lead to the creation of new forms of machine learning, as well as to a strong development in the world of quantum computation. The chosen dataset is based on a 2D binary classification generator, which helps test the effectiveness of specific algorithms; it is a set of 2D points forming two interspersed semicircles. It displays two disjointed data sets in a two-dimensional representation space: the features are, therefore, the individual points' two coordinates, $x_1$ and $x_2$. The intention was to produce a quantum deep neural network with the minimum number of trainable parameters capable of correctly recognising and classifying points.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Open Quantum Random Walks and Quantum Markov chains on Trees II: The recurrence. (arXiv:2208.04320v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

In the present paper, we construct QMC (Quantum Markov Chains) associated with Open Quantum Random Walks such that the transition operator of the chain is defined by OQRW and the restriction of QMC to the commutative subalgebra coincides with the distribution of OQRW. Furthermore, we first propose a new construction of QMC on trees, which is an extension of QMC considered in Ref. [9]. Using such a construction, we are able to construct QMCs on tress associated with OQRW. Our investigation leads to the detection of the phase transition phenomena within the proposed scheme. This kind of phenomena appears first time in this direction. Moreover, mean entropies of QMCs are calculated.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On the Role of Quantum Communication and Loss in Attacks on Quantum Position Verification. (arXiv:2208.04341v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

We study the role of quantum communication in attacks on quantum position verification. In this work, we construct the first known example of a QPV protocol that is provably secure against unentangled attackers restricted to classical communication, but can be perfectly attacked by local operations and a single round of simultaneous quantum communication indicating that allowing for quantum communication may break security. We also show that any protocol secure against classical communication can be transformed into a protocol secure against quantum communication. We further show, using arguments based on the monogamy of entanglement, that the task of Bell state discrimination cannot be done locally with a single round of quantum communication, not even probabilistically (when we allow attackers to say loss sometimes), making this the first fully loss-tolerant QPV task secure against quantum communication attacks. Finally, we observe that any multi-round QPV protocol can be attacked with a linear amount of entanglement if the loss is high enough.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Many-body cavity quantum electrodynamics with driven inhomogeneous emitters. (arXiv:2208.04345v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Quantum emitters coupled to optical resonators are quintessential systems for exploring fundamental phenomena in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and are commonly used in quantum devices acting as qubits, memories and transducers. Many previous experimental cQED studies have focused on regimes where a small number of identical emitters interact with a weak external drive, such that the system can be described with simple effective models. However, the dynamics of a disordered, many-body quantum system subject to a strong drive have not been fully elucidated, despite its significance and potential in quantum applications. Here we study how a large inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of solid-state emitters coupled with high cooperativity to a nano-photonic resonator behaves under strong excitation. We discover a sharp, collectively induced transparency (CIT) in the cavity reflection spectrum, resulting from quantum interference and collective nonlinear response induced by the interplay between driven inhomogeneous emitters and cavity photons. Furthermore, coherent excitation within the CIT window leads to highly nonlinear optical emission, spanning from fast superradiance to slow subradiance. These nonlinear phenomena in the many-body cQED regime enable new mechanisms for achieving slow light and frequency referencing, pave a way towards solid-state superradiant lasers, and inform the development of ensemble-based quantum interconnects.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Stochastic versus periodic quantum collision models. (arXiv:2208.04353v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Most literature on quantum collision models (CMs) usually considers periodic weak collisions featuring a fixed waiting time between two next collisions. Some works have yet addressed CMs with random waiting time and strong collisions (stochastic CMs). This short paper discusses how the open dynamics arising from these two types of models can be formally mapped with one another. This can be achieved for a given stochastic CM by constructing an associated periodic CM such that the waiting time randomness of the former is turned into the mixedness of the ancilla's initial state of the latter, introducing at the same time an additional state of the ancilla. Through this mapping, non-Markovian behaviour arising from a constrained number of stochatic collisions can be linked to initial ancilla-ancilla correlations of the associated periodic CM.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Predicting the minimum control time of quantum protocols with artificial neural networks. (arXiv:2208.04362v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Quantum control relies on the driving of quantum states without the loss of coherence, thus the leakage of quantum properties onto the environment over time is a fundamental challenge. One work-around is to implement fast protocols, hence the Minimal Control Time (MCT) is of upmost importance. Here, we employ a machine learning network in order to estimate the MCT in a state transfer protocol. An unsupervised learning approach is considered by using a combination of an autoencoder network with the k-means clustering tool. The Landau-Zener (LZ) Hamiltonian is analyzed given that it has an analytical MCT and a distinctive topology change in the control landscape when the total evolution time is either under or over the MCT. We obtain that the network is able to not only produce an estimation of the MCT but also gains an understanding of the landscape's topologies. Similar results are found for the generalized LZ Hamiltonian while limitations to our very simple architecture were encountered.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A QUBO model of the RNA folding problem optimized by variational hybrid quantum annealing. (arXiv:2208.04367v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

RNAs self-interact through hydrogen-bond base-pairing between nucleotides and fold into specific, stable structures that substantially govern their biochemical behaviour. Experimental characterization of these structures remains difficult, hence the desire to predict them computationally from sequence information. However, correctly predicting even the base pairs involved in the folded structure of an RNA, known as secondary structure, from its sequence using minimum free energy models is understood to be NP-hard. Classical approaches rely on heuristics or avoid considering pseudoknots in order to render this problem more tractable, with the cost of inexactness or excluding an entire class of important RNA structures. Given their prospective and demonstrable advantages in certain domains, including combinatorial optimization, quantum computing approaches by contrast have the potential to compute the full RNA folding problem while remaining more feasible and exact. Herein, we present a physically-motivated QUBO model of the RNA folding problem amenable to both quantum annealers and circuit-model quantum computers and compare the performance of this formulation versus current RNA folding QUBOs after tuning the parameters of all against known RNA structures using an approach we call "variational hybrid quantum annealing".

Categories: Journals, Physics

Generalization and Overfitting in Matrix Product State Machine Learning Architectures. (arXiv:2208.04372v1 [cs.LG])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

While overfitting and, more generally, double descent are ubiquitous in machine learning, increasing the number of parameters of the most widely used tensor network, the matrix product state (MPS), has generally lead to monotonic improvement of test performance in previous studies. To better understand the generalization properties of architectures parameterized by MPS, we construct artificial data which can be exactly modeled by an MPS and train the models with different number of parameters. We observe model overfitting for one-dimensional data, but also find that for more complex data overfitting is less significant, while with MNIST image data we do not find any signatures of overfitting. We speculate that generalization properties of MPS depend on the properties of data: with one-dimensional data (for which the MPS ansatz is the most suitable) MPS is prone to overfitting, while with more complex data which cannot be fit by MPS exactly, overfitting may be much less significant.

Categories: Journals, Physics

One Hundred Years Later: Stern-Gerlach Experiment and Dimension Witnesses. (arXiv:2208.04377v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Inspired by the one-hundredth anniversary of the seminal works of Stern and Gerlach, our contribution is a proposal of how to use their famous experiment in a more contemporary perspective. Our main idea is to re-cast the experiment in the modern language of prepare-and-measure scenarios. By doing so, it is possible to connect geometric and algebraic aspects of the space of states with the physical space. We also discuss possible simulations of the SG experiment as well as some experimental properties of the experiment revealed at the statistical level. Merging a more modern perspective with a paradigmatic experiment, we hope this paper can serve as an entry door for quantum information theory and the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Finance: a tutorial on quantum computing applied to the financial market. (arXiv:2208.04382v1 [q-fin.PM])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Previously only considered a frontier area of Physics, nowadays quantum computing is one of the fastest growing research field, precisely because of its technological applications in optimization problems, machine learning, information security and simulations. The goal of this article is to introduce the fundamentals of quantum computing, focusing on a promising quantum algorithm and its application to a financial market problem. More specifically, we discuss the portfolio optimization problem using the \textit{Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm} (QAOA). We not only describe the main concepts involved but also consider simple practical examples, involving financial assets available on the Brazilian stock exchange, with codes, both classic and quantum, freely available as a Jupyter Notebook. We also analyze in details the quality of the combinatorial portfolio optimization solutions through QAOA using SENAI/CIMATEC's ATOS QLM quantum simulator.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Recovery With Incomplete Knowledge: Fundamental Bounds on Real-Time Quantum Memories. (arXiv:2208.04427v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

The recovery of fragile quantum states from decoherence is the basis of building a quantum memory, with applications ranging from quantum communications to quantum computing. Many recovery techniques, such as quantum error correction (QEC), rely on the apriori knowledge of the environment noise parameter to achieve their best performance. However, such parameters are likely to drift in time in the context of implementing long-time quantum memories. This necessitates the use of a "spectator" system, which makes an estimate of the noise parameter in real time, then feeds the outcome back to the recovery protocol as a classical side-information. The memory qubits and the spectator system hence comprise the building blocks for a real-time (i.e. drift-adapting) quantum memory. In this article, I present information-theoretic bounds on the performance of such a spectator-based recovery. Using generalized distinguishability measures as a starting point, I show that there is a fundamental bound in the performance of any recovery operation, as a function of the entanglement fidelity of the overall dynamics. The lower bound for the diamond distance has a simple form, and a potentially broader range of applicability in quantum information. I provide information-theoretic characterizations of the incomplete knowledge of the noise parameter to the lower bound, using both diamond distance and quantum Fisher information. Finally, I provide fundamental bounds for multi-cycle recovery in the form of recurrence inequalities. The latter suggests that incomplete knowledge could be an advantage, as errors from various cycles can cohere. These results are illustrated for the approximate [4,1] code of the amplitude-damping channel and relations to various fields are discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Relativistic quantum thermometry through a moving sensor. (arXiv:2208.04431v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Using a two-level moving probe, we address the temperature estimation of a static thermal bath modeled by a massless scalar field prepared in a thermal state. Different couplings of the probe to the field are discussed under various scenarios. We find that the thermometry is completely unaffected by the Lamb shift of the energy levels. We take into account the roles of probe velocity, its initial preparation, and environmental control parameters for achieving optimal temperature estimation. We show that a practical technique can be utilized to implement such a quantum thermometry. Finally, exploiting the thermal sensor moving at high velocity to probe temperature within a multiparameter-estimation strategy, we demonstrate perfect supremacy of the joint estimation over the individual one.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Coupled-Oscillators Model to Analyze the Interaction between a Quartz Resonator and Trapped Ions. (arXiv:2208.04437v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

The novel application of a piezoelectric quartz resonator for the detection of trapped ions has developed in the observation of the quartz-ions interaction under non-equilibrium conditions, opening new perspectives for high-sensitive motional frequency measurements of radioactive particles. Energized quartz crystals have (long) constant-decay times in the order of milliseconds, permitting the coherent detection of charged particles within short times. In this publication we develop in detail a model governing the interaction between trapped $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions and a quartz resonator connected to a low-noise amplifier. We apply this model to experimental data and extract relevant information like the coupling constant $g=2\pi \times 1.449(2)$~Hz and the ions' modified-cyclotron frequency in our 7-tesla Penning trap. The study on the latter is specially important for the use of this resonator in precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry. The improvement in sensitivity can be accomplished by increasing the coupling constant through the quality factor of the resonator. This can develop in the use of the hybrid quartz-ion system for other applications.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Periodic Plane-Wave Electronic Structure Calculations on Quantum Computers. (arXiv:2208.04444v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

A procedure for defining virtual spaces, and the periodic one-electron and two-electron integrals, for plane-wave second quantized Hamiltonians has been developed and demonstrated using full configuration interaction (FCI) simulations and variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) circuits on Quantinuum's ion trap quantum computers accessed through Microsoft's Azure Quantum service. This work is an extension to periodic systems of a new class of algorithms in which the virtual spaces were generated by optimizing orbitals from small pairwise CI Hamiltonians, which we term as correlation optimized virtual orbitals with the abbreviation COVOs. In this extension, the integration of the first Brillouin zone is automatically incorporated into the two-electron integrals. With these procedures we have been able to derive virtual spaces, containing only a few orbitals, that were able to capture a significant amount of correlation. The focus in this manuscript is on comparing the simulations of small molecules calculated with plane-wave basis sets with large periodic unit cells at the $\Gamma$-point, including images, to results for plane-wave basis sets with aperiodic unit cells. The results for this approach were promising as we were able to obtain good agreement between periodic and aperiodic results for an LiH molecule. Simulations performed on the Quantinuum H1-1 quantum computer were able to produce surprisingly good energies, reproducing the FCI values for the 1 COVO Hamiltonian to within 11 milliHartree (6.9 kcal/mol), when corrected for noise.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Density Matrix of the Fermionic Harmonic Oscillator. (arXiv:2208.04460v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

The path integral technique is used to derive a possible expression for the density operator of the fermionic harmonic oscillator. In terms of the Grassmann variables, the fermionic density operator can be written as: $\rho_F (\beta)=c^* (\beta)c(\beta) \pm c^*(\beta)c(\beta)e^{-\beta\omega}$, where +(-) means that the sum over all antiperiodic (periodic) orbits. Our density operator is then used to obtain the usual fermionic partition function which describes the fermionic oscillator in thermal equilibrium. Also, according to the periodic orbit $c(\beta)=c(0)$, the graded fermionic partition function is obtained.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Optical mode conversion via spatiotemporally modulated atomic susceptibility. (arXiv:2208.04478v1 [physics.atom-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Light is an excellent medium for both classical and quantum information transmission due to its speed, manipulability, and abundant degrees of freedom into which to encode information. Recently, space-division multiplexing has gained attention as a means to substantially increase the rate of information transfer by utilizing sets of infinite-dimensional propagation eigenmodes such as the Laguerre-Gaussian 'donut' modes. Encoding in these high-dimensional spaces necessitates devices capable of manipulating photonic degrees of freedom with high efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate controlling the optical susceptibility of an atomic sample can be used as powerful tool for manipulating the degrees of freedom of light that passes through the sample. Utilizing this tool, we demonstrate photonic mode conversion between two Laguerre-Gaussian modes of a twisted optical cavity with high efficiency. We spatiotemporally modulate the optical susceptibility of an atomic sample that sits at the cavity waist using an auxiliary Stark-shifting beam, in effect creating a mode-coupling optic that converts modes of orbital angular momentum $l=3\rightarrow l=0$. The internal conversion efficiency saturates near unity as a function of the atom number and modulation beam intensity, finding application in topological few-body state preparation, quantum communication, and potential development as a flexible tabletop device.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Using Random Walks for Iterative Phase Estimation. (arXiv:2208.04526v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

In recent years there has been substantial development in algorithms for quantum phase estimation. In this work we provide a new approach to online Bayesian phase estimation that achieves Heisenberg limited scaling that requires exponentially less classical processing time with the desired error tolerance than existing Bayesian methods.

This practically means that we can perform an update in microseconds on a CPU as opposed to milliseconds for existing particle filter methods. Our approach assumes that the prior distribution is Gaussian and exploits the fact, when optimal experiments are chosen, the mean of the prior distribution is given by the position of a random walker whose moves are dictated by the measurement outcomes. We then argue from arguments based on the Fisher information that our algorithm provides a near-optimal analysis of the data. This work shows that online Bayesian inference is practical, efficient and ready for deployment in modern FPGA driven adaptive experiments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Universal quantum computation based on Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems. (arXiv:2208.04528v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

We propose to use a buckled plate as a qubit, where a double-well potential is mechanically produced by pushing the plate from both the sides. The right and left positions of the plate are assigned to be quantum states $|0\rangle $ and $|1\rangle $. Quantum effects emerge when the displacement is of the order of picometers, although the size of a buckled plate is of the order of $1\mu m$. The NOT gate is executed by changing the buckling force acting on the plate, while the Pauli-Z gate and the phase-shift gate are executed by applying electric field. A two-qubit phase shift gate is materialized with the use of an electrostatic potential. They constitute a set of universal quantum gates. An examination of material parameters leads to a feasibility of a NEMS(Nano-Electro-Mechanical System)-based quantum computer.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Measurement-based state preparation of Kerr parametric oscillators. (arXiv:2208.04542v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Kerr parametric oscillators (KPOs) have attracted increasing attention in terms of their application to quantum information processing and quantum simulations. The state preparation and measurement of KPOs are typical requirements when they are used as qubits. The methods previously proposed for state preparations of KPOs utilize modulation of a pump field or an auxiliary drive field. We study the stochastic state preparation of a KPO based on homodyne detection, which does not require modulation of a pump field nor an auxiliary drive field, and thus can exclude unwanted effects of possible imperfection in control of these fields. We quantitatively show that the detection data, if averaged over a proper time to decrease the effect of measurement noise, has a strong correlation with the state of the KPO, and therefore can be used to estimate the state of the KPO (stochastic state preparation). We examine the success probability of the state estimation taking into account the effect of the measurement noise and bit flips. Moreover, the proper range of the averaging time to realize a high success probability is obtained by developing a binomial-coherent-state model, which describes the stochastic dynamics of the KPO under homodyne detection.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Combating quantum errors: an integrated approach. (arXiv:2208.04555v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 7 hours 4 min ago

Near-term quantum communication protocols suffer inevitably from channel noises, whose alleviation has been mostly attempted with resources such as multiparty entanglement or sophisticated experimental techniques. Generation of multiparty higher dimensional entanglement is not easy. This calls for exploring realistic solutions which are implementable with current devices. Motivated particularly by the difficulty in generation of multiparty entangled states, in this paper, we have investigated error-free information transfer with minimal requirements. For this, we have proposed a new information encoding scheme for communication purposes. The encoding scheme is based on the fact that most noisy channels leave some quantities invariant. Armed with this fact, we encode information in these invariants. These invariants are functions of expectation values of operators. This information passes through the noisy channel unchanged. Pertinently, this approach is not in conflict with other existing error correction schemes. In fact, we have shown how standard quantum error-correcting codes emerge if suitable restrictions are imposed on the choices of logical basis states. As applications, for illustration, we propose a quantum key distribution protocol and an error-immune information transfer protocol.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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