We present a unified approach to study continuous measurement based quantum thermal machines in static as well as adiabatically driven systems. We investigate both steady state and transient dynamics for the time-independent case. In the adiabatically driven case, we show how measurement based thermodynamic quantities can be attributed geometric characteristics. We also provide the appropriate definition for heat transfer and dissipation owing to continous measurement in the presence and absence of adiabatic driving. We illustrate the aforementioned ideas and study the phenomena of refrigeration in two different paradigmatic examples: a coupled quantum dot and a coupled qubit system, both undergoing continuous measurement and slow driving. In the time-independent case, we show that quantum coherence can improve the cooling power of measurement based quantum refrigerators. Exclusively for the case of coupled qubits, we consider linear as well as non-linear system-bath couplings. We observe that non-linear coupling produces cooling effects in certain regime where otherwise heating is expected. In the adiabatically driven case, we observe that quantum measurement can provide significant boost to the power of adiabatic quantum refrigerators. We also observe that the obtained boost can be larger than the sum of power due to individual effects. The measurement based refrigerators can have similar or better coefficient of performance (COP) in the driven case compared to the static one in the regime where heat extraction is maximum. Our results have potential significance for future application in devices ranging from measurement based quantum thermal machines to refrigeration in quantum processing networks.

Periodic deterministic bang-bang dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect are known to emerge from the same physical mechanism. Both concepts are based on cycles of strong and frequent kicks provoking a subdivision of the Hilbert space into independent subspaces. However, previous unification results do not capture the case of random bang-bang dynamical decoupling, which can be advantageous to the deterministic case but has an inherently acyclic structure. Here, we establish a correspondence between random dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect by investigating the average over random decoupling evolutions. This protocol is a manifestation of the quantum Zeno dynamics and leads to a unitary bath evolution. By providing a framework that we call equitability of system and bath, we show that the system dynamics under random dynamical decoupling converges to a unitary with a decoupling error that characteristically depends on the convergence speed of the Zeno limit. This reveals a unification of the random dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect.

This book deals with some ontological implications of standard non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and the use of the notion of `consciousness' to solve the measurement problem.

Nonlocality captures one of the counterintuitive features of nature that defies classical intuition. Recent investigations reveal that our physical world's nonlocality is at least tripartite; i.e., genuinely tripartite nonlocal correlations in nature cannot be reproduced by any causal theory involving bipartite nonclassical resources and unlimited shared randomness. Here, by allowing the fair sampling assumption and postselection, we experimentally demonstrate such genuine tripartite nonlocality in a network under strict locality constraints that are ensured by spacelike separating all relevant events and employing fast quantum random number generators and high-speed polarization measurements. In particular, for a photonic quantum triangular network we observe a locality-loophole-free violation of the Bell-type inequality by 7.57 standard deviations for a postselected tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state of fidelity $(93.13 \pm 0.24)\%$, which convincingly disproves the possibility of simulating genuine tripartite nonlocality by bipartite nonlocal resources with globally shared randomness.

We consider the problem of reproducing one quantum measurement given the ability to perform another. We give a general framework and specific protocols for this problem. For example, we show how to use available "imperfect" devices a small number of times to implement a target measurement with average error that drops off exponentially with the number of imperfect measurements used. We hope that could be useful in near-term applications as a type of lightweight error mitigation of the measuring devices. As well as the view to practical applications, we consider the question from a general theoretical perspective in the most general setting where both the available and target measurements are arbitrary generalised quantum measurements. We show that this general problem in fact reduces to the ability to reproduce the statistics of (complete) von Neumann measurements, and that in the asymptotic limit of infinitely many uses of the available measurement, a simple protocol based upon 'classical cloning' can perfectly achieve this task. We show that asymptotically all (non-trivial) quantum measurements are equivalent. We also study optimal protocols for a fixed number of uses of the available measurement. This includes, but is not limited to, improving both noisy and lossy quantum measurements. Furthermore, we show that, in a setting where we perform multiple measurements in parallel, we can achieve finite-rate measurement reproduction, by using block-coding techniques from classical information theory. Finally, we show that advantages can also be gained by making use of probabilistic protocols.

Novel qubits with intrinsic noise protection constitute a promising route for improving the coherence of quantum information in superconducting circuits. However, many protected superconducting qubits exhibit relatively low transition frequencies, which could make their integration with conventional transmon circuits challenging. In this work, we propose and study a scheme for entangling a tunable transmon with a Cooper-pair parity-protected qubit, a paradigmatic example of a low-frequency protected qubit that stores quantum information in opposite Cooper-pair parity states on a superconducting island. By tuning the external flux on the transmon, we show that non-computational states can mediate a two-qubit entangling gate that preserves the Cooper-pair parity independent of the detailed pulse sequence. Interestingly, the entangling gate bears similarities to a controlled-phase gate in conventional transmon devices. Hence, our results suggest that standard high-precision gate calibration protocols could be repurposed for operating hybrid qubit devices.

Interrelation of different nonclassical correlations with quantum coherence has been shown in [S. Asthana. New Journal of Physics 24.5 (2022): 053026] for multiqubit systems through logical qubits. In this work, we generalise that work to higher dimensional systems. For this, we assume different forms of logical qudits and logical continuous-variable (cv) systems in terms of their physical constituent qudits and physical cv systems. Thereafter, we show how conditions for coherence in logical qudits and logical cv systems themselves give rise to conditions for nonlocality and entanglement in their physical constituent qudits and cv systems. As we increase the number of parties in a logical qudit, conditions for coherence map to those for entanglement and then, for nonlocality. We illustrate it with the examples of SLK inequality and a condition for entanglement in continuous-variable systems. Furthermore, with nonclassicality of logical cv systems, we show that a recently introduced correlation can also be understood. Finally, we show how a condition for imaginarity maps to partial-positive transpose criterion in two-qubit systems. This shows that a single nonclassicality condition detects different types of nonclassicalities in different physical systems. Thereby, it reflects interrelations of different nonclassical features of states belonging to Hilbert spaces of nonidentical dimensions.

We show that the topology of the Fermi sea of a $D$-dimensional Fermi gas is reflected in the multipartite entanglement characterizing $D+1$ regions that meet at a point. For odd $D$ we introduce the multipartite mutual information, and show that it exhibits a $\log^D L$ divergence as a function of system size $L$ with a universal coefficient that is proportional to the Euler characteristic $\chi_F$ of the Fermi sea. This provides a generalization, for a Fermi gas, of the well-known result for $D=1$ that expresses the $\log L$ divergence of the bipartite entanglement entropy in terms of the central charge $c$ characterizing a conformal field theory. For even $D$ we introduce a charge-weighted entanglement entropy that is manifestly odd under a particle-hole transformation. We show that the corresponding charge-weighted mutual information exhibits a similar $\log^D L$ divergence proportional to $\chi_F$. Our analysis relates the universal behavior of the multipartite mutual information in the absence of interactions to the $D+1$'th order equal-time density correlation function, which we show exhibits a universal behavior in the long wavelength limit proportional to $\chi_F$. Our analytic results are based on the replica method. In addition we perform a numerical study of the charge-weighted mutual information for $D=2$ that confirms several aspects of the analytic theory. Finally, we consider the effect of interactions perturbatively within the replica theory. We show that for $D=3$ the $\log^3 L$ divergence of the topological mutual information is not perturbed by weak short-ranged interactions, though for $D=2$ the charge-weighted mutual information is perturbed. Thus, for $D=3$ the multipartite mutual information provides a robust classification that distinguishes distinct topological Fermi liquid phases.

Hybrid variational quantum algorithms, which combine a classical optimizer with evaluations on a quantum chip, are the most promising candidates to show quantum advantage on current noisy, intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. The classical optimizer is required to perform well in the presence of noise in the objective function evaluations, or else it becomes the weakest link in the algorithm. We introduce the use of Gaussian Processes (GP) as surrogate models to reduce the impact of noise and to provide high quality seeds to escape local minima, whether real or noise-induced. We build this as a framework on top of local optimizations, for which we choose Implicit Filtering (ImFil) in this study. ImFil is a state-of-the-art, gradient-free method, which in comparative studies has been shown to outperform on noisy VQE problems. The result is a new method: "GP+ImFil". We show that when noise is present, the GP+ImFil approach finds results closer to the true global minimum in fewer evaluations than standalone ImFil, and that it works particularly well for larger dimensional problems. Using GP to seed local searches in a multi-modal landscape shows mixed results: although it is capable of improving on ImFil standalone, it does not do so consistently and would only be preferred over other, more exhaustive, multistart methods if resources are constrained.

The eight-port homodyne detector is an optical circuit designed to perform the monitoring of two quadratures of an optical field, the signal. By using quantum Bose fields and quantum stochastic calculus, we give a complete quantum description of this apparatus, when used as quadrature detector in continuous time. We can treat either the travelling waves in the optical circuit, either the observables involved in the detection part: two couples of photodiodes, postprocessing of the output currents. The analysis includes imperfections, such as not perfectly balanced beam splitters, detector efficiency, electronic noise, phase and intensity noise in the laser acting as local oscillator; this last noise is modelled by using mixtures of field coherent states as statistical operator of the laser component. Due to the monitoring in continuous time, the output is a stochastic process and its full probability distribution is obtained. When the output process is sampled at discrete times, the quantum description can be reduced to discrete mode operators, but at the price of having random operators, which contain also the noise of the local oscillator. Consequently, the local oscillator noise has a very different effect on the detection results with respect to an additive noise, such as the noise in the electronic components. As an application, the problem of secure random number generation is considered, based on the local oscillator shot noise. The rate of random bits that can be generated is quantified by the min-entropy; the possibility of classical and quantum side information is taken into account by suitable conditional min-entropies. The final rate depends on which parts of the apparatus are considered to be secure and on which ones are considered to be exposed to the intervention of an intruder. In some experimentally realistic situations, the entropy losses are computed.

A single electron floating on the surface of a condensed noble-gas liquid or solid can act as a spin qubit with ultralong coherence time, thanks to the extraordinary purity of such systems. Previous studies suggest that the electron spin coherence time on a superfluid helium (He) surface can exceed 100 s. In this paper, we present theoretical studies of the electron spin coherence on a solid neon (Ne) surface, motivated by our recent experimental realization of single-electron charge qubit on solid Ne. The major spin decoherence mechanisms investigated include the fluctuating Ne diamagnetic susceptibility due to thermal phonons, the fluctuating thermal current in normal metal electrodes, and the quasi-statically fluctuating nuclear spins of the $^{21}$Ne ensemble. We find that at a typical experimental temperature about 10 mK in a fully superconducting device, the electron spin decoherence is dominated by the third mechanism via electron-nuclear spin-spin interaction. For natural Ne with 2700 ppm abundance of $^{21}$Ne, the estimated inhomogeneous dephasing time $T_{2}^{*}$ is around 0.16 ms, already better than most semiconductor quantum-dot spin qubits. For commercially available, isotopically purified Ne with 1 ppm of $^{21}$Ne, $T_{2}^{*}$ can be $0.43$ s. Under the application of Hahn echoes, the coherence time $T_{2}$ can be improved to $30$ ms for natural Ne and $81$ s for purified Ne. Therefore, the single-electron spin qubits on solid Ne can serve as promising new spin qubits.

The ability to characterise a Hamiltonian with high precision is crucial for the implementation of quantum technologies. In addition to the well-developed approaches utilising optimal probe states and optimal measurements, the method of optimal control can be used to identify time-dependent pulses applied to the system to achieve higher precision in the estimation of Hamiltonian parameters, especially in the presence of noise. Here, we extend optimally controlled estimation schemes for single qubits to non-commuting dynamics as well as two interacting qubits, demonstrating improvements in terms of maximal precision, time-stability, as well as robustness over uncontrolled protocols.

In this work, we invent the Anyon Cavity Resonator. The resonator is based on twisted hollow structures, which allow select resonant modes to exhibit non-zero helicity. Depending on the cross-section of the cavity, the modes have more general symmetry than what has been studied before. For example, with no twist, the mode is the form of a boson, while with a $180^{o}$ twist the symmetry is in the form of a fermion. We show that the generally twisted resonator is in the form of an anyon. The non-zero helicity couples the mode to axions, and we show in the upconversion limit the mode couples to ultra-light axions within the bandwidth of the resonator. The coupling adds amplitude modulated sidebands and allows a simple sensitive way to search for ultra-light axions using only a single mode within the resonator's bandwidth.

The idea to use quantum mechanical devices to simulate other quantum systems is commonly ascribed to Feynman. Since the original suggestion, concrete proposals have appeared for simulating molecular and materials chemistry through quantum computation, as a potential "killer application". Indications of potential exponential quantum advantage in artificial tasks have increased interest in this application, thus, it is critical to understand the basis for potential exponential quantum advantage in quantum chemistry. Here we gather the evidence for this case in the most common task in quantum chemistry, namely, ground-state energy estimation. We conclude that evidence for such an advantage across chemical space has yet to be found. While quantum computers may still prove useful for quantum chemistry, it may be prudent to assume exponential speedups are not generically available for this problem.

Quantum mechanics (QM) is derived based on a universe composed solely of events, for example, outcomes of observables. Such an event universe is represented by a dendrogram (a finite tree) and in the limit of infinitely many events by the p-adic tree. The trees are endowed with an ultrametric expressing hierarchical relationships between events. All events are coupled through the tree structure. Such a holistic picture of event-processes was formalized within the Dendrographic Hologram Theory (DHT). The present paper is devoted to the emergence of QM from DHT. We used the generalization of the QM-emergence scheme developed by Smolin. Following this scheme, we did not quantize events but rather the differences between them and through analytic derivation arrived at Bohmian mechanics. Previously, we were able to embed the basic elements of general relativity (GR) into DHT, and now after Smolin-like quantization of DHT, we can take a step toward quantization of GR. Finally, we remark that DHT is nonlocal in the treelike geometry, but this nonlocality refers to relational nonlocality in the space of events and not Einstein's spatial nonlocality.

Two-qubit gates are a fundamental constituent of a quantum computer and typically its most challenging operation. In a trapped-ion quantum computer, this is typically implemented with laser beams which are modulated in amplitude, frequency, phase, or a combination of these. The required modulation becomes increasingly more complex as the quantum computer becomes larger, complicating the control hardware design. Here, we develop a simple method to essentially remove the pulse-modulation complexity by engineering the normal modes of the ion chain. We experimentally demonstrate the required mode engineering in a three ion chain. This opens up the possibility to trade off complexity between the design of the trapping fields and the optical control system, which will help scale the ion trap quantum computing platform.

Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in recovering dynamical laws of complex systems in a largely data-driven fashion under meaningful hypotheses. In this work, we propose a method for scalably learning dynamical laws of classical dynamical systems from data. As a novel ingredient, to achieve an efficient scaling with the system size, block sparse tensor trains - instances of tensor networks applied to function dictionaries - are used and the self similarity of the problem is exploited. For the latter, we propose an approach of gauge mediated weight sharing, inspired by notions of machine learning, which significantly improves performance over previous approaches. The practical performance of the method is demonstrated numerically on three one-dimensional systems - the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system, rotating magnetic dipoles and classical particles interacting via modified Lennard-Jones potentials. We highlight the ability of the method to recover these systems, requiring 1400 samples to recover the 50 particle Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system to residuum of $5\times10^{-7}$, 900 samples to recover the 50 particle magnetic dipole chain to residuum of $1.5\times10^{-4}$ and 7000 samples to recover the Lennard-Jones system of 10 particles to residuum $1.5\times10^{-2}$. The robustness against additive Gaussian noise is demonstrated for the magnetic dipole system.

Low-noise microwave amplification is crucial for detecting weak signals in quantum technologies and radio astronomy. An ideal device must amplify a broad range of frequencies while adding minimal noise, and be directional, so that it favors the observer's direction while protecting the source from its environment. Current amplifiers do not satisfy all these requirements, severely limiting the scalability of superconducting quantum devices. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of building a near-ideal quantum amplifier using a homogeneous Josephson junction array and the non-trivial topology of its dynamics. Our design relies on breaking time-reversal symmetry via a non-local parametric drive, which induces directional amplification in a way similar to edge states in topological insulators. The system then acquires unprecedented amplifying properties, such as a gain growing exponentially with system size, exponential suppression of back-wards noise, and topological protection against disorder. We show that these features allow a state-of-the-art superconducting device to manifest near-quantum-limited directional amplification with a gain largely surpassing 20 dB and -30 dB of reverse attenuation over a large bandwidth of GHz. This opens the door for integrating near-ideal and compact pre-amplifiers on the same chip as quantum processors.

The generation of nonclassical light states bears a paramount importance in quantum optics and is largely relying on the interaction between intense laser pulses and nonlinear media. Recently, electron beams, such as those used in ultrafast electron microscopy to retrieve information from a specimen, have been proposed as a tool to manipulate both bright and dark confined optical excitations, inducing semiclassical states of light that range from coherent to thermal mixtures. Here, we show that the ponderomotive contribution to the electron-cavity interaction, which we argue to be significant for low-energy electrons subject to strongly confined near-fields, can actually create a more general set of optical states, including coherent and squeezed states. The post-interaction electron spectrum further reveals signatures of the nontrivial role played by $A^2$ terms in the light-matter coupling Hamiltonian, particularly when the cavity is previously excited by either chaotic or coherent illumination. Our work introduces a disruptive approach to the creation of nontrivial quantum cavity states for quantum information and optics applications, while it suggests unexplored possibilities for electron beam shaping.

The Onsager algebra is one of the cornerstones of exactly solvable models in statistical mechanics. Starting from the generalised Clifford algebra, we demonstrate its relations to the graph Temperley-Lieb algebra, and a generalisation of the Onsager algebra. We present a series of quantum lattice models as representations of the generalised Clifford algebra, possessing the structure of a special type of the generalised Onsager algebra. The integrability of those models is presented, analogous to the free fermionic eight-vertex model. We also mention further extensions of the models and physical properties related to the generalised Onsager algebras, hinting at a general framework that includes families of quantum lattice models possessing the structure of the generalised Onsager algebras.