While there has been extensive previous work on efficient quantum algorithms for linear differential equations, analogous progress for nonlinear differential equations has been severely limited due to the linearity of quantum mechanics. Despite this obstacle, we develop a quantum algorithm for initial value problems described by dissipative quadratic $n$-dimensional ordinary differential equations. Assuming $R < 1$, where $R$ is a parameter characterizing the ratio of the nonlinearity to the linear dissipation, this algorithm has complexity $T^2\mathrm{poly}(\log T, \log n, \log 1/\epsilon)/\epsilon$, where $T$ is the evolution time and $\epsilon$ is the allowed error in the output quantum state. This is an exponential improvement over the best previous quantum algorithms, whose complexity is exponential in $T$. We achieve this improvement using the method of Carleman linearization, for which we give a novel convergence theorem. This method maps a system of nonlinear differential equations to an infinite-dimensional system of linear differential equations, which we discretize, truncate, and solve using the forward Euler method and the quantum linear system algorithm. We also provide a lower bound on the worst-case complexity of quantum algorithms for general quadratic differential equations, showing that the problem is intractable for $R \ge \sqrt{2}$. Finally, we discuss potential applications of this approach to problems arising in biology as well as in fluid and plasma dynamics.

We study the implications of the anyon fusion equation $a\times b=c$ on global properties of $2+1$D topological quantum field theories (TQFTs). Here $a$ and $b$ are anyons that fuse together to give a unique anyon, $c$. As is well known, when at least one of $a$ and $b$ is abelian, such equations describe aspects of the one-form symmetry of the theory. When $a$ and $b$ are non-abelian, the most obvious way such fusions arise is when a TQFT can be resolved into a product of TQFTs with trivial mutual braiding, and $a$ and $b$ lie in separate factors. More generally, we argue that the appearance of such fusions for non-abelian $a$ and $b$ can also be an indication of zero-form symmetries in a TQFT, of what we term "quasi-zero-form symmetries" (as in the case of discrete gauge theories based on the largest Mathieu group, $M_{24}$), or of the existence of non-modular fusion subcategories. We study these ideas in a variety of TQFT settings from (twisted and untwisted) discrete gauge theories to Chern-Simons theories based on continuous gauge groups and related cosets. Along the way, we prove various useful theorems.

Silicon vacancies in silicon carbide have been proposed as an alternative to nitrogen vacancy centers in diamonds for spintronics and quantum technologies. An important precondition for these applications is the initialization of the qubits into a specific quantum state. In this work, we study the optical alignment of the spin 3/2 negatively charged silicon vacancy in 6H-SiC. Using a time-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance technique, we coherently control the silicon vacancy spin ensemble and measure Rabi frequencies and spin-lattice relaxation time of all three transitions. Then to study the optical initialization process of the silicon vacancy spin ensemble, the vacancy spin ensemble is prepared in different ground states and optically excited. We describe a simple rate equation model that can explain the observed behaviour and determine the relevant rate constants.

We present two fiberized vector magnetic-field sensors, based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The sensors feature sub-nT/$\sqrt{\textrm{Hz}}$ magnetic sensitivity. We use commercially available components to construct sensors with a small sensor size, high photon collection, and minimal sensor-sample distance. Both sensors are located at the end of optical fibres with the sensor-head freely accessible and robust under movement. These features make them ideal for mapping magnetic fields with high sensitivity and spatial resolution ($\leq$\,mm). As a demonstration we use one of the sensors to map the vector magnetic field inside the bore of a $\geq$ 100\,mT Halbach array. The vector field sensing protocol translates microwave spectroscopy data addressing all diamonds axes and including double quantum transitions to a 3D magnetic field vector.

We propose a quantum Otto cycle in a two spin-$1/2$ anisotropic XY model in a transverse external magnetic field. We first characterize the parameter regime that the working medium operates as an engine in the adiabatic regime. Then, we consider finite-time behavior of the engine with and without utilizing a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) technique. STA schemes guarantee that the dynamics of a system follows the adiabatic path, at the expense of introducing an external control. We compare the performance of the non-adiabatic and STA engines for a fixed adiabatic efficiency but different parameters of the working medium. We observe that, for certain parameter regimes, the irreversibility, as measured by the efficiency lags, due to finite-time driving is so low that non-adiabatic engine performs quite close to the adiabatic engine, leaving the STA engine only marginally better than the non-adiabatic one. This suggests that by designing the working medium Hamiltonian one may spare the difficulty of dealing with an external control protocol.

We present a universal construction that relates reversible dynamics on open systems to arbitrary dynamics on closed systems: the well-pointed restriction affine completion of a monoidal restriction category. This categorical completion encompasses both quantum channels, via Stinespring dilation, and classical computing, via Bennett's method. Moreover, in these two cases, we show how our construction can be 'undone' by a further universal construction. This shows how both mixed quantum theory and classical computation rest on entirely reversible foundations.

We realize, for the first time, a non-Abelian gauge theory with both gauge and matter fields on a quantum computer. This enables the observation of hadrons and the calculation of their associated masses. The SU(2) gauge group considered here represents an important first step towards ultimately studying quantum chromodynamics, the theory that describes the properties of protons, neutrons and other hadrons. Quantum computers are able to create important new opportunities for ongoing essential research on gauge theories by providing simulations that are unattainable on classical computers. Our calculations on an IBM superconducting platform utilize a variational quantum eigensolver to study both meson and baryon states, hadrons which have never been seen in a non-Abelian simulation on a quantum computer. We develop a resource-efficient approach that not only allows the implementation of a full SU(2) gauge theory on present-day quantum hardware, but further lays out the premises for future quantum simulations that will address currently unanswered questions in particle and nuclear physics.

We demonstrate fast and ultrasensitive charge detection with a cavity-embedded Cooper pair transistor via dispersive readout of its Josephson inductance. We report a minimum charge sensitivity of $14$ $\mu e/\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}$ with a detection bandwidth on the order of $1$ MHz using $16$ attowatts of power, corresponding to the single-photon level of the cavity. This is the first ultrasensitive electrometer reported to operate at the single-photon level and its sensitivity is comparable to rf-SETs, which typically require picowatts of power. Our results support the feasibility of using this device to mediate an optomechanical interaction that reaches the single-photon strong coupling regime.

In this paper, we uncover the elusive level crossings in a subspace of the asymmetric two-photon quantum Rabi model (tpQRM) when the bias parameter of qubit is an even multiple of the renormalized cavity frequency. Due to the absence of any explicit symmetry in the subspace, this double degeneracy implies the existence of the hidden symmetry. The non-degenerate exceptional points are also given completely. It is found that the number of the doubly degenerate crossing points in the asymmetric tpQRM is comparable to that in asymmetric one-photon QRM in terms of the same order of the constrained conditions. The bias parameter required for occurrence of level crossings in the asymmetric tpQRM is characteristically different from that at a multiple of the cavity frequency in the asymmetric one-photon QRM, suggesting the different hidden symmetries in the two asymmetric QRMs.

The machine learning technique of persistent homology classifies complex systems or datasets by computing their topological features over a range of characteristic scales. There is growing interest in applying persistent homology to characterize physical systems such as spin models and multiqubit entangled states. Here we propose persistent homology as a tool for characterizing and optimizing band structures of periodic photonic media. Using the honeycomb photonic lattice Haldane model as an example, we show how persistent homology is able to reliably classify a variety of band structures falling outside the usual paradigms of topological band theory, including "moat band" and multi-valley dispersion relations, and thereby control the properties of quantum emitters embedded in the lattice. The method is promising for the automated design of more complex systems such as photonic crystals and Moire superlattices.

Controlling the energy of unauthorized light signals in a quantum cryptosystem is an essential criterion for implementation security. Here, we propose a passive optical power limiter device based on thermo-optical defocusing effects providing a reliable power limiting threshold which can be readily adjusted to suit various quantum applications. In addition, the device is robust against a wide variety of signal variations (e.g. wavelength, pulse width), which is important for implementation security. Moreover, we experimentally show that the proposed device does not compromise quantum communication signals, in that it has only a very minimal impact (if not, negligible impact) on the intensity, phase, or polarization degrees of freedom of the photon, thus making it suitable for general communication purposes. To show its practical utility for quantum cryptography, we demonstrate and discuss three potential applications: (1) measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with enhanced security against a general class of Trojan-horse attacks, (2) using the power limiter as a countermeasure against bright illumination attacks, and (3) the application of power limiters to potentially enhance the implementation security of plug-and-play quantum key distribution.

The concept of an embodied intelligent agent is a key concept in modern artificial intelligence and robotics. Physically, an agent is an open system embedded in an environment that it interacts with through sensors and actuators. It contains a learning algorithm that correlates the sensor and actuator results by learning features about its environment. In this article we present a simple optical agent that uses light to probe and learn components of its environment. In our scenario, the quantum agent outperforms a classical agent: The quantum agent probes the world using single photon pulses, where its classical counterpart uses a weak coherent state with an average photon number equal to one. We analyze the thermodynamic behavior of both agents, showing that improving the agent's estimate of the world corresponds to an increase in average work done on the sensor by the actuator pulse. Thus, our model provides a useful toy model for studying the interface between machine learning, optics, and statistical thermodynamics.

We introduce the cavity-embedded Cooper pair transistor (cCPT), a device which behaves as a highly nonlinear microwave cavity whose resonant frequency can be tuned both by charging a gate capacitor and by threading flux through a SQUID loop. We characterize this device and find excellent agreement between theory and experiment. A key difficulty in this characterization is the presence of frequency fluctuations comparable in scale to the cavity linewidth, which deform our measured resonance circles in accordance with recent theoretical predictions [Brock et al., Phys. Rev. Applied 14, 054026 (2020)]. By measuring the power spectral density of these frequency fluctuations at carefully chosen points in parameter space, we find that they are primarily a result of the $1/f$ charge and flux noise common in solid state devices. Notably, we also observe key signatures of frequency fluctuations induced by quantum fluctuations in the cavity field via the Kerr nonlinearity.

We report depth-resolved photoluminescence measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) centers formed along the tracks of swift heavy ions (SHIs) in type Ib synthetic single crystal diamonds that had been doped with 100 ppm nitrogen during crystal growth. Analysis of the spectra shows that NV$^-$ centers are formed preferentially within regions where electronic stopping processes dominate and not at the end of the ion range where elastic collisions lead to formation of vacancies and defects. Thermal annealing further increases NV yields after irradiation with SHIs preferentially in regions with high vacancy densities. NV centers formed along the tracks of single swift heavy ions can be isolated with lift-out techniques for explorations of color center qubits in quasi-1D registers with an average qubit spacing of a few nanometers and of order 100 color centers per micrometer along 10 to 30 micrometer long percolation chains.

Physical platforms such as trapped ions suffer from coherent noise where errors manifest as rotations about a particular axis and can accumulate over time. We investigate passive mitigation through decoherence free subspaces, requiring the noise to preserve the code space of a stabilizer code, and to act as the logical identity operator on the protected information. Thus, we develop conditions for all transversal $Z$-rotations to preserve the code space of a stabilizer code, which require the weight-$2$ $Z$-stabilizers to cover all the qubits that are in the support of some $X$-component. Further, the weight-$2$ $Z$-stabilizers generate a direct product of single-parity-check codes with even block length. By adjusting the size of these components, we are able to construct a large family of QECC codes, oblivious to coherent noise, that includes the $[[4L^2, 1, 2L]]$ Shor codes. By adjusting the size of these components, we are able to construct a large family of QECC codes, oblivious to coherent noise, that includes the $[[4L^2, 1, 2L]]$ Shor codes. Moreover, given $M$ even and any $[[n,k,d]]$ stabilizer code, we can construct an $[[Mn, k, \ge d]]$ stabilizer code that is oblivious to coherent noise.

If we require that transversal $Z$-rotations preserve the code space only up to some finite level $l$ in the Clifford hierarchy, then we can construct higher level gates necessary for universal quantum computation. The $Z$-stabilizers supported on each non-zero $X$-component form a classical binary code C, which is required to contain a self-dual code, and the classical Gleason's theorem constrains its weight enumerator. The conditions for a stabilizer code being preserved by transversal $2\pi/2^l$ $Z$-rotations at $4 \le l \le l_{\max} <\infty$ level in the Clifford hierarchy lead to generalizations of Gleason's theorem that may be of independent interest to classical coding theorists.

A constrained BRST-BV Lagrangian formulation for totally symmetric massless HS fields in a $d$-dimensional Minkowski space is extended to a non-minimal constrained BRST-BV Lagrangian formulation by using a non-minimal BRST operator $Q_{c|\mathrm{tot}}$ with non-minimal Hamiltonian BFV oscillators $\overline{C}, \overline{\mathcal{P}}, \lambda, \pi$, as well as antighost and Nakanishi-Lautrup tensor fields, in order to introduce an admissible self-consistent gauge condition. The gauge-fixing procedure involves an operator gauge-fixing BRST-BFV Fermion $\Psi_H$ as a kernel of the gauge-fixing BRST-BV Fermion functional $\Psi$, manifesting the concept of BFV-BV duality. A Fock-space quantum action with non-minimal BRST-extended off-shell constraints is constructed as a shift of the total generalized field-antifield vector by a variational derivative of the gauge-fixing Fermion $\Psi$ in a total BRST-BV action $S^{\Psi}_{0|s} = \int d \eta_0 \langle \chi^{\Psi{} 0}_{\mathrm{tot}|c} \big| Q_{c|\mathrm{tot}}\big| \chi^{\Psi{} 0}_{\mathrm{tot}|c}\rangle$. We use a gauge condition which depends on two gauge parameters, thereby extending the case of $R_\xi$-gauges. For triplet and duplet formulations we explored the representations with only traceless field-antifield and source variables. For the generating functionals of Green's functions, BRST symmetry transformations are suggested and Ward identities are obtained.

A state-preserving quantum counting algorithm is used to obtain coefficients of a Lanczos recursion from a single ground state wavefunction on the quantum computer. This is used to compute the continued fraction representation of an interacting Green's function for use in condensed matter, particle physics, and other areas. The wavefunction does not need to be re-prepared at each iteration. The quantum algorithm represents an exponential reduction in memory over known classical methods. An extension of the method to determining the ground state is also discussed.

Author(s): Xu-Jie Wang, Sheng-Jun Yang, Peng-Fei Sun, Bo Jing, Jun Li, Ming-Ti Zhou, Xiao-Hui Bao, and Jian-Wei Pan

A cold atomic ensemble suits well for optical quantum memories, and its entanglement with a single photon forms the building block for quantum networks that give promise for many revolutionary applications. Efficiency and lifetime are among the most important figures of merit for a memory. In this L...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 090501] Published Tue Mar 02, 2021

Author(s): Georg Engelhardt and Jianshu Cao

In recent experiments, the light-matter interaction has reached the ultrastrong coupling limit, which can give rise to dynamical generalizations of spatial symmetries in periodically driven systems. Here, we present a unified framework of dynamical-symmetry-protected selection rules based on Floquet...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 090601] Published Tue Mar 02, 2021

Author(s): Erika K. Carlson

An x-ray scattering technique reveals how egg whites gel on a range of length and timescales.

[Physics 14, s26] Published Tue Mar 02, 2021

Categories: Physics