Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is the explicit demonstration of the fact that the measurements of one party can in influence the quantum state held by another, distant, party, and do so even if the measurements themselves are untrusted. This has been shown to allow one-sided device-independent quantum-information tasks between two remote parties. However, in general, advanced multiparty protocols for generic quantum technologies, such as quantum secret sharing and blind quantum computing for quantum networks, demand multipartite quantum correlations of graph states shared between more than two parties. Here, we show that, when one part of a quantum multidimensional system composed of a two-colorable graph state (e.g., cluster and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states) is attacked by an eavesdropper using a universal cloning machine, only one of the copy subsystems can exhibit multipartite EPR steering but not both. Such a no-sharing restriction secures both state sources and channels against cloning-based attacks for generic quantum networking tasks, such as distributed quantum-information processing, in the presence of uncharacterized measurement apparatuses.

Here we discuss message identification, a problem formalized by Rudolf Ahlswede and Gunter Dueck, over a classical-quantum multiple access channel with two classical senders and one quantum receiver. We show that the simultaneous identification capacity, a capacity defined by Peter L\"ober, of this multiple access channel is equal to its message transmission capacity region.

Exceptional points (EPs), i.e. branch point singularities of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, are ubiquitous in optics. So far, the signatures of EPs have been mostly studied assuming classical light.

In the passive parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) optical coupler, a fingerprint of EPs resulting from the coalescence of two resonance modes is a qualitative change of the photon decay law, from damped Rabi-like oscillations to transparency, as the EP is crossed by increasing the loss rate. However, when probed by non-classical states of light, quantum interference can hide EPs. Here it is shown that, under excitation with polarization-entangled two-photon states, EP phase transition is smoothed until to disappear as the effective particle statistics is changed from bosonic to fermionic.

One-dimensional lattices with chiral symmetry are known to possess quantized Zak phase and nontrivial topological phases. Here it is shown that quantized Zak phase and nontrivial edge states, partially protected by inversion symmetry rather than chiral symmetry, can be observed and probed in the bulk exploiting continuous-time photonic quantum walk in zig-zag waveguide arrays. Averaged beam displacement measurements can detect quantized Zak phase and non-trivial topological phases in the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with broken chiral symmetry.

There should be quantum vacuum fluctuations of spacetime itself, if we accept that the basic quantum principles we are already familiar with apply as well to a quantum theory of gravity. In this paper, we study, in linearized quantum gravity, the quantum entanglement generation at the neighborhood of the initial time between two independent gravitationally polarizable two-level subsystems caused by fluctuating quantum vacuum gravitational fields in the framework of open quantum systems. A bath of fluctuating quantum vacuum gravitational fields serves as an environment that provides indirect interactions between the two gravitationally polarizable subsystems, which may lead to entanglement generation. We find that the entanglement generation is crucially dependent on the polarizations, i.e, they cannot get entangled in certain circumstances when the polarizations of the subsystems are different while they always can when the polarizations are the same. We also show that the presence of a boundary may render parallel aligned subsystems entangled which are otherwise unentangled in a free space. However, the presence of the boundary does not help in terms of entanglement generation if the two subsystems are vertically aligned.

Duality quantum computing (DQC) offers the use of linear combination of unitaries (LCU), or generalized quantum gates, in designing quantum algorithms. DQC contains wave divider and wave combiner operations. The wave function of a quantum computer is split into several subwaves after the wave division operation. Then different unitary operations are performed on different subwaves in parallel. A quantum wave combiner combines the subwaves into a final wave function, so that a linear combination of the unitaries are performed on the final state. In this paper, we study of the properties of duality quantum computer with projections on subwaves. In subwave-projection DQC (SWP-DQC), we can realize the linear combinations of non-unitaries, and this not only gives further flexibility for designing quantum algorithms, but also offers additional speedup in the expected time complexity. Specifically, SWP-DQC offers an O(M) acceleration over DQC with only final-wave-projection in the mean time complexity, where M is the number of projections. As an application, we show that the ground state preparation algorithm recently proposed by Ge, Tura, and Cirac is actually an DQC algorithm, and we further optimized the algorithm using SWP-DQC, which can save up to $\log_2 N$ qubits compared DQC without subwave projection, where N is the dimension of the system's Hilbert Space.

Squeezed spin states have an important application in quantum metrology and sensing. It has been shown by S{\o}rensen and M{\o}lmer (2002 Phys. Rev. A 66 022314) that an effective one-axis-twisting interaction can be realized in a cavity setup via a double off-resonance stimulated Raman scattering, resulting in a noise reduction scaling $\propto1/N^{2/3}$ with $N$ the atom number. Here, we show that, by making an appropriate change of the initial input spin state, it is possible to produce one-axis-twisting spin squeezing via a \emph{single} off-resonance stimulated Raman scattering, which thus can greatly simplify the realistic implementation. We also show that the one-axis-twisting interaction can be transformed into more efficient two-axis-twisting interaction by rotating the collective spin while coupling to the cavity, yielding a Heisenberg limited noise reduction $\propto1/N$. Considering the noise effects due to atomic decoherence and cavity decay, we find that substantial squeezing is still attainable with current laboratory technique.

A method for reconstructing joint photon-number distributions of twin beams from the experimental photocount histograms is suggested and experimentally implemented. Contrary to the standard reconstruction methods, it incorporates spatial noise reduction based on spatial pairing of photons. Superior performance of the method above the usual one for the maximum-likelihood approach is demonstrated.

The micromaser is examined with the aim of understanding certain of its properties based on a time-reversed quantum trajectory analysis. The background theory of master equations derived from a repeated interaction model perspective is briefly reviewed and extended by taking into account the more general renewal process description of the sequence of interactions of the system with incoming ancilla, and results compared with other recent (and not so recent) approaches that use this generalisation. The results are then specialised to the micromaser, and a quantum trajectory unravelling of the micromaser dynamics is formulated that enables time-reversed quantum trajectories, defined according to the Crooks approach, to, first, be shown to arise naturally in the analysis of micromaser and atomic beam correlations, and second used in the formulation of a fluctuation relation for the probabilities of trajectories and their time-reversed counterparts.

We find that thermalization in a quenched one-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gas proceeds via a non-thermal fixed point through annihilation of Flemish-string bound states of magnetic solitons. A possible experimental situation is discussed.

Quantum Gibbs state sampling algorithms generally suffer from either scaling exponentially with system size or requiring specific knowledge of spectral properties \textit{a priori}. Also, these algorithms require a large overhead of bath or scratch/ancilla qubits. We propose a method, termed the minimal effective Gibbs ansatz (MEGA), which uses a quantum computer to determine a minimal ensemble of pure states that accurately reproduce thermal averages of typical observables. This technique employs properties of correlation functions that can be split into a lesser and greater part; here, we primarily focus on single-particle Green's functions. When properly measured, these correlation functions provide a simple test to indicate how close a given pure state or ensemble of pure states are to providing accurate thermal expectation values. Further, we show that when properties such as the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis hold, this approach leads to accurate results with a sparse ensemble of pure states; sometimes only one suffices. We illustrate the ansatz using exact diagonalization simulations on small clusters for the Fermi-Hubbard and Hubbard-like models. Even if MEGA becomes as computationally complex as other Gibbs state samplers, it still gains an advantage due to its ease of implementation without any \textit{a priori} information about the Hamiltonian and in the efficient allocation of available qubits by eliminating bath qubits and using a minimal number of ancilla.

A Monte Carlo computer simulation algorithm in classical phase space is given for the treatment of quantum systems. The non-commutativity of position and momentum is accounted for by a mean field approach and instantaneous effective harmonic oscillators. Wave function symmetrization is included at the dimer and double dimer level. Quantitative tests are performed against benchmarks given by Hernando and Van\'i\v{c}ek (2013) for spinless neon--parahydrogen, modeled as interacting Lennard-Jones particles in a one dimensional harmonic trap. The mean field approach is shown to be quantitatively accurate for high to moderate temperatures $\beta \hbar \omega_\mathrm{LJ} < 7$, and moderate densities, $\rho \sigma \approx 1$. Results for helium show that at the lowest temperature studied, the average energy is about 4\% lower for bosons than for fermions. It is argued that the mean field algorithm will perform better in three dimensions than in one, and that it will scale sub-linearly with system size.

Digital quantum computing paradigm offers highly-desirable features such as universality, scalability, and quantum error correction. However, physical resource requirements to implement useful error-corrected quantum algorithms are prohibitive in the current era of NISQ devices. As an alternative path to performing universal quantum computation, within the NISQ era limitations, we propose to merge digital single-qubit operations with analog multi-qubit entangling blocks in an approach we call digital-analog quantum computing (DAQC). Along these lines, although the techniques may be extended to any resource, we propose to use unitaries generated by the ubiquitous Ising Hamiltonian for the analog entangling block and we prove its universal character. We construct explicit DAQC protocols for efficient simulations of arbitrary inhomogeneous Ising, two-body, and $M$-body spin Hamiltonian dynamics by means of single-qubit gates and a fixed homogeneous Ising Hamiltonian. Additionally, we compare a sequential approach where the interactions are switched on and off (stepwise DAQC) with an always-on multi-qubit interaction interspersed by fast single-qubit pulses (banged DAQC). Finally, we perform numerical tests comparing purely digital schemes with DAQC protocols, showing a remarkably better performance of the latter. The proposed DAQC approach combines the robustness of analog quantum computing with the flexibility of digital methods, establishing an avenue for achieving quantum advantage with near-term quantum hardware.

The recently developed stochastic gradient method combined with Monte Carlo sampling techniques [PRB {\bf 95}, 195154 (2017)] offers a low scaling and accurate method to optimize the projected entangled pair states (PEPS). We extended this method to the fermionic PEPS (fPEPS). To simplify the implementation, we introduce a fermi arrow notation to specify the order of the fermion operators in the virtual entangled EPR pairs. By defining some local operation rules associated with the fermi arrows, one can implement fPEPS algorithms very similar to that of standard PEPS. We benchmark the method for the interacting spinless fermion models, and the t-J models. The numerical calculations show that the gradient optimization greatly improves the results of simple update method. Furthermore, much larger virtual bond dimensions ($D$) and truncation dimensions ($D_c$) than those of boson and spin systems are necessary to converge the results. The method therefore offer a powerful tool to simulate fermion systems because it has much lower scaling than the direct contraction methods.

In general case of deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimal length we present a definition of the square inverse position operator. Our proposal is based on the functional analysis of the square position operator. Using this definition a particle in the field of the square inverse position potential is studied. We have obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the energy spectrum of the considerable problem in different cases of deformation function. We find that the energy spectrum slightly depends on the choice of deformation function.

Blind quantum computing enables a client, who can only generate or measure single-qubit states, to delegate quantum computing to a remote quantum server in such a way that the input, output, and program are hidden from the server. It is an open problem whether a completely classical client can delegate quantum computing blindly. In this paper, we show that if a completely classical client can blindly delegate sampling of subuniversal models, such as the DQC1 model and the IQP model, then the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses to the third level. Our delegation protocol is the one where the client first sends a polynomial-length bit string to the server and then the server returns a single bit to the client. Generalizing the no-go result to more general setups is an open problem.

We show that by injecting a light pulse prepared in a non-Gaussian quantum state into the dark port of a two-arm interferometer, it is possible to detect a given phase shift with the fidelity which is limited only by the optical losses and the photodetection inefficiency. The value of the phase shift is inversely proportional to the amplitude of the classical carrier light injected into another (bright) port of the interferometer. It can be reduced by using an additional degenerate parametric amplifier (squeezer) in the input dark port and the matching anti-squeezer in the output dark port.

We show that using the modern high-efficiency photon number resolving detectors, it is possible to reduce the detection error by almost one order of magnitude in comparison with the ordinary (Gaussian-state) interferometry.

We consider quantum graphs with transparent branching points. To design such networks, the concept of transparent boundary conditions is applied to the derivation of the vertex boundary conditions for the linear Schrodinger equation on metric graphs. This allows to derive simple constraints, which use equivalent usual Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions at the vertex to the transparent ones. The approach is applied to quantum star and tree graphs. However, extension to more complicated graph topologies is rather straight forward.

We propose a novel protocol for quantum illumination: a quantum-enhanced noise radar. A two-mode squeezed state, which exhibits continuous-variable entanglement between so-called signal and idler beams, is used as input to the radar system. Compared to existing proposals for quantum illumination, our protocol does not require joint measurement of the signal and idler beams. This greatly enhances the practicality of the system by, for instance, eliminating the need for a quantum memory to store the idler. We perform a proof-of-principle experiment in the microwave regime, directly comparing the performance of a two-mode squeezed source to an ideal classical noise source that saturates the classical bound for correlation. We find that, even in the presence of significant added noise and loss, the quantum source outperforms the classical source by as much as an order of magnitude.

Neutral atom array serves as an ideal platform to study the quantum logic gates, where intense efforts have been devoted to enhance the two-qubit gate fidelity. We report our recent findings in constructing theoretically a different type of two-qubit controlled-PHASE quantum gate with neutral atoms enabled by Rydberg blockade, which behaves like the hybrid version of the $\pi$-gap-$\pi$ gate and Rydberg dressing gate. Its principle relies upon smooth modulated pulse with specially tailored waveform to gain appropriate phase accumulations for quantum gates while suppressing population leakage error and rotation error. The major features include finishing gate operation within a single pulse, not necessarily requiring individual site addressing, and not sensitive to the exact value of blockade shift. Therefore, we anticipate its fidelity to be reasonably high under realistic considerations for intrinsic errors. Moreover, we hope that such type of protocol may inspire future improvements in quantum gates for other categories of qubit platforms, and that its core ingredients may be helpful in the field of quantum optimal control.