The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by post-selection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the post-selection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by non-Gaussian post-selection. The non-Gaussian post-selection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian post-selection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the non-Gaussian post-selection, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.

In this work we have revisited a few principal formulae about one-tangle of multipartite entanglement of fermionic systems in noninertial frames calculated in the paper [Phys. Rev. A 83, 022314(2011)] and given their correct expressions.

Bitcoin is a digital currency and payment system based on classical cryptographic technologies which works without a central administrator such as in traditional currencies. It has long been questioned what the impact of quantum computing would be on Bitcoin, and cryptocurrencies in general. Here, we analyse three primary directions that quantum computers might have an impact in: mining, security, and forks. We find that in the near-term the impact of quantum computers appear to be rather small for all three directions. The impact of quantum computers would require considerably larger number of qubits and breakthroughs in quantum algorithms to reverse existing hash functions.

The first observation of the resolved Mims electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectra from the nearby and remote nuclei of 19F and 7Li nuclei on impurity Ce3+ ions in LiYF4 crystal is reported. It shows that LiYF4:Ce3+ system can be exploited as a convenient matrix for performing spin manipulations and adjusting quantum computation protocols while ENDOR technique could be used for the investigation of electron-nuclear interaction with all the nuclei of the system and exploited for the electron-nuclear spin manipulations.

We need to solve a suitable exponential form of the position-dependent mass (PDM) Schr\"odinger equation with a charged particle placed in the Hulthen plus Coulomb-like potential field and under the influence of the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The bound state energies and their corresponding wave functions are calculated for spatially-dependent mass distribution function of a physical interest. A few plots of some numerical results to the energy are shown.

In this paper, based on a canonical quantization scheme, we study the effect of the relativistic motion of an excited atom on its decay rate in the presence of absorbing and dispersive media. For this purpose, we introduce an appropriate Lagrangian and describe the center-of-mass dynamical variables by the Dirac field. We obtain the Hamiltonian of the system in a multipolar form and calculate the motion equations of the system in the Schr\"odinger picture. We find that the decay rate and the quantum electrodynamics level shift of the moving atom can be expressed in terms of the imaginary part of the classical Green tensor and the center-of-mass velocity of the atom.

We present some theoretical results on the lattice vibrations that are necessary for a concise derivation of the Debye-Waller factor in the harmonic approximation. First we obtain an expression for displacement of an atom in a crystal lattice from its equilibrium position. Then we show that an atomic displacement has the Gaussian distribution. Finally, we obtain the computational formula for the Debye-Waller factor in the Debye model.

This paper considers states on the Weyl algebra of the canonical commutation relations over the phase space R^{2n}. We show that a state is regular iff its classical limit is a countably additive Borel probability measure on R^{2n}. It follows that one can "reduce" the state space of the Weyl algebra by altering the collection of quantum mechanical observables so that all states are ones whose classical limit is physical.

In this paper we present a closed-form expression of the vibrational partition function for the one-dimensional q-deformed Morse potential energy model. Through this function the related thermodynamic functions are derived and studied in terms of the parameters of the model. Specially, we plotted the q-deformed vibrational partition function, and vibrational specific heat for some diatomic molecule systems such as H2, HCl, LiH and CO. The idea of a critical temperature T_{C} is introduced in relation to the specific heat.

Over the last decade, significant progresses have been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at the room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the magnons is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely large distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. Furthermore, the spin-spin entanglement can be experimentally accessed with the current technology. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future experimental investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.

A maximally entangled state is a quantum state which has maximum von Neumann entropy for each bipartition. Through proposing a new method to classify quantum states by using concurrences of pure states of a region, one can apply Bell's inequality to study intensity of quantum entanglement of maximally entangled states. We use a class of seven-qubit quantum states to demonstrate the method, where we express all coefficients of the quantum states in terms of concurrences of pure states of a region. When a critical point of an upper bound of Bell's inequality occurs in our quantum states, one of the quantum state is a ground state of the toric code model on a disk manifold. Our result also implies that the maximally entangled states does not suggest local maximum quantum entanglement in our quantum states.

We study a dispersion-compensated high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot microcavity under high-intensity cw pumping. The Kerr non-linearity in the optical coatings causes a spontaneous four-wave mixing process, which leads to the emission of time-correlated photon pairs. The photon frequencies are shifted by $\pm 1$ free spectral range relative to the pump frequency. This setup allows for constructing a photon-pair source with precisely adjustable frequency difference between the emitted photons, which may have applications in quantum communication.

A new relativistic Schrodinger equation is derived and transformed further to the relativistic Bohmian mechanics via the Madelung transformation. Three dissipative models are proposed as extensions of the quantum relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The corresponding dispersion relations are obtained.

The observation of giant Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide $\left(\mathrm{Cu_{2}O}\right)$ up to a principal quantum number of $n=25$ by T.~Kazimierczuk \emph{et al.} [Nature \textbf{514}, 343, (2014)] inevitably raises the question whether these quasi-particles must be described within a multi-polariton framework since excitons and photons are always coupled in the solid. In this paper we present the theory of exciton-polaritons in $\mathrm{Cu_{2}O}$. To this end we extend the Hamiltonian which includes the complete valence band structure, the exchange interaction, and the central-cell corrections effects, and which has been recently deduced by F.~Schweiner \emph{et al.} [Phys.~Rev.~B \textbf{95}, 195201, (2017)], for finite values of the exciton momentum $\hbar K$. We derive formulas to calculate not only dipole but also quadrupole oscillator strengths when using the complete basis of F.~Schweiner \emph{et al.}. Very complex polariton spectra for the three orientations of $\boldsymbol{K}$ along the axes $[001]$, $[110]$, and $[111]$ of high symmetry are obtained and a strong mixing of exciton states is reported. The main focus is on the $1S$ ortho exciton-polariton, for which pronounced polariton effects have been measured in experiments. We set up a $5\times 5$ matrix model, which accounts for both the polariton effect and the $K$-dependent splitting, and which allows treating the anisotropic polariton dispersion for any direction of $\boldsymbol{K}$. We especially discuss the dispersions for $\boldsymbol{K}$ being oriented in the planes perpendicular to $[1\bar{1}0]$ and $[111]$, for which experimental transmission spectra have been measured. Furthermore, we compare our results with experimental values of the $K$-dependent splitting, the group velocity, and the oscillator strengths of this exciton-polariton.

The Transactional Interpretation offers a solution to the measurement problem by identifying specific physical conditions precipitating the non-unitary `measurement transition' of von Neumann. Specifically, the transition occurs as a result of absorber response (a process lacking in the standard approach to the theory). The purpose of this Letter is to make clear that, despite recent claims to the contrary, the concepts of `absorber' and `absorber response,' as well as the process of absorption, are physically and quantitatively well-defined in the transactional picture.

Composite system is studied in noncommutative phase space with preserved rotational symmetry. We find conditions on the parameters of noncommutativity on which commutation relations for coordinates and momenta of the center-of-mass of composite system reproduce noncommutative algebra for coordinates and momenta of individual particles. Also, on the conditions the coordinates and the momenta of the center-of-mass satisfy noncommutative algebra with effective parameters of noncommutativity which depend on the total mass of the system and do not depend on its composition. Besides, it is shown that on these conditions the coordinates in noncommutative space do not depend on mass and can be considered as kinematic variables, the momenta are proportional to mass as it has to be. A two-particle system with Coulomb interaction is studied and the corrections to the energy levels of the system are found in rotationally invariant noncommutative phase space. On the basis of this result the effect of noncommutativity on the spectrum of exotic atoms is analyzed.

Active interferometers use amplifying elements for beam splitting and recombination. We experimentally implement such a device by using spin exchange in a Bose-Einstein condensate. The two interferometry modes are initially empty spin states that get spontaneously populated in the process of parametric amplification. This nonlinear mechanism scatters atoms into both modes in a pairwise fashion and generates a nonclassical state. Finally, a matched second period of spin exchange is performed that nonlinearly amplifies the output signal and maps the phase onto readily detectable first moments. Depending on the accumulated phase this nonlinear readout can reverse the initial dynamics and deamplify the entangled state back to empty spin states. This sequence is described in the framework of SU(1,1) mode transformations and compared to the SU(2) angular momentum description of passive interferometers.

In this paper, inspired by the "Minimum Description Length Principle" in classical Statistics}, we introduce a new method for predicting the outcomes of a quantum measurement and for estimating the state of a quantum system with minimum quantum complexity, {while, at the same time, avoiding overfitting

The uncertainty relation for continuous variables due to Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski expresses the complementarity between two $n$-uples of canonically conjugate variables $(x_1,x_2,\cdots x_n)$ and $(p_1,p_2,\cdots p_n)$ in terms of Shannon differential entropy. Here, we consider the generalization to variables that are not canonically conjugate and derive an entropic uncertainty relation expressing the balance between any two $n$-variable Gaussian projective measurements. The bound on entropies is expressed in terms of the determinant of a matrix of commutators between the measured variables. This uncertainty relation also captures the complementarity between any two incompatible linear canonical transforms, the bound being written in terms of the corresponding symplectic matrices in phase space. Finally, we extend this uncertainty relation to R\'enyi entropies and also prove a covariance-based uncertainty relation which generalizes Robertson relation.

Quantum confinement leads to the formation of discrete electronic states in quantum dots. Here we probe electron-phonon interactions in a suspended InAs nanowire double quantum dot (DQD) that is electric-dipole coupled to a microwave cavity. We apply a finite bias across the wire to drive a steady state population in the DQD excited state, enabling a direct measurement of the electron-phonon coupling strength at the DQD transition energy. The amplitude and phase response of the cavity field exhibit features that are periodic in the DQD energy level detuning due to the phonon modes of the nanowire. The observed cavity phase shift is consistent with theory that predicts a renormalization of the cavity center frequency by coupling to phonons.