We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two interacting qubits in a common vacuum environment. The inevitable environment interaction leads to entanglement sudden death (ESD) in a two qubit entangled state system. The entanglement dynamics can be modified by the use of local unitary operations (quantum gates), applied on the system during its evolution. We show that these operations not only delays or avoids the ESD but also advances the entanglement revival with high concurrence value depending on the time of operation. We have analytically found out different time windows for switching with different quantum gates so that the ESD can be completely avoided in the subsequent evolution of the system. Our result offers practical applications in the field of quantum information processing where the entanglement is a necessary resource.

Exterior calculus with its three operations meet, join and hodge star complement, is used for the representation of fermion-hole systems and for fermionic analogues of logical gates. Two different schemes that implement fermionic quantum computation, are proposed. The first scheme compares fermionic gates with Boolean gates, and leads to novel electronic devices that simulate fermionic gates. The second scheme usesa well known map between fermionic and multi-qubit systems, to simulate fermionic gates within multi-qubit systems.

We study the distinguishability of a particular type of maximally entangled states -- the "ququad-ququad" states which are tensor products of Bell states in $\mathbb{C}^4\otimes\mathbb{C}^4$. We first prove that any three orthogonal ququad-ququad maximally entangled states can be distinguished with LOCC. Then we use a new approach of semidefinite program to construct all sets of four ququad-ququad orthogonal maximally entangled states that are PPT-indistinguishable and we find some interesting sets of six states having interesting property of distinguishability. Also, we show that our approach of the optimization problem can make some computational complex problem more tractable.

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is an attracting possible application of near-term quantum computers. Originally, the aim of the VQE is to find a ground state for a given specific Hamiltonian. It is achieved by minimizing the expectation value of the Hamiltonian with respect to an ansatz state by tuning parameters \(\bm{\theta}\) on a quantum circuit which constructs the ansatz. Here we consider an extended problem of the VQE, namely, our objective in this work is to "generalize" the optimized output of the VQE just like machine learning. We aim to find ground states for a given set of Hamiltonians \(\{H(\bm{x})\}\), where \(\bm{x}\) is a parameter which specifies the quantum system under consideration, such as geometries of atoms of a molecule. Our approach is to train the circuit on the small number of \(\bm{x}\)'s. Specifically, we employ the interpolation of the optimal circuit parameter determined at different \(\bm{x}\)'s, assuming that the circuit parameter \(\bm{\theta}\) has simple dependency on a hidden parameter \(\bm{x}\) as \(\bm{\theta}(\bm{x})\). We show by numerical simulations that, using an ansatz which we call the Hamiltonian-alternating ansatz, the optimal circuit parameters can be interpolated to give near-optimal ground states in between the trained \(\bm{x}\)'s. The proposed method can greatly reduce, on a rough estimation by a few orders of magnitude, the time required to obtain ground states for different Hamiltonians by the VQE. Once generalized, the ansatz circuit can predict the ground state without optimizing the circuit parameter \(\bm{\theta}\) in a certain range of \(\bm{x}\).

Recently, the studies on the light-matter interaction have been pushed into the ultrastrong coupling regime, which motivates the exploration of applications of the counter rotating wave (CRW) interaction. Even in the ultrastrong coupling regime, however, few photons can be generated from the vacuum by switching on the CRW interaction. Here we propose a scheme to enhance the photon generation from the vacuum by a bang-bang (switching on/off) control of the CRW interaction. By developing a pruning greedy algorithm to search the optimal control sequence, we find that the maximum photon number obtained for a given time period in our scheme can be dramatically increased up to several orders than that from switching on the CRW interaction.

Physics builds on two tenets: On the one hand, statements are expressed in formal languages. On the other, these statements are to be tested against experience. Observers are the nexus between experience and the account thereof. Whether this very account can be formalized - that is, exhaustively represented in a formal language - can be doubted, as we argue. Such an incommensurability of accounts of experience and formal languages has repercussions on how to approach the measurement problem and issues regarding self-reference in quantum mechanics: If there is no privileged language of experience, the possibility of closing the theory to the end of the observer is in doubt. It also means that physics cannot be reduced to mere data compression or statistical learning within some given language - instead, physics plays an active role in establishing language (and meaning).

Spectrally uncorrelated biphoton state generated from the spontaneous nonlinear optical process is an important resource for quantum information. Currently such spectrally uncorrelated biphoton state can only be prepared from limited kinds of nonlinear media, thus limiting their wavelengths. In order to explore wider wavelength range, here we theoretically study the generation of spectrally uncorrelated biphoton state from 14 isomorphs of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. We find that 11 crystals from the `KDP family' still maintain similar nonlinear optical properties of KDP, such as KDP, DKDP, ADP, DADP, ADA, DADA, RDA, DRDA, RDP, DRDP and KDA, which satisfy 3 kinds of the group-velocity matching conditions for spectrally uncorrelated biphoton state generation from near-infrared to telecom wavelengths. Based on the uncorrelated biphoton state, we investigate the generation of heralded pure-state single photon by detecting one member of the biphoton state to herald the output of the other. The purity of the heralded single photon is as high as 0.98 without using a narrow-band filter; the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference from independent sources can also achieve a visibility of 98\%. This study may provide more and better single-photon sources for quantum information processing at near-infrared and telecom wavelengths.

One of the practical challenges in practical quantum key distribution is dealing with the efficiency mismatch between different threshold detectors. There are known bounds for the secret key rate for the BB84 protocol with the detection efficiency mismatch provided that the eavesdropper sends exactly one photon to the receiver. Here we improve these bounds and give a tight bound for the secret key rate with a constant detection efficiency mismatch provided that the eavesdropper cannot send more than one photon to the receiver. In particular, the last condition means that the zero-photon case on the receiver's side, which is intricate in the case of detection-efficiency mismatch, is explicitly included in the analysis.

The question, whether an open system dynamics is Markovian or non-Markovian can be answered by studying the direction of the information flow in the dynamics. In Markovian dynamics, information must always flow from the system to the environment. If the environment is interacting with only one of the subsystems of a bipartite system, the dynamics of the entanglement in the bipartite system can be used to identify the direction of information flow. Here we study the dynamics of a two-level system interacting with an environment, which is also a heat bath, and consists of a large number of two-level quantum systems. Our model can be seen as a close approximation to the `spin bath' model at low temperatures. We analyze the Markovian nature of the dynamics, as we change the coupling between the system and the environment. We find the Kraus operators of the dynamics for certain classes of couplings. We show that any form of time-independent or time-polynomial coupling gives rise to non-Markovianity. Also, we witness non-Markovianity for certain parameter values of time-exponential coupling. Moreover, we study the transition from non-Markovian to Markovian dynamics as we change the value of coupling strength.

Closed Timelike Curves (CTCs) are intriguing relativistic objects that allow for time travel to the past and can be used as computational resources. In Deutschian Closed Timelike Curves (D-CTCs), due to the monogamy of entanglement, non-local correlations between entangled states are destroyed. In contrast, for Postselected Closed Timelike Curves (P-CTCs), a second variant of CTCs, the non-local correlations are preserved. P-CTCs can be harnessed for the signaling of non-orthogonal states to the past without a disruption of causality. In this paper, we take up signaling to the past and show a method of sending four non-orthogonal states to the past using P-CTCs. After constructing our signaling protocol, we study the causality violations that our protocol results in and put forward two consistency relations to prevent them.

Several semiconductor quantum dot techniques have been investigated for the generation of entangled photon pairs. Among the other techniques, droplet epitaxy enables the control of the shape, size, density, and emission wavelength of the quantum emitters. However, the fraction of the entanglement-ready quantum dots that can be fabricated with this method is still limited to around 5%, and matching the energy of the entangled photons to atomic transitions (a promising route towards quantum networking) remains an outstanding challenge.

Here, we overcome these obstacles by introducing a modified approach to droplet epitaxy on a high symmetry (111)A substrate, where the fundamental crystallization step is performed at a significantly higher temperature as compared to previous reports. Our method drastically improves the yield of entanglement-ready photon sources near the emission wavelength of interest, which can be as high as 95% due to the low values of fine structure splitting and radiative lifetime, together with the reduced exciton dephasing offered by the choice of GaAs/AlGaAs materials. The quantum dots are designed to emit in the operating spectral region of Rb-based slow-light media, providing a viable technology for quantum repeater stations.

The significance of the Bohm/de Broglie hidden-particle position in the relativistic regime is addressed, seeking connection to the (orthodox) single-particle Newton-Wigner position. The effect of non-positive excursions of the ensemble density for extreme cases of positive-energy waves is easily computed using an integral of the equations of motion developed here for free spin-0 particles in 1+1 dimensions and is interpreted in terms of virtual-like pair creation and annihilation beneath the Compton wavelength. A Bohm-theoretic description of the acausal explosion of a specific Newton-Wigner-localized state is presented in detail. The presence of virtual pairs found is interpreted as the Bohm picture of the spatial extension beyond single point particles proposed in the 1960s as to why space-like hyperplane dependence of the Newton-Wigner wavefunctions may be needed to achieve Lorentz covariance. For spin-1/2 particles the convective current is speculatively utilized for achieving parity with the spin-0 theory. The spin-0 improper quantum potential is generalized to an improper stress tensor for spin-1/2 particles.

The optical selection rules in epitaxial quantum dots are strongly influenced by the orientation of their natural quantization axis, which is usually parallel to the growth direction. This configuration is well suited for vertically emitting devices, but not for planar photonic circuits because of the poorly controlled orientation of the transition dipoles in the growth plane. Here we show that the quantization axis of gallium arsenide dots can be flipped into the growth plane via moderate in plane uniaxial stress. By using piezoelectric strain actuators featuring strain-amplification we study the evolution of the selection rules and excitonic fine-structure in a regime, in which quantum confinement can be regarded as a perturbation compared to strain in determining the symmetry properties of the system. The experimental and computational results suggest that uniaxial stress, may be the right tool to obtain quantum light sources with ideally oriented transition dipoles and enhanced oscillator strengths for integrated quantum photonics.

We show an algorithm for computing the permanent of a random matrix with vanishing mean in quasi-polynomial time. Among special cases are the Gaussian, and biased-Bernoulli random matrices with mean 1/lnln(n)^{1/8}. In addition, we can compute the permanent of a random matrix with mean 1/poly(ln(n)) in time 2^{O(n^{\eps})} for any small constant \eps>0. Our algorithm counters the intuition that the permanent is hard because of the "sign problem" - namely the interference between entries of a matrix with different signs. A major open question then remains whether one can provide an efficient algorithm for random matrices of mean 1/poly(n), whose conjectured #P-hardness is one of the baseline assumptions of the BosonSampling paradigm.

We introduce an extended version of the Swanson model, defined on a two-dimensional non commutative space, which can be diagonalized exactly by making use of pseudo-bosonic operators. Its eigenvalues are explicitly computed and the biorthogonal sets of eigenstates of the Hamiltonian and of its adjoint are explicitly constructed. We also show that it is possible to construct two displacement-like operators from which a family of bi-coherent states can be obtained. These states are shown to be eigenstates of the deformed lowering operators, and their projector allows to produce a suitable resolution of the identity in a dense subspace of $\Lc^2(\Bbb R^2)$.

It is shown that a Dirac(-type) equation for a rank-two bi-spinor field on Minkowski (configuration) spacetime furnishes a Lorentz-covariant quantum-mechanical wave equation in position-space representation for a single free photon. This equation does not encounter any of the roadblocks that have obstructed previous attempts (by various authors) to formulate a {quantum-mechanical} photon wave equation. In particular, it implies that the photon wave function yields conserved non-negative Born-rule-type quantum probabilities, and that its probability current density four-vector transforms properly under Lorentz transformations. Moreover, the eigenvalues of the pertinent photon Dirac Hamiltonian and the vector eigenvalues of the photon momentum operator yield the familiar Einstein relations $E=\hbar\omega$ and ${\bf p}=\hbar{\bf k}$, respectively. Furthermore, these spin-1 wave modes are automatically transversal without the need of an additional constraint on the initial data. Some comments on other proposals to set up a photon wave equation are supplied as well.

Entangled photon generation from semiconductor quantum dots via the biexciton-exciton cascade underlies various decoherence mechanisms related to the solid-state nature of the quantum emitters. So far, this has prevented the demonstration of nearly-maximally entangled photons without the aid of inefficient and complex post-selection techniques that are hardly suitable for quantum communication technologies. Here, we tackle this challenge using strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots driven under two-photon resonant excitation and with strictly-degenerate exciton states. We demonstrate experimentally that our on-demand source generates polarization-entangled photons with fidelity of 0.978(5) and concurrence of 0.97(1) without resorting to post-selection techniques. Moreover, we show that the remaining decoherence mechanisms can be overcome using a modest Purcell enhancement so as to achieve a degree of entanglement >0.99. Our results highlight that GaAs quantum dots can be readily used in advanced communication protocols relying on the non-local properties of quantum entanglement.

More than 80 years passed since the first publication on entangled quantum states. In this period of time the concept of spookily interacting quantum states became an emerging field of science. After various experiments proving the existence of such non-classical states, visionary ideas were put forward to exploit entanglement in quantum information science and technology. These novel concepts have not yet come out of the experimental stage, mostly because of the lack of suitable, deterministic sources of entangled quantum states. Among many systems under investigation, semiconductor quantum dots are particularly appealing emitters of on-demand, single polarization-entangled photon-pairs. Although, it was originally believed that quantum dots must exhibit a limited degree of entanglement related to numerous decoherence effects present in the solid-state. Recent studies invalidated the premise of unavoidable entanglement degrading effects. We review the relevant experiments which have led to these important discoveries and discuss the remaining challenges for the anticipated quantum technologies.

We study the sampling complexity of a probability distribution associated with an ensemble of identical noninteracting bosons undergoing a quantum random walk on a one-dimensional lattice. With uniform nearest-neighbor hopping we show that one can efficiently sample the distribution for times logarithmic in the size of the system, while for longer times there is no known efficient sampling algorithm. With time-dependent hopping and optimal control, we design the time evolution to approximate an arbitrary Haar-random unitary map analogous to that designed for photons in a linear optical network. This approach highlights a route to generating quantum complexity by optimal control only of a single-body unitary matrix. We study this in the context of two potential experimental realizations: a spinor optical lattice of ultracold atoms and an quantum gas microscope.

We study scrambling in connection to multipartite entanglement dynamics in regular and chaotic long-range spin chains, characterized by a well defined semi-classical limit. For regular dynamics, scrambling and entanglement dynamics are found to be very different: up to the Ehrenfest time they rise side by side departing only afterwards. Entanglement saturates and becomes extensively multipartite, while scrambling continues its growth up to the recurrence time. Remarkably, the exponential behaviour of scrambling emerges not only in the chaotic case, but also in the regular one, when the dynamics occurs at a dynamical critical point.