Quantum Information Processing and Communication (QIPC) is a vigorously active cross-disciplinary field drawing upon theoretical and experimental physics, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and material science. Its scope ranges from fundamental issues in quantum physics to prospective commercial exploitation by the computing and communications industries. QIPC has bur- geoned in Europe over the last decade, producing high- level scientific results, and eventually reaching critical mass in many of its subfields, where European research is currently at the leading edge. The potential of QIPC was quickly recognized by FET, the Future and Emerging Technologies Unit of the Directorate General Information Society of the European Commission, whose pathfinder activity played a crucial role for the development of the field in Europe. At the 5th European QIPC Workshop (September 2004 in Rome) a special session was organized by FET, titled “Perspectives for QIPC in the Seventh Framework Program”. The main point was that input towards the European Commission would be needed on the part of the scientific community for the preparation of the Seventh Framework Program. There was a general discussion on the actions to be taken with the aim to promote QIPC research in Europe, strengthen its image in a coherent way, unify the research community by elaborating a common European strategy and goals, and, especially, provide the required input to the European Commission, reaching in an appropriate way decision makers. It was then decided 1) to write a strategic report including an assessment of current results and an outlook on future efforts, and 2) to expand the strategic report with a detailed technical assessment, to draw up a summary of long and medium term goals, and to express visions and challenges for QIPC in Europe. P. Zoller was nominated as the editing author and the coordinator of a committee in charge of this. Work on the document started immediately afterwards, involving the contributors to the present paper. On the 10th of May 2005, the QIPC strategic document reached a stable version (v-1.0) that was published in electronic form at the IST-FET website (http://www.cordis.lu/ist/fet/qipc-sr.htm). Since then the document has been updated regularly by the various Coordination Actions in QIPC: ERA-Pilot QIST, QUIE2T, QUROPE and now in preparation of the QT flagship consultation workshop.