Reviews of Modern Physics

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Recent articles in Reviews of Modern Physics
Updated: 6 hours 14 min ago

Fluorescence microscopy: A statistics-optics perspective

Wed, 2024-06-05 12:00

Author(s): Mohamadreza Fazel, Kristin S. Grussmayer, Boris Ferdman, Aleksandra Radenovic, Yoav Shechtman, Jörg Enderlein, and Steve Pressé

For centuries, human fascination with the living world motivated the development of tools for visualizing life’s events at the spatiotemporal scales beyond our visual range. While all optical microscopes use light to probe the object of interest, fluorescence microscopes can discern between the object and background at the molecular scale. At this scale, the stochastic properties of light are fundamental to interpreting fluorescence microscopy data. Accordingly quantitative methods that enable such interpretation necessitate stochastic perspective and the use of statistical concepts. The physical-optical principles governing the formation of fluorescent images and modeling tools interpreting these images while accounting for the stochasticity of light and measurements are reviewed.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 025003] Published Wed Jun 05, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

<i>Colloquium</i>: Spin-orbit effects in superconducting hybrid structures

Tue, 2024-05-28 12:00

Author(s): Morten Amundsen, Jacob Linder, Jason W. A. Robinson, Igor Žutić, and Niladri Banerjee

In many solids, the spin-orbit interaction is only a small effect. However, in certain materials it leads to new phenomena. This Colloquium reviews the role of spin-orbit interaction in superconducting hybrid structures, where it can lead to exotic states such as spin-triplet pairing, topological superconductivity, and the superconducting diode effect. These are fundamental interest and importance for applications, including spintronics and quantum computing.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 021003] Published Tue May 28, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

When superconductivity crosses over: From BCS to BEC

Thu, 2024-05-23 12:00

Author(s): Qijin Chen, Zhiqiang Wang, Rufus Boyack, Shuolong Yang, and K. Levin

The theory of unconventional superconductors continues to provide profound puzzles. The crossover between the weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state and the strong-pairing Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) provides a useful perspective on how to address these questions. This paper describes a self-consistent framework for thinking about the crossover regime in between these two limits. The review discusses to what extent this BCS-BEC theory applies to a range of classes of superconducting materials including the cuprates, iron pnictides, twisted bilayer graphene, and interfacial superconductivity among others.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 025002] Published Thu May 23, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

Editorial: Coauthor! Coauthor!

Tue, 2024-05-21 12:00

Author(s): Randall D. Kamien and Daniel Ucko

[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 020001] Published Tue May 21, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

Single-molecule scale magnetic resonance spectroscopy using quantum diamond sensors

Wed, 2024-05-08 12:00

Author(s): Jiangfeng Du, Fazhan Shi, Xi Kong, Fedor Jelezko, and Jörg Wrachtrup

Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond are sensitive to magnetic fields, and a single center permits detection of electron and nuclear spins and imaging of single molecules in its vicinity. This article reviews the achievements of advanced methods to obtain spectral and spatial resolution and it points to technical problems that remain to be solved for widespread and multidisciplinary adoption of single-molecule magnetic resonance spectroscopy.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 025001] Published Wed May 08, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

<i>Colloquium</i>: Topologically protected transport in engineered mechanical systems

Thu, 2024-04-18 12:00

Author(s): Tirth Shah, Christian Brendel, Vittorio Peano, and Florian Marquardt

Artificially engineered mechanical systems, sometimes called metamaterials, offer many promising applications on length scales ranging from macroscopic systems to the nanoscale. A topic of particular interest is the existence of topologically protected phononic edge states in such systems that are analogous to the electronic edge states that give rise to the quantum Hall effect. This Colloquium gives an introduction to topologically protected transport in metamaterials and its applications for controlling acoustic transport.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 021002] Published Thu Apr 18, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

<i>Colloquium</i>: Magnetotactic bacteria: From flagellar motor to collective effects

Thu, 2024-04-04 12:00

Author(s): M. Marmol, E. Gachon, and D. Faivre

Magnetotactic bacteria have a built-in compass, in the form of a magnetosome chain made up of magnetic biominerals, that allows them to passively align along terrestrial magnetic field lines. They also sense oxygen gradients and swim using at least one flagellum. Hence, these bacteria are self-propelled active matter capable of displaying flocking behavior. This Colloquium explains the physics behind these various capabilities, as well as their interactions and biological significance.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 021001] Published Thu Apr 04, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

The standard model effective field theory at work

Tue, 2024-03-19 12:00

Author(s): Gino Isidori, Felix Wilsch, and Daniel Wyler

The standard model is successful at describing most of the data at the electroweak scale, but there are indications that new physics should exist at a higher energy scale. To identify, quantify, and elucidate the new physics, one can use the framework of the standard model effective field theory. This article reviews the construction and theoretical tools provided by the effective field theory for analyzing the present and future experimental data, as well as theoretical ideas for new physics.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 015006] Published Tue Mar 19, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

Electrical control of magnetism by electric field and current-induced torques

Wed, 2024-03-13 12:00

Author(s): Albert Fert, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Vincent Garcia, Fèlix Casanova, and Manuel Bibes

Electronic devices that incorporate magnetism, called spintronic devices, can increase the functionality of electronic circuits and lead to increases in efficiency. Such devices are useful if the magnetization can be manipulated electrically rather than by magnetic fields. This review covers the materials, underlying physics, and applications involved in such manipulation, focusing on two control mechanisms. The first is control by manipulating the magnetization through its coupling to ferroelectric order and the second is control by spin-polarized currents manipulating the magnetization through the angular momentum flowing into it.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 015005] Published Wed Mar 13, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

Spontaneous scalarization

Thu, 2024-03-07 12:00

Author(s): Daniela D. Doneva, Fethi M. Ramazanoğlu, Hector O. Silva, Thomas P. Sotiriou, and Stoytcho S. Yazadjiev

Recent observations of compact astrophysical objects have opened the possibility to probe the nature of gravity in its strong-field regime. Such observations could reveal deviations from general relativity or the standard model. Spontaneous scalarization, which is controlled by scalar-field couplings to gravity, leads to a behavior that resembles a phase transition: the scalar induces measurable effects in the strong-field regime while remaining undetectable in weak-field gravitational experiments. This review presents the spontaneous scalarization mechanism, several scalarization models considered in the literature, and their astrophysical implications for neutron stars and black holes. It also discusses the generalization of such models to other types of fields and instabilities.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 015004] Published Thu Mar 07, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics

Time-resolved ARPES studies of quantum materials

Tue, 2024-02-27 12:00

Author(s): Fabio Boschini, Marta Zonno, and Andrea Damascelli

Time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy provides access to light-induced changes in the electronic band structure and interactions of solids, and to the out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics. This article reviews the history and future prospects for the development of the technique, and offers an overview of recent achievements in studying unoccupied and light-driven states, photoinduced phase transitions, electron-phonon scattering, and electron dynamics in quantum materials, including topological insulators, unconventional superconductors, traditional and novel semiconductors, excitonic insulators, and spin-textured systems.


[Rev. Mod. Phys. 96, 015003] Published Tue Feb 27, 2024

Categories: Journals, Physics