We develop the first quantum algorithm for the constrained portfolio optimization problem. The algorithm has running time $\widetilde{O} \left( n\sqrt{r} \frac{\zeta \kappa}{\delta^2} \log \left(1/\epsilon\right) \right)$, where $r$ is the number of positivity and budget constraints, $n$ is the number of assets in the portfolio, $\epsilon$ the desired precision, and $\delta, \kappa, \zeta$ are problem-dependent parameters related to the well-conditioning of the intermediate solutions. If only a moderately accurate solution is required, our quantum algorithm can achieve a polynomial speedup over the best classical algorithms with complexity $\widetilde{O} \left( \sqrt{r}n^\omega\log(1/\epsilon) \right)$, where $\omega$ is the matrix multiplication exponent that has a theoretical value of around $2.373$, but is closer to $3$ in practice. We also provide some experiments to bound the problem-dependent factors arising in the running time of the quantum algorithm, and these experiments suggest that for most instances the quantum algorithm can potentially achieve an $O(n)$ speedup over its classical counterpart.

The S-matrix invariant is known to be complete for translation invariant topological stabilizer models in two spatial dimensions, as such models are phase equivalent to some number of copies of toric code. In three dimensions, much less is understood about translation invariant topological stabilizer models due to the existence of fracton topological order. Here we introduce bulk commutation quantities inspired by the 2D S-matrix invariant that can be employed to coarsely sort 3D topological stabilizer models into qualitatively distinct types of phases: topological quantum field theories, foliated or fractal type-I models with rigid string operators, or type-II models with no string operators.

We investigate the critical behavior of the entanglement transition induced by projective measurements in (Haar) random unitary quantum circuits. Using a replica approach, we map the calculation of the entanglement entropies in such circuits onto a two-dimensional statistical mechanics model. In this language, the area- to volume-law entanglement transition can be interpreted as an ordering transition in the statistical mechanics model. We derive the general scaling properties of the entanglement entropies and mutual information near the transition using conformal invariance. We analyze in detail the limit of infinite on-site Hilbert space dimension in which the statistical mechanics model maps onto percolation. In particular, we compute the exact value of the universal coefficient of the logarithm of subsystem size in the $n$th R\'enyi entropies for $n \geq 1$ in this limit using relatively recent results for conformal field theory describing the critical theory of 2D percolation, and we discuss how to access the generic transition at finite on-site Hilbert space dimension from this limit, which is in a universality class different from 2D percolation. We also comment on the relation to the entanglement transition in Random Tensor Networks, studied previously in Ref. 1.

We develop a general method for incentive-based programming of hybrid quantum-classical computing systems using reinforcement learning, and apply this to solve combinatorial optimization problems on both simulated and real gate-based quantum computers. Relative to a set of randomly generated problem instances, agents trained through reinforcement learning techniques are capable of producing short quantum programs which generate high quality solutions on both types of quantum resources. We observe generalization to problems outside of the training set, as well as generalization from the simulated quantum resource to the physical quantum resource.

A universal quantum computer will inevitably rely on error correction to be fault tolerant. Most error correcting schemes are based on stabilizer circuits which fail to provide universal quantum computation. An extra quantum resource, in the form of magic states, is needed in conjunction with stabilizer circuits to perform universal quantum computation. However, creating, distilling, and preserving high quality magic states are not easy. Here, we show that quantum many-body systems are promising candidates to mine high quality magic states by considering transverse field anisotropic XY spin chains. In particular, we provide an analytic formula for the magic content of the qubits in the symmetry broken ground state of the XY spin chain, and show that there are two distinct scaling behaviors for magic near criticality. Moreover, we find an exact point in the phase diagram of the XY model at which every qubit of the system are pure H-states. This point represents a factorizable broken-symmetry ground state of the model. This is an excellent demonstration that many-body systems, even in the absence of ground state entanglement, are resourceful for fault tolerant universal quantum computation.

A spin strongly driven by two incommensurate tones can pump energy from one drive to the other at a quantized average rate, in close analogy with the quantum Hall effect. The quantized pumping is a pre-thermal effect with a lifetime that diverges as the drive frequencies approach zero. We study the transition between the pumping and non-pumping pre-thermal states. The transition is sharp at zero frequency and is characterized by a Dirac point in the instantaneous band structure parametrized by the drive phases. We show that the pumping rate is half-integer quantized at the transition and present universal Kibble-Zurek scaling functions for energy transfer processes in the low frequency regime. Our results identify qubit experiments to measure the universal linear and non-linear response of a Dirac point.

Quantum nano-devices are fundamental systems in quantum thermodynamics that have been the subject of profound interest in recent years. Among these, quantum batteries play a very important role. In this paper we lay down a theory of random quantum batteries and provide a systematic way of computing the average work and work fluctuations in such devices by investigating their typical behavior. We show that the performance of random quantum batteries exhibits typicality and depends only on the spectral properties of the time evolving operator, the initial state and the measuring Hamiltonian. At given revival times a random quantum battery features a quantum advantage over classical random batteries. Our method is particularly apt to be used both for exactly solvable models like the Jaynes-Cummings model or in perturbation theory, e.g., systems subject to harmonic perturbations. We also study the setting of quantum adiabatic random batteries.

Variational quantum algorithms are promising applications of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers. These algorithms consist of a number of separate prepare-and-measure experiments that estimate terms in the Hamiltonian. The number of separate measurements required can become overwhelmingly large for problems at the scale of NISQ hardware that may soon be available. We approach this problem from the perspective of contextuality, and use unitary partitioning (developed independently by Izmaylov \emph{et al.}) to define VQE procedures in which additional unitary operations are appended to the ansatz preparation to reduce the number of measurements. This approach may be scaled to use all coherent resources available after ansatz preparation. We also study the use of asymmetric qubitization to implement the additional coherent operations with lower circuit depth. We investigate this technique for lattice Hamiltonians, random Pauli Hamiltonians, and electronic structure Hamiltonians. We find a constant factor speedup for lattice and random Pauli Hamiltonians. For electronic structure Hamiltonians, we prove that the linear term reduction with respect to the number of orbitals, which has been previously observed in numerical studies, is always achievable. We show that unitary partitioning applied to the plane-wave dual basis representation of fermionic Hamiltonians offers only a constant factor reduction in the number of terms. Finally, we show that noncontextual Hamiltonians are equivalent to commuting Hamiltonians by giving a reduction via unitary partitioning.

We introduce an exact classical algorithm for simulating Gaussian Boson Sampling (GBS). The complexity of the algorithm is exponential in the number of photons detected, which is itself a random variable. For a fixed number of modes, the complexity is in fact equivalent to that of calculating output probabilities, up to constant prefactors. The simulation algorithm can be extended to other models such as GBS with threshold detectors, GBS with displacements, and sampling linear combinations of Gaussian states. In the specific case of encoding non-negative matrices into a GBS device, our method leads to an approximate sampling algorithm with polynomial runtime. We implement the algorithm, making the code publicly available as part of Xanadu's The Walrus library, and benchmark its performance on GBS with random Haar interferometers and with encoded Erd\H{o}s-Renyi graphs.

Demonstrating a quantum computational speedup is a crucial milestone for near-term quantum technology. Recently, quantum simulation architectures have been proposed that have the potential to show such a quantum advantage, based on commonly made assumptions. The key challenge in the theoretical analysis of this scheme - as of other comparable schemes such as boson sampling - is to lessen the assumptions and close the theoretical loopholes, replacing them by rigorous arguments. In this work, we prove two open conjectures for these architectures for Hamiltonian quantum simulators: anticoncentration of the generated probability distributions and average-case hardness of exactly evaluating those probabilities. The latter is proven building upon recently developed techniques for random circuit sampling. For the former, we develop new techniques that exploit the insight that approximate 2-designs for the unitary group admit anticoncentration. We prove that the 2D translation-invariant, constant depth architectures of quantum simulation form approximate 2-designs in a specific sense, thus obtaining a significantly stronger result. Our work provides the strongest evidence to date that Hamiltonian quantum simulation architectures are classically intractable.

The study of memory effects in quantum channels helps in developing characterization methods for open quantum systems and strategies for quantum error correction. Two main sets of channels exist, corresponding to system dynamics with no memory (Markovian) and with memory (non-Markovian). Interestingly, these sets have a non-convex geometry, allowing one to form a channel with memory from the addition of memoryless channels and vice-versa. Here, we experimentally investigate this non-convexity in a photonic setup by subjecting a single qubit to a convex combination of Markovian and non-Markovian channels. We use both divisibility and distinguishability as criteria for the classification of memory effects, with associated measures. Our results highlight some practical considerations that may need to be taken into account when using memory criteria to study system dynamics given by the addition of Markovian and non-Markovian channels in experiments.

Normal mode dynamics are ubiquitous underlying the motions of diverse systems from rotating stars to crystal structures. These behaviors are composed of simple collective motions of particles which move with the same frequency and phase, thus encapsulating many-body effects into simple dynamic motions. In regimes such as the unitary regime for ultracold Fermi gases, a single collective mode can dominate, leading to simple behavior as seen in superfluidity. I investigate the evolution of collective motion as a function of N for five types of normal modes obtained from an L=0 group theoretic solution of a general Hamiltonian for confined, identical particles. I show using simple analytic forms that the collective behavior of few-body systems, with the well known motions of molecular equivalents such as ammonia and methane, evolves smoothly to the collective motions expected for large N ensembles. The transition occurs at quite low values of N. I study a Hamiltonian known to support collective behavior, the Hamiltonian for Fermi gases in the unitary regime. I analyze the evolution of both frequencies and the coefficients that mix the radial and angular coordinates which both depend on interparticle interactions. This analysis reveals two phenomena that could contribute to the viability of collective behavior. First the mixing coefficients go to zero or unity, i.e. no mixing, as N becomes large resulting in solutions that do not depend on the details of the interparticle potential as expected for this unitary regime, and that manifest the symmetry of an underlying approximate Hamiltonian. Second, the five normal mode frequencies which are all close for low values of N, separate as N increases, creating large gaps that can, in principle, offer stability to collective behavior if mechanisms to prevent the transfer of energy to other modes exist (such as low temperature) or can be constructed.

Recently, it has been demonstrated that asymptotic states of open quantum system can undergo qualitative changes resembling pitchfork, saddle-node, and period doubling classical bifurcations. Here, making use of the periodically modulated open quantum dimer model, we report and investigate a quantum Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Its classical counterpart is the birth of a torus (an invariant curve in the Poincar\'{e} section) due to instability of a limit cycle (fixed point of the Poincar\'{e} map). The quantum system exhibits a transition from unimodal to bagel shaped stroboscopic distributions, as for Husimi representation, as for observables. The spectral properties of Floquet map experience changes reminiscent of the classical case, a pair of complex conjugated eigenvalues approaching a unit circle. Quantum Monte-Carlo wave function unraveling of the Lindblad master equation yields dynamics of single trajectories on "quantum torus" and allows for quantifying it by rotation number. The bifurcation is sensitive to the number of quantum particles that can also be regarded as a control parameter.

S-money [Proc. R. Soc. A 475, 20190170 (2019)] schemes define virtual tokens designed for networks with relativistic or other trusted signalling constraints. The tokens allow near-instant verification and guarantee unforgeability without requiring quantum state storage. We present refined two stage S-money schemes. The first stage, which may involve quantum information exchange, generates private user token data. In the second stage, which need only involve classical communications, users determine the valid presentation point, without revealing it to the issuer. This refinement allows the user to determine the presentation point anywhere in the causal past of all valid presentation points. It also allows flexible transfer of tokens among users without compromising user privacy.

We study bosons in a one-dimensional hard wall box potential. In the case of contact interaction, the system is exactly solvable by Bethe ansatz, as first shown by Gaudin in 1971. Although contained in the exact solution, the boundary energy for this problem is only approximately calculated by Gaudin at the leading order at weak repulsion. Here we derive an exact integral equation that enables one to calculate the boundary energy in the thermodynamic limit at an arbitrary interaction. We then solve such equation and find the asymptotic results for the boundary energy at weak and strong interaction. The analytical results obtained from Bethe ansatz are in agreement with the ones found by other complementary methods, including quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We study the universality of the boundary energy in the regime of small gas parameter by making a comparison with the exact solution for the hard rod gas.

The technological refinement of experimental techniques has recently allowed the generation of two-photon polarization entangled states at low Earth orbit, which have been subsequently applied to quantum communications. This achievement paves the way to study the interplay between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics in new setups. Here, we study the generation of two-photon entangled states via large scale Franson and Hugged interferometric arrays in the presence of a weak gravitational field. We show that for certain configurations of the arrays, an entangled state emerges as a consequence of the gravitational time delay. We also show that the aforementioned arrays generate entanglement and violate the Clauser-Horne-Shymony-Holt inequality under suitable conditions even in the presence of frequency dispersion.

We investigate the time evolution of the photon-detection probability at various output ports of an all-fiber coupled cavity-quantum-electrodynamics (cavity-QED) system. The setup consists of two atoms trapped separately in the field of two nanofiber cavities that are connected by a standard optical fiber. We find that the normal-mode picture captures well the main features of the dynamics. However, a more accurate description based on the diagonalization of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian reveals the origin of small yet significant features in the spontaneous emission spectra.

The momentum spectrum and the number density of created electron-positron pairs in a frequency modulated laser field are investigated using quantum kinetic equation. It is found that the momentum spectrum presents obvious interference pattern. This is an imprint of the frequency modulated field on the momentum spectrum, because the momentum peaks correspond to the pair production process by absorbing different frequency component photons. Moreover, the interference effect can also be understood qualitatively by analyzing turning point structures. The study of the pair number density shows that the number density is very sensitive to modulation parameters and can be enhanced by over two orders of magnitude for certain modulation parameters, which may provide a new way to increase the number of created electron-positron pairs in future experiments.

To quantify entanglement, many entanglement measures have been proposed so far. However, much less is known in the multipartite case, and even the existing multipartite measures are still studied by virtue of the postulates of bipartite case. Namely, there is no genuine multipartite measure of entanglement indeed by now. We establish here a strict frame for multipartite entanglement measure: apart from the axioms of bipartite measure, a genuine multipartite measure should additionally satisfy the \textit{unification condition} and the \textit{hierarchy condition}. We then come up with a monogamy formula under the genuine multipartite entanglement measure. Our approach is a great improvement and complementary to the entanglement measures in literatures up to now. Consequently, we propose multipartite entanglement measures which are extensions of entanglement of formation, concurrence, tangle and negativity, respectively. We show that these extended measures are monogamous as multipartite measures. Especially, as a by-product, a long standing conjecture is confirmed---the entanglement of formation is shown to be additive. Alternative candidates of multipartite entanglement measures in terms of fidelity and its variants are also explored. We show that these fidelity-induced entanglement measures are monogamous as bipartite measures and can be extended as genuine tripartite entanglement monotones.

We propose a method for enacting the unitary time propagation of two interacting neutrons at leading order of chiral effective field theory by efficiently encoding the nuclear dynamics into a single multi-level quantum device. The emulated output of the quantum simulation shows that, by applying a single gate that draws on the underlying characteristics of the device, it is possible to observe multiple cycles of the nucleons' dynamics before the onset of decoherence. Owing to the signal's longevity, we can then extract spectroscopic properties of the simulated nuclear system. This allows us to validate the encoding of the nuclear Hamiltonian and the robustness of the simulation in the presence of quantum-hardware noise by comparing the extracted spectroscopic information to exact calculations. This work paves the way for transformative calculations of dynamical properties of nuclei on near-term quantum devices.