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Swift heat transfer by fast-forward driving in open quantum systems. (arXiv:1902.05964v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Typically, time-dependent thermodynamic protocols need to run asymptotically slowly in order to avoid dissipative losses. By adapting ideas from counter-diabatic driving and Floquet engineering to open systems, we develop fast-forward protocols for swiftly thermalizing a system oscillator locally coupled to an optical phonon bath. These protocols control the system frequency and the system-bath coupling to induce a resonant state exchange between the system and the bath. We apply the fast-forward protocols to realize a fast approximate Otto engine operating at high power near the Carnot Efficiency. Our results suggest design principles for swift cooling protocols in coupled many-body systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Deterministic integration of single nitrogen-vacancy centers into nanopatch antennas. (arXiv:1902.05996v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic nanoantennas produce single photons at unprecedentedly high rates in ambient conditions. This enhancement of quantum emitters' radiation rate is based on the existence of optical modes with highly sub-diffraction volumes supported by plasmonic gap nanoantennas. Nanoantennas with gap sizes on the order of few nanometers have been typically produced using various self-assembly or random assembly techniques. Yet, the difficulty of controllably fabricate nanoantennas with the smallest mode sizes coupled to pre-characterized single emitters until now has remained a serious issue plaguing the development of quantum plasmonic devices. We demonstrate the transfer of nanodiamonds with single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to an epitaxial silver substrate and their subsequent deterministic coupling to plasmonic gap nanoantennas. Through fine control of the assembled nanoantenna geometry, a dramatic shortening of the NV fluorescence lifetime was achieved. We furthermore show that by preselecting NV centers exhibiting a photostable spin contrast, a coherent spin dynamics can be measured in the coupled configuration. The demonstrated approach opens unique applications of plasmon-enhanced quantum emitters for integrated quantum information and sensing devices.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Ultraviolet Fabry-Perot cavity with stable finesse under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. (arXiv:1902.06014v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

We have constructed an apparatus containing a linear ion trap and a high-finesse optical cavity in the ultraviolet spectral range. In our construction, we have avoided all organic materials inside the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. We show that, unlike previously reported, the optical cavity does not degrade in performance over a time scale of 9 months.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Questions on the Structure of Perfect Matchings inspired by Quantum Physics. (arXiv:1902.06023v1 [math.CO])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

We state a number of related questions on the structure of perfect matchings. Those questions are inspired by and directly connected to Quantum Physics. In particular, they concern the constructability of general quantum states using modern photonic technology. For that we introduce a new concept, denoted as inherited vertex coloring. It is a vertex coloring for every perfect matching. The colors are inherited from the color of the incident edge for each perfect matching. First, we formulate the concepts and questions in pure graph-theoretical language, and finally we explain the physical context of every mathematical object that we use. Importantly, every progress towards answering these questions can directly be translated into new understanding in quantum physics.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms. (arXiv:1902.06031v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

We show, in a formal way, how a class of complex quasiprobability distribution functions may be introduced by using the fractional Fourier transform. This leads to the Fresnel transform of a characteristic function instead of the usual Fourier transform. We end the manuscript by showing a way in which the distribution we are introducing may be reconstructed by using atom-field interactions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A C*-algebraic approach to interacting quantum field theories. (arXiv:1902.06062v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

A novel C*-algebraic framework is presented for relativistic quantum field theories, fixed by a Lagrangean. It combines the postulates of local quantum physics, encoded in the Haag-Kastler axioms, with insights gained in the perturbative approach to quantum field theory. Key ingredients are an appropriate version of Bogolubov's relative $S$-operators and a reformulation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. These are used to define for any classical relativistic Lagrangean of a scalar field a non-trivial local net of C*-algebras, encoding the resulting interactions at the quantum level. The construction works in any number of space-time dimensions. It reduces the longstanding existence problem of interacting quantum field theories in physical spacetimeto the question of whether the C*-algebras so constructed admit suitable states, such as stable ground and equilibrium states. The method is illustrated on the example of a non-interacting field and it is shown how to pass from it within the algebra to interacting theories by relying on a rigorous local version of the interaction picture.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Phase transition in a noisy Kitaev toric code model. (arXiv:1902.06100v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

It is well-known that the partition function of a classical spin model can be mapped to a quantum entangled state where some properties on one side can be used to find new properties on the other side. However, the consequences of the existence of a classical (critical) phase transition on the corresponding quantum state has been mostly ignored. This is particularly interesting since the classical partition function exhibits non-analytic behavior at the critical point and such behavior could have important consequences on the quantum side. In this paper, we consider this problem for an important example of Kitaev toric code model which has been shown to correspond to the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model though a duality transformation. Through such duality transformation, it is shown that the temperature on the classical side is mapped to bit-flip noise on the quantum side. It is then shown that a transition from a coherent superposition of a given quantum state to a non-coherent mixture corresponds exactly to paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition in the Ising model. To identify such a transition further, we define an order parameter to characterize the decoherency of such a mixture and show that it behaves similar to the order parameter (magnetization) of 2D Ising model, a behavior that is interpreted as a robust coherency in the toric code model. Furthermore, we consider other properties of the noisy toric code model exactly at the critical point. We show that there is a relative stability to noise for the toric code state at the critical noise which is revealed by a relative reduction in susceptibility to noise. We close the paper with a discussion on connection between the robust coherency as well as the critical stability with topological order of the toric code model.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Implications of non-Markovian dynamics on information-driven engine. (arXiv:1902.06153v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

The understanding of memory effects arising from the interaction between system and environment is a key for engineering quantum thermodynamic devices beyond the standard Markovian limit. We study the performance of measurement-based thermal machine whose working medium dynamics is subject to backflow of information from the reservoir via collision based model. In this study, the non-Markovian effect is introduced by allowing for additional unitary interactions between the environments. We present two strategies of realizing non-Markovian dynamics and study their influence on the work produced by the engine. Moreover, the role of system-environment memory effects on the engine performance can be beneficial in short time.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Hyperpolarized relaxometry based nuclear T1 noise spectroscopy in hybrid diamond quantum registers. (arXiv:1902.06204v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Understanding the origins of spin lifetimes in hybrid quantum systems is a matter of current importance in several areas of quantum information and sensing. Methods that spectrally map spin relaxation processes provide insight into their origin and can motivate methods to mitigate them. In this paper, using a combination of hyperpolarization and precision field cycling over a wide range (1mT-7T), we map frequency dependent relaxation in a prototypical hybrid system of 13C nuclear spins in diamond coupled to Nitrogen Vacancy centers. Nuclear hyperpolarization through the optically pumped NV electrons allows signal time savings for the measurements exceeding million-fold over conventional methods. We observe that 13C lifetimes show a dramatic field dependence, growing rapidly with field up to 100mT and saturating thereafter. Through a systematic study with increasing substitutional electron (P1 center) concentration as well as 13C enrichment levels, we identify the operational relaxation channels for the nuclei in different field regimes. In particular, we demonstrate the dominant role played by the 13C nuclei coupling to the interacting P1 electronic spin bath. These results pave the way for quantum control techniques for dissipation engineering to boost spin lifetimes in diamond, with applications ranging from engineered quantum memories to hyperpolarized 13C imaging.

Categories: Journals, Physics

An optomechanical platform with a 3-dimensional waveguide cavity. (arXiv:1902.06215v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

At low temperatures, microwave cavities are often preferred for the readout and control of a variety of systems. In this paper, we present design and measurements on an optomechanical device based on a 3-dimensional rectangular waveguide cavity. We show that by suitably modifying the electromagnetic field corresponding to the fundamental mode of the cavity, the equivalent circuit capacitance can be reduced to 29 fF. By coupling a mechanical resonator to the modified electromagnetic mode of the cavity, we achieved a capacitance participation ratio of 43 $\%$. We demonstrate an optomechanical cooperativity, $C$$\sim$40, characterized by performing measurements in the optomechanically-induced absorption (OMIA) limit. In addition, due to a low-impedance environment between the two-halves of the cavity, our design has the flexibility of incorporating a DC bias across the mechanical resonator, often a desired feature in tunable optomechanical devices.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Reed Muller-based approach for optimization of general binary quantum multiplexers. (arXiv:1902.06229v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Previous work has provided methods for decomposing unitary matrices to series of quantum multiplexers, but the multiplexers created in this way are highly non-minimal. This paper presents a new approach for optimizing quantum multiplexers with arbitrary single-qubit quantum target functions. For quantum multiplexers, we define standard forms and two types of new forms: fixed polarity quantum forms (FPQF) and Kronecker quantum forms (KQF), which are analogous to Minterm Sum of Products forms, Fixed Polarity Reed-Muller (FPRM) forms, and Kronecker Reed-Muller (KRM) forms, respectively, for classical logic functions. Drawing inspiration from the usage of butterfly diagrams for FPRM and KRM forms, we devise a method to exhaustively construct all FPQF and KQF forms. Thus, the new forms can be used to optimize quantum circuits with arbitrary target unitary matrices, rather than only multi-controlled NOT gates such as CNOT, CCNOT, and their extensions. Experimental results on FPQF and KQF forms, as well as FPRM and KRM classical forms, applied to various target gates such as NOT, V, V+, Hadamard, and Pauli rotations, demonstrate that FPQF and KQF forms greatly reduce the gate cost of quantum multiplexers in both randomly generated data and FPRM benchmarks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Localized states of Dirac equation. (arXiv:1902.06232v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Dirac equation, very similar to Dirac oscillator, that gives stationary localized wave packets as eigenstates of the equation. The extension to the Dirac equation is achieved through the replacement of the momentum operator by a PT-symmetric generalized momentum operator. In the 1D case, the solutions represent bound particles carrying spin having continuous energy spectrum, where the envelope parameter defines the width of the packet without affecting the dispersion relation of the original Dirac equation. In the 2D case, the solutions are localized wave packets and are eigenstates of the third component of total angular momentum and involve Bessel functions of integral order. In the 3D case, the solutions are localized spherical wave packets with definite total angular momentum.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Transition from Quantum Chaos to Localization in Spin Chains. (arXiv:1902.06265v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Recent years have seen an increasing interest in quantum chaos and related aspects of spatially extended systems, such as spin chains. However, the results are seemingly contradictory as generic approaches suggest the presence of many-body localization while analytical calculations for certain system classes, here referred to as the "self-dual case", prove adherence to universal (chaotic) spectral behavior. We address these issues studying the level statistics in the vicinity of the latter case, thereby revealing transitions to localization phenomena as well as the appearance of several non-standard random-matrix universality classes.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Experimental Twin-Field Quantum Key Distribution Through Sending-or-Not-Sending. (arXiv:1902.06268v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Channel loss seems to be the most severe limitation to the application long distance quantum key distribution in practice. The idea of twin-field quantum key distribution can improve the key rate from the linear scale of channel loss in the traditional decoy-state method to the square root scale of the channel transmittance. However, the technical demanding is rather tough because it requests high alignment precision in single-photon interference. Here we demonstrate the real-optical-fiber experimental results of twin-field quantum key distribution through the sending-or-not-sending protocol, which is fault tolerant to large misalignment error. In the experiment, we use the phase locking technology developed in the time and frequency metrology, to make sure the wavelengths of Alice's and Bob's source are locked to each other and locked to an ultra-stable cavity. The phase reference is then read out with a phase reference pulse. Further with a single photon detector with high detection rate, we obtain the key rates under 4 different distances, 0km, 50 km, 100km and 150km, Especially, the obtained secure key rate at 150 km is higher than that of the measurement device independent QKD.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Focus on Shortcuts to Adiabaticity. (arXiv:1902.06283v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Shortcuts to Adiabaticity (STA) constitute driving schemes that provide an alternative to adiabatic protocols to control and guide the dynamics of classical and quantum systems without the requirement of slow driving. Research on STA advances swiftly with theoretical progress being accompanied by experiments on a wide variety of platforms. We summarize recent developments emphasizing advances reported in this focus issue while providing an outlook with open problems and prospects for future research.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Many-body cooperative effects in an ensemble of point-like impurity centers near a charged conductive surface. (arXiv:1902.06298v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

On the basis of a quantum microscopic approach we study the cooperative effects induced by the dipole-dipole interaction in an ensemble of point-like impurity centers located near a charged perfectly conducting surface. We analyze the simultaneous influence of the modified spatial structure of field modes near the conductive surface and the electric field on the transition spectrum of an excited atom inside an ensemble and on the radiation trapping. We show that the electric field modifies the cooperative Lamb shift, as well as the character of sub- and superradiant decay. We also demonstrate that these modifications differ from those taking place in the case of atomic ensembles in free space, without conducting surface.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A synthetic gauge field for two-dimensional time-multiplexed quantum random walks. (arXiv:1902.06331v1 [physics.optics])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

Temporal multiplexing provides an efficient and scalable approach to realize a quantum random walk with photons that can exhibit topological properties. But two dimensional time-multiplexed topological quantum walks studied so far have relied on generalizations of the Su-Shreiffer-Heeger (SSH) model with no synthetic gauge field. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D topological quantum random walk where the non-trivial topology is due to the presence of a synthetic gauge field. We show that the synthetic gauge field leads to the appearance of multiple bandgaps and consequently, a spatial confinement of the random walk distribution. Moreover, we demonstrate topological edge states at an interface between domains with opposite synthetic fields. Our results expand the range of Hamiltonians that can be simulated using photonic random walks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Resolving Phonon Fock States in a Multimode Cavity with a Double-Slit Qubit. (arXiv:1902.06344v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

We resolve phonon number states in the spectrum of a superconducting qubit coupled to a multimode acoustic cavity. Crucial to this resolution is the sharp frequency dependence in the qubit-phonon interaction engineered by coupling the qubit to surface acoustic waves in two locations separated by $\sim40$ acoustic wavelengths. In analogy to double-slit diffraction, the resulting self-interference generates high-contrast frequency structure in the qubit-phonon interaction. We observe this frequency structure both in the coupling rate to multiple cavity modes and in the qubit spontaneous emission rate into unconfined modes. We use this sharp frequency structure to resolve single phonons by tuning the qubit to a frequency of destructive interference where all acoustic interactions are dispersive. By exciting several detuned yet strongly-coupled phononic modes and measuring the resulting qubit spectrum, we observe that, for two modes, the device enters the strong dispersive regime where single phonons are spectrally resolved.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Micromotion-Enhanced Fast Entangling Gates For Trapped Ion Quantum Computing. (arXiv:1902.06364v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

RF-induced micromotion in trapped ion systems is typically minimised or circumvented to avoid off-resonant couplings for adiabatic processes such as multi-ion gate operations. Non-adiabatic entangling gates (so-called `fast gates') do not require resolution of specific motional sidebands, but we find that gates designed for micromotion-free environments have significantly reduced fidelity in the presence of micromotion. We show that when fast gates are designed with the RF-induced micromotion in mind, they can in fact out-perform fast gates in the absence of micromotion. This enhancement is present for all trapping parameters and is robust to realistic sources of experimental error. This result paves the way for fast two-qubit entangling gates on scalable 2D architectures, where micromotion is necessarily present on at least one inter-ion axis.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Level shift and decay dynamics of a quantum emitter around plasmonic nanostructure. (arXiv:1902.06387v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Tue, 2019-02-19 13:02

We put forward a general approach for calculating the quantum energy level shift for emitter in arbitrary nanostructures, in which the energy level shift is expressed by the sum of the real part of the scattering photon Green function (GF) and a simple integral about the imaginary part of the photon GF in the real frequency range without principle value. Compared with the method of direct principal value integral over the positive frequency axis and the method by transferring into the imaginary axis, this method avoids the principle value integral and the calculation of the scattering GF with imaginary frequency. In addition, a much narrower frequency range about the scattering photon GF in enough to get a convergent result. It is numerically demonstrated in the case for a quantum emitter (QE) located around a nanosphere and in a gap plasmonic nanocavity. Quantum dynamics of the emitter is calculated by the time domain method through solving Schr\"{o}dinger equation in the form of Volterra integral of the second kind and by the frequency domain method based on the Green's function expression for the evolution operator. It is found that the frequency domain method needs information of the scattering GF over a much narrower frequency range. In addition, reversible dynamics is observed. These findings are instructive in the fields of coherent light-matter interactions.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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