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Author(s): A. Kashlinsky, R. G. Arendt, F. Atrio-Barandela, N. Cappelluti, A. Ferrara, and G. Hasinger

While the cosmic microwave background originates from the very early Universe, the cosmic infrared background contains the cumulative emission of sources from the earliest epochs to the present time. It is generated from nucleosynthetic sources and gravitational sources. The source-subtracted spatial fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background provide information on the brightness and clustering of sources too faint to detect individually. Among these are the very first stars in the Universe and an unexpectedly large fraction of black holes. Observational and theoretical efforts at decoding the cosmic infrared background are presented together with possible future tests and prospects.

[Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 025006] Published Tue Jun 19, 2018

Author(s): Yukai Wu, Sheng-Tao Wang, and L.-M. Duan

The realization of high-fidelity quantum gates in a multiqubit system, with a typical target set at 99.9%, is a critical requirement for the implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computation. To reach this level of fidelity, one needs to carefully analyze the noises and imperfections in the exper...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 062325] Published Tue Jun 19, 2018

Author(s): Dardo Goyeneche, Zahra Raissi, Sara Di Martino, and Karol Życzkowski

We introduce several classes of quantum combinatorial designs, namely quantum Latin squares, cubes, hypercubes, and a notion of orthogonality between them. A further introduced notion, quantum orthogonal arrays, generalizes all previous classes of designs. We show that mutually orthogonal quantum La...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 062326] Published Tue Jun 19, 2018

Author(s): J. Sperling and I. A. Walmsley

We introduce a general method for the construction of quasiprobability representations for arbitrary notions of quantum coherence. Our technique yields a non-negative probability distribution for the decomposition of any classical state. Conversely, quantum phenomena are certified in terms of signed...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 062327] Published Tue Jun 19, 2018

A defining feature of topologically ordered states of matter is the existence of locally indistinguishable states on spaces with non-trivial topology. These degenerate states form a representation of the mapping class group (MCG) of the space, which is generated by braids of defects or anyons, and by Dehn twists along non-contractible cycles. These operations can be viewed as fault-tolerant logical gates in the context of topological quantum error correcting codes. Here we show that braids and Dehn twists can in general be implemented by a constant depth quantum circuit, with a depth that is independent of code distance $d$ and system size. The circuit consists of a constant depth local quantum circuit (LQC) implementing a local geometry deformation of the quantum state, followed by a permutation on (relabelling of) the qubits. We further show that (i) applying a given braid or Dehn twist $k$ times can be achieved with $\mathcal{O}(\log k)$ time overhead, independent of code distance and system size, which implies an exponential speedup for certain logical gate sequences by trading space for time, and (ii) an arbitrary element of the MCG can be implemented by a constant depth (independent of $d$) LQC followed by a permutation, where in this case the range of interactions of the LQC grows with the number of generators in the presentation of the group element. Applying these results to certain non-Abelian codes implies that a fault-tolerant universal gate set can be achieved with constant time overhead by using a local quantum circuit together with qubit permutations. This provides a factor of $d$ improvement over other approaches in the asymptotic scaling of space-time overhead for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation.

Recently, it was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally on the D-Wave quantum annealer that transverse-field quantum annealing does not find all ground states with equal probability. In particular, it was proposed that more complex driver Hamiltonians beyond transverse fields might mitigate this shortcoming. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of (un)fair sampling in quantum annealing. While higher-order terms can improve the sampling for selected small problems, we present multiple counterexamples where driver Hamiltonians that go beyond transverse fields do not remove the sampling bias. Using perturbation theory we explain why this is the case. In addition, we present large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations for spin glasses with known degeneracy in two space dimensions and demonstrate that the fair-sampling performance of quadratic driver terms is comparable to standard transverse-field drivers. Our results suggest that quantum annealing machines are not well suited for sampling applications, unless post-processing techniques to improve the sampling are applied.

Engineering and harnessing coherent excitonic transport in organic nanostructures has recently been suggested as a promising way towards improving man-made light harvesting materials. However, realising and testing the dissipative system-environment models underlying these proposals is presently very challenging in supramolecular materials. A promising alternative is to use simpler and highly tunable quantum simulators built from programmable qubits, as recently achieved in a superconducting circuit by Potocnik et al. In this article, we simulate the real-time dynamics of an exciton coupled to a quantum bath as it moves through a network based on the quantum circuit of Potocnik et al. Using the numerically exact hierarchical equations of motion to capture the open quantum system dynamics, we find that an ultrafast but completely incoherent relaxation from a high-lying bright exciton into a doublet of closely spaced dark excitons can spontaneously generate electronic coherences and oscillatory real-space motion across the network (quantum beats). Importantly, we show that this behaviour also survives when the environmental noise is classically stochastic (effectively high temperature), as in present experiments, and also leads to a novel, transient violation of detailed balance in the population relaxation. These predictions highlight the possibilities of designing matched electronic and spectral noise structures for robust coherence generation that does not require coherent excitation or cold environments.

We present a new quantum-limited Josephson-junction-based 3-wave-mixing parametric amplifier, the SNAIL Parametric Amplifier (SPA), which uses an array of SNAILs (Superconducting Nonlinear Asymmetric Inductive eLements) as the source of tunable nonlinearity. We show how to engineer the nonlinearity over multiple orders of magnitude by varying the physical design of the device. As a function of design parameters, we systematically explore two important amplifier nonidealities that limit dynamic range: the phenomena of gain compression and intermodulation distortion, whose minimization are crucial for high-fidelity multi-qubit readout. Through a comparison with first-principles theory across multiple devices, we demonstrate how to optimize both the nonlinearity and the input-output port coupling of these SNAIL-based parametric amplifiers to achieve higher saturation power, without sacrificing any other desirable characteristics. The method elaborated in our work can be extended to improve all forms of parametrically induced mixing that can be employed for quantum information applications.

Quantum resource theories (QRTs) offer a highly versatile and powerful framework for studying different phenomena in quantum physics. From quantum entanglement to quantum computation, resource theories can be used to quantify a desirable quantum effect, develop new protocols for its detection, and identify processes that optimize its use for a given application. Particularly, QRTs revolutionize the way we think about familiar properties of physical systems like entanglement, elevating them from just being interesting from a fundamental point of view to being useful in performing practical tasks. The basic methodology of a general QRT involves partitioning all quantum states into two groups, one consisting of free states and the other consisting of resource states. Accompanying the set of free states is a collection of free quantum operations arising from natural restrictions on physical systems, and that consists of all the physical processes allowed by the resource theory and which acts invariantly on the set of free states. The QRT then studies what information processing tasks become possible using the restricted operations. Despite the large degree of freedom in how one defines the free states and free operations, unexpected similarities emerge among different QRTs in terms of resource measures and resource convertibility. As a result, objects that appear quite distinct on the surface, such as entanglement and quantum reference frames, appear to have great similarity on a deeper structural level. In this article we review the general framework of a quantum resource theory, focusing on common structural features, operational tasks, and resource measures. To illustrate these concepts, an overview is provided on some of the more commonly studied QRTs in the literature.

In this work we propose a simple optical architecture, based on phase-only programmable spatial light modulators, in order to characterize general processes on photonic spatial quantum systems in a $d>2$ Hilbert space. We demonstrate the full reconstruction of typical noises affecting quantum computing, as amplitude shifts, phase shifts, and depolarizing channel in dimension $d=5$. We have also reconstructed simulated atmospheric turbulences affecting a free-space transmission of qudits in dimension $d=4$. In each case, quantum process tomography (QPT) was performed in order to obtain the matrix $\chi$ that fully describe the corresponding quantum channel, $\mathcal{E}$. Fidelities between the states experimentally obtained after go through the channel and the expected ones are above $97\%$.

Atom-like defects in two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as a promising platform for quantum information science. Here we investigate single-photon emissions from atomic defects in boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We demonstrate the first optical modulation of the quantum emission from BNNTs with a near-infrared laser. This one-dimensional system displays bright single-photon emission as well as high stability at room temperature and is an excellent candidate for optomechanics. The fast optical modulation of single-photon emission from BNNTs shows multiple electronic levels of the system and has potential applications in optical signal processing.

Quantum kicked top is a fundamental model for time-dependent, chaotic Hamiltonian system and has been realized in experiments as well. As the quantum kicked top can be represented as a system of qubits, it is also popular as a testbed for the study of measures of quantum correlations such as entanglement, quantum discord and other multipartite entanglement measures. Further, earlier studies on kicked top have led to a broad understanding of how these measures are affected by the classical dynamical features. In this work, relying on the invariance of quantum correlation measures under local unitary transformations, it is shown exactly these measures display periodic behaviour either as a function of time or as a function of the chaos parameter in this system. As the kicked top has been experimentally realised using cold atoms as well as superconducting qubits, it is pointed out that these periodicities must be factored in while choosing of experimental parameters so that repetitions can be avoided.

A semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) protocol makes it possible for a quantum party and a classical party to generate a secret shared key. However, many existing SQKD protocols are not experimentally feasible in a secure way using current technology. An experimentally feasible SQKD protocol, "classical Alice with a controllable mirror" (the "Mirror protocol"), has recently been presented and proved completely robust, but it is more complicated than other SQKD protocols. Here we prove a simpler variant of the Mirror protocol (the "simplified Mirror protocol") to be completely non-robust by presenting two possible attacks against it. Our results show that the complexity of the Mirror protocol is at least partly necessary for achieving robustness.

The chiral kinetic theory is derived from exact spinor mean field equations without symmetry-breaking terms for large classes of SU(2) systems with spin-orbit coupling. The influence of the Wigner function's off-diagonal elements is worked out. The decoupling of the diagonal elements is found to renormalize the drift. As special limit, Weyl systems are considered. The anomalous term $\sim\V E\V B$ in the balance of the chiral density appears consequently by an underlying conserving theory. The experimental observation of this term and the anomalous magneto-transport in solid-sate physics which are described by chiral kinetic theory are therefore not a unique signal for mixed axial-gravitational or triangle anomaly and no signal for the breaking of Lorentz-invariance. The source of the anomalous term is by two thirds the divergence of Berry curvature at zero momentum which can be seen as Dirac monopole and by one third the Dirac sea at infinite momentum. During the derivation of the chiral kinetic theory this source by the Dirac sea is transferred exclusively to the Dirac monopole due to the projection of the spinor Wigner functions to the chiral basis. The dynamical result is shown to suppress the anomalous term by two thirds.

Frontiers of attosecond science are constantly shifting, thus addressing more and more intricate effects with increasing resolution. Ultrashort pulses offer a practical way to prepare complex superpositions of quantum states, follow, and steer their dynamics. In this contribution, an ultrafast spin-flip process triggered by sub-femtosecond (fs) excitation and strong spin-orbit coupling between 2p core-excited states of a transition metal complex is investigated using density matrix-based time-dependent restricted active space configuration interaction theory. The effect of the nuclear vibrations is incorporated making use of an electronic system plus vibrational bath partitioning. The differences between isolated sub-fs pulses and pulse trains as well as influence of various pulse characteristics on the initiated dynamics are discussed. The effect under study can be potentially used for ultrafast clocking in sub-few fs experiments.

Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light represents a fundamental optical freedom that can be exploited to manipulate quantum state of atoms. In particular, it can be used to realize spin-orbital-angular-momentum (SOAM) coupling in cold atoms by inducing an atomic Raman transition using two laser beams with differing OAM. Rich quantum phases are predicted to exist in many-body systems with SOAM coupling. Their observations in laboratory, however, are often hampered by the limited control of the system parameters. In this work we report, for the first time, the experimental observation of the ground-state quantum phase diagram of the SOAM coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The discontinuous variation of the spin polarization as well as the vorticity of the atomic wave function across the phase boundaries provides clear evidence of first-order phase transitions. Our results open up a new way to the study of phase transitions and exotic quantum phases in quantum gases.

Starting from a total Lagrangian describing an oscillator-bath system, a novel derivation of exact quantum propagator is presented. Having the quantum propagator, the exact density matrix, reduced density matrix of the main oscillator and thermal equilibrium fixed point are obtained. The problem is generalised to the cases where the main oscillator is under the influence of a classical external force. By introducing generalised auxiliary classical fields, the generalised quantum propagator or generating functional of position correlation functions is obtained.

In this paper we put forward some simple rules which can be used to pass from the quantum Moyal evolution operator to the classical Liouville one without taking the Planck constant to zero. These rules involve the averaging over some auxiliary variables.