White-light interferometry is one of today's most precise tools for determining optical material properties. Achievable precision and accuracy are typically limited by systematic errors due to a high number of interdependent data fitting parameters. Here, we introduce spectrally-resolved quantum white-light interferometry as a novel tool for optical property measurements, notably chromatic dispersion in optical fibres. By exploiting both spectral and photon-number correlations of energy-time entangled photon pairs, the number of fitting parameters is significantly reduced which eliminates systematic errors and leads to an absolute determination of the material parameter. By comparing the quantum method to state-of-the-art approaches, we demonstrate the quantum advantage through 2.4 times better measurement precision, despite involving 62 times less photons. The improved results are due to conceptual advantages enabled by quantum optics which are likely to define new standards in experimental methods for characterising optical materials.

We propose an effective scheme for realizing a Jaynes-Cummings (J-C) model with the collective nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVE) bosonic modes in a hybrid system. Specifically, the controllable transmon qubit can alternatively interact with one of the two NVEs, which results in the production of $N$ particle entangled states. Arbitrary $N$ particle entangled states, NOON states, N-dimensional entangled states and entangled coherent states are demonstrated. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed via numerical simulation. Since no cavity photons or excited levels of the NV center are populated during the whole process, our scheme is insensitive to cavity decay and spontaneous emission of the NVE. The idea provides a scalable way to realize NVEs-circuit cavity quantum information processing with current technology.

Recently, the quantumness of local correlations arising from separable states in the context of a Bell scenario has been studied and linked with superlocality [Phys. Rev. A {95}, 032120 (2017)]. Here we investigate the quantumness of unsteerable correlations in the context of a given steering scenario. Generalizing the concept of superlocality, we define as \textit{super-correlation}, the requirement for a larger dimension of the preshared randomness to simulate the correlation than that of the quantum states that generate them. Since unsteerable states form a subset of Bell local states, it is an interesting question whether certain unsteerable states can be super-correlated. Here, we answer this question in the affirmative. In particular, the quantumness of certain unsteerable correlations can be pointed out by the notion of super-unsteerability, the requirement for a larger dimension of the classical variable that the steering party has to preshare with the trusted party for simulating the correlations than that of the quantum states which reproduce them. This provides a generalized approach to quantify the quantumness of unsteerable correlations in convex operational theories.

Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been identified over the past few years as promising systems for a variety of applications, ranging from quantum information science to magnetic sensing. This relies on the unique optical and spin properties of the negatively charged NV. Many of these applications require shallow NV centers, i.e. NVs that are close (a few nm) to the diamond surface. In recent years there has been increasing interest in understanding the dynamics of NV centers under various illumination conditions, specifically under infra-red (IR) excitation, which has been demonstrated to have significant impact on the NV centers' emission and charge state. Nevertheless, a full understanding of all experimental data is still lacking, with further complications arising from potential differences between the photo-dynamics of bulk vs. shallow NVs. Here we suggest a generalized quantitative model for NV center spin and charge state dynamics under both green and IR excitation. We experimentally extract the relevant transition rates, providing a comprehensive model which reconciles all existing results in the literature. Moreover, we identify key differences between the photo-dynamics of bulk and shallow NVs, and use them to significantly enhance the initialization fidelity of shallow NVs to the useful negatively-charged state.

Consider the task of verifying that a given quantum device, designed to produce a particular entangled state, does indeed produce that state. One natural approach would be to characterise the output state by quantum state tomography; or alternatively to perform some kind of Bell test, tailored to the state of interest. We show here that neither approach is optimal amongst local verification strategies for two qubit states. We find the optimal strategy in this case and show that quadratically fewer total measurements are needed to verify to within a given fidelity than in published results for quantum state tomography, Bell test, or fidelity estimation protocols. We also give efficient verification protocols for any stabilizer state. Additionally, we show that requiring that the strategy be constructed from local, non-adaptive and non-collective measurements only incurs a constant-factor penalty over a strategy without these restrictions.

We propose a quantum speedup method for adiabatic generation of cat states in Bose-Einstein condensates via shortcuts to adiabaticity. Bosonic Josephson junctions consisting of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates can be mapped to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. We apply approximated counter-diabatic driving to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. In order to avoid the problem of divergence in counter-diabatic driving, we take finite-size corrections into account. The resulting counter-diabatic driving is well-defined over whole processes. Schedules of the counter-diabatic driving consist of three steps; the counter-diabatic driving in the disordered phase, smoothly and slowly approaching the critical point, and the counter-diabatic driving in the ordered phase. Using the counter-diabatic driving, adiabatic generation of cat states is successfully accelerated. Macroscopicity of generated cat states is ensured by the quantum Fisher information.

We demonstrate that a holographic model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair exhibits fast scrambling. Strongly entangled quark and antiquark in $\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory are considered. Their gravity dual is a fundamental string whose endpoints are uniformly accelerated in opposite direction. We slightly increase the acceleration of the endpoint and show that it quickly destroys the correlation between the quark and antiquark. The proper time scale of the destruction is $\tau_\ast\sim \beta \ln S$ where $\beta$ is the inverse Unruh temperature and $S$ is the entropy of the accelerating quark. We also evaluate the Lyapunov exponent from correlation function as $\lambda_L=2\pi/\beta$, which saturates the Lyapunov bound. Our results suggest that the fast scrambling or saturation of the Lyapunov bound do not directly imply the existence of an Einstein dual. When we slightly decrease the acceleration, the quark and antiquark are causally connected and an "one-way traversable wormhole" is created on the worldsheet. It causes the divergence of the correlation function between the quark and antiquark.

Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum annealing machines produced by D-Wave Systems, have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology's usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks. Here, we present a way to partially embed both Monte Carlo policy iteration for finding an optimal policy on random observations, as well as how to embed (n) sub-optimal state-value functions for approximating an improved state-value function given a policy for finite horizon games with discrete state spaces on a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processing unit (QPU). We explain how both problems can be expressed as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem, and show that quantum-enhanced Monte Carlo policy evaluation allows for finding equivalent or better state-value functions for a given policy with the same number episodes compared to a purely classical Monte Carlo algorithm. Additionally, we describe a quantum-classical policy learning algorithm. Our first and foremost aim is to explain how to represent and solve parts of these problems with the help of the QPU, and not to prove supremacy over every existing classical policy evaluation algorithm.

It is proved that replica symmetry is not broken in the transverse and longitudinal random field Ising model. In this model, the variance of spin overlap of any component vanishes in any dimension almost everywhere in the coupling constant space in the infinite volume limit. The weak Fortuin-Kasteleyn-Ginibre property in this model and the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities in artificial models in a path integral representation based on the Lie-Trotter-Suzuki formula enable us to extend Chatterjee's proof for the random field Ising model to the quantum model.

We propose and demonstrate a robust control scheme by ultrafast nonadiabatic chirped laser pulse, designed for targeting coherent superpositions of two-level systems. Robustness against power fluctuation is proved by our numerical study and a proof-of-principle experiment performed with femtosecond laser interaction on cold atoms. They exhibit for the final driven dynamics a cusp on the Bloch sphere, corresponding to a zero curvature of fidelity. This solution is particularly simple and thus applicable to a wide range of potential applications.

Birds have a remarkable ability to obtain navigational information from the Earth's magnetic field. The primary detection mechanism of this compass sense is uncertain but appears to involve the quantum spin dynamics of radical pairs formed transiently in cryptochrome proteins. We propose here a new version of the current model in which spin-selective recombination of the radical pair is not essential. One of the two radicals is imagined to react with a paramagnetic scavenger via spin-selective electron transfer. By means of simulations of the spin dynamics of cryptochrome-inspired radical pairs, we show that the new scheme offers two clear and important benefits. The sensitivity to a 50 {\mu}T magnetic field is greatly enhanced and, unlike the current model, the radicals can be more than 2 nm apart in the magnetoreceptor protein. The latter means that animal cryptochromes that have a tetrad (rather than a triad) of tryptophan electron donors can still be expected to be viable as magnetic compass sensors. Lifting the restriction on the rate of the spin-selective recombination reaction also means that the detrimental effects of inter-radical exchange and dipolar interactions can be minimised by placing the radicals much further apart than in the current model.

Not all mathematical funcitions used to define physical quantities are guaranteed to be implementable; complex conjugation is one such. We show that universal state conjugation, i.e., complex conjugation of unknown quantum states, is not implementable, even with nonzero failure probability admitted and finitely many state clones supplied. Complex conjugation can also be defined on unitaries, for which we present a deterministic, universal quantum algorithm with a blackbox quantum gate as the input unitary. Multiple uses of the oracle is shown to be necessary for unitary dimensions larger than 2. An operator used to define this algorithm is exploited to generalize the two-qubit concurrence for pure states. The generalized concurrence is based on complex conjugation of states, much like the original concurrence. It is shown to be equivalent to the $G$-concurrence, a previously known generalization of the original concurrence, derived from a separate mathematical observation and a member of a family of concurrence monotones. We show that our approach also reproduces all these concurrence monotones. Finally, the unitary conjugation algorithm is interpreted in terms of particles and holes and their mode transformation.

We study states of one- and two-dimensional spin systems that are constructed as correlators within the conformal field theory of a massless, free boson. In one dimension, these are good variational wave functions for XXZ spin chains and they are similar to lattice Laughlin states in two dimensions. We show that their zz correlations are determined by a modification of the original free-boson theory. An expansion to quadratic order leads to a solvable, effective theory for the correlations in these states. Compared to the massless boson, there is an additional term in this effective theory that explains the behavior of the correlations: a polynomial decay in one dimension and at the edge of a two-dimensional system and an exponential decay in the bulk of a two-dimensional system. We test the validity of our approximation by comparing it to Monte Carlo computations.

The Bohm/de Broglie theory of deterministic non-relativistic quantum mechanics is broadened to accommodate the free-particle Dirac equation. As with the spin-0 theory, an effective particle rest-mass scalar field in the presence of the spin-1/2 pilot wave is allowed, together with the assumption that the convective current component describes ensemble dynamics. Non-positive excursions of the ensemble density for extreme cases of positive-energy waves are easily illustrated using an integral of the equations of motion developed here and are interpreted in terms of virtual-like pair creation and annihilation beneath the Compton wavelength. A relationship between the Newton-Wigner position and the Bohmian hidden particle positions and local field is derived. A Bohm-theoretic description of the acausal explosion of Newton-Wigner-localized states is presented. A specific second-rank tensor is defined in terms of the Dirac spinors for generalizing from simply a quantum potential to a stress tensor required to account for the force of pilot wave on particle. A simple dependence of the stress tensor on a two-component spin pseudovector field is determined for approaching a non-relativistic limit. Consistency is found with an earlier non-relativistic theory of objects with spin.

Author(s): José Lebreuilly, Alberto Biella, Florent Storme, Davide Rossini, Rosario Fazio, Cristiano Ciuti, and Iacopo Carusotto

We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of trans...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 033828] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017

Author(s): R. Ganesh, L. Theerthagiri, and G. Baskaran

Dicke's original thought experiment with two spins (two-level atoms) coupled to a photon mode has recently been experimentally realized. We propose extending this experiment to many spins as a way to synthesize highly entangled states. We suggest a protocol in which we start with a direct product st...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 033829] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017

Author(s): Petr Marek, Petr Zapletal, Radim Filip, Yosuke Hashimoto, Takeshi Toyama, Jun-ichi Yoshikawa, Kenzo Makino, and Akira Furusawa

The quality of individual photons and their ability to interfere are traditionally tested by measuring the Hong-Ou-Mandel photon bunching effect. However, this phase-insensitive measurement only tests the particle aspect of the quantum interference, leaving out the phase-sensitive aspects relevant f...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 033830] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017

Author(s): Mark M. Wilde, Marco Tomamichel, Seth Lloyd, and Mario Berta

Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 120501] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017

Author(s): Peter M. Celliers and Jon H. Eggert

Measurements of the melting curve of hydrogen at unprecedentedly high pressures call for a refinement of the theories describing the material.

[Physics 10, 101] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Mirko Amico, Oleg L. Berman, and Roman Ya. Kezerashvili

We investigate the tunable quantum entanglement and the probabilities of excitations in a system of three qubits in a nonstationary cavity due to the dynamical Lamb effect, caused by nonadiabatic fast change of the boundary conditions of the cavity. The transition amplitudes and the probabilities of...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 032328] Published Mon Sep 18, 2017