In this article we describe the basic principles of Rydberg atom-based RF sensing and present the development of atomic pulsed RF detection and RF phase sensing establishing capabilities pertinent to applications in communications and sensing. To date advances in Rydberg atom-based RF field sensors have been rooted in a method in which the fundamental physical quantity being detected and measured is the electric field amplitude, $E$, of the incident RF electromagnetic wave. The first part of this paper is focused on using atom-based $E$-field measurement for RF field-sensing and communications applications. With established phase-sensitive technologies, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as well as emerging trends in phased-array antennas in 5G, a method is desired that allows robust, optical retrieval of the RF phase using an enhanced atom-based field sensor. In the second part of this paper we describe our fundamentally new atomic RF sensor and measurement method for the phase of the RF electromagnetic wave that affords all the performance advantages exhibited by the atomic sensor. The presented phase-sensitive RF field detection capability opens atomic RF sensor technology to a wide array of application areas including phase-modulated signal communication systems, radar, and field amplitude and phase mapping for near-field/far-field antenna characterizations.

Circuit quantum electrodynamics, where photons are coherently coupled to artificial atoms built with superconducting circuits, has enabled the investigation and control of macroscopic quantum-mechanical phenomena in superconductors. Recently, hybrid circuits incorporating semiconducting nanowires and other electrostatically-gateable elements have provided new insights into mesoscopic superconductivity. Extending the capabilities of hybrid flux-based circuits to work in magnetic fields would be especially useful both as a probe of spin-polarized Andreev bound states and as a possible platform for topological qubits. The fluxonium is particularly suitable as a readout circuit for topological qubits due to its unique persistent-current based eigenstates. In this Letter, we present a magnetic-field compatible hybrid fluxonium with an electrostatically-tuned semiconducting nanowire as its non-linear element. We operate the fluxonium in magnetic fields up to 1T and use it to observe the $\varphi_0$-Josephson effect. This combination of gate-tunability and field-compatibility opens avenues for the exploration and control of spin-polarized phenomena using superconducting circuits and enables the use of the fluxonium as a readout device for topological qubits.

We discuss here why any horizon, either static or stationary, induces chaos in a system. We show that such universality is due to the unavoidable instability provided by the horizon on a particle's motion. Interestingly, the presence of horizon in spacetime is sufficient to lead to the fact that the near horizon Hamiltonian of a chargeless and massless particle, at the leading order, is of the form $H\sim xp$, and this is liable for such instability in particle dynamics. The quantum consequences are also being studied, which shows automatic quantum thermality in the system. The temperature is found to be given by the Hawking expression. Finally, we conjecture that the automatic instability, created by the horizon, is liable for its own temperature.

We consider the group structure of quantum cellular automata (QCA) modulo circuits and show that it is abelian even without assuming the presence of ancillas, at least for most reasonable choices of control space; this is a corollary of a general method of ancilla removal. Further, we show how to define a group of QCA that is well-defined without needing to use families, by showing how to construct a coherent family containing an arbitrary finite QCA; the coherent family consists of QCA on progressively finer systems of qudits where any two members are related by a shallow quantum circuit. This construction applied to translation invariant QCA shows that all translation invariant QCA in three dimensions and all translation invariant Clifford QCA in any dimension are coherent.

Quantum memories with long storage times are key elements in long-distance quantum networks. The atomic frequency comb (AFC) memory in particular has shown great promise to fulfill this role, having demonstrated multimode capacity and spin-photon quantum correlations. However, the memory storage times have so-far been limited to about one millisecond, realized in a Eu${}^{3+}$ doped Y${}_2$SiO${}_5$ crystal in a configuration without any applied external magnetic field. Here we present a AFC spin-wave memory in a specific magnetic field configuration, which allows us to increase the spin-wave storage time to 40 ms using a simple spin-echo sequence. Furthermore, by applying dynamical decoupling techniques the spin-wave coherence time reaches 530 ms, a 300-fold increase with respect to previous AFC spin-wave storage experiments. This result paves the way towards long duration storage of quantum information in solid-state ensemble memories.

We outline a quantum simulation scheme of quantum $\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge theory using quantum adiabatic algorithm implemented in terms of quantum circuit, and then demonstrate it in the classical simulator QuEST using a CUDA enabled GPU server. In particular, we obtained useful results in (3+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional theories. It is identified that the quantum phase transition is topological in both dimensions, and is first-order in (3+1) dimensions but second-order in (2+1) dimensions. High-performance classical simulation of quantum simulation, which may be dubbed pseudoquantum simulation, is not only a platform of developing quantum software, but also represents a new practical mode of computation.

We report on the three-dimensional time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter model with finite spin-orbit coupling. We introduce three numerical methods for characterizing the topological phases based on twisted boundary conditions, Wilson loops, as well as the local topological marker. Besides the weak and strong topological insulator phases we find a nodal line semimetal in the parameter regime between the two three-dimensional topological insulator phases. Using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the topological Hamiltonian approach we find stabilization of these three-dimensional topological states due to the Hubbard interaction. We study surface states which exhibit an asymmetry between left and right surface originating from the broken parity symmetry of the system. Our results set the stage for further research on inhomogeneous three-dimensional topological systems, proximity effects, topological Mott insulators and non-trivially linked nodal line semimetals.

Typicality has always been in the minds of the founding fathers of probability theory when probabilistic reasoning is applied to the real world. However, the role of typicality is not always appreciated. An example is the paper "Foundations of statistical mechanics and the status of Born's rule in de Broglie-Bohm pilot-wave theory" by Antony Valentini, where he presents typicality and relaxation to equilibrium as distinct approaches to the proof of Born's rule, while typicality is in fact an overriding necessity. Moreover the "typicality approach" to Born's rule of "the Bohmian mechanics school" is claimed to be inherently circular. We wish to explain once more in very simple terms why the accusation is off target and why "relaxation to equilibrium" is neither necessary nor sufficient to justify Born's rule.

After the development of a self-consistent quantum formalism nearly a century ago, there ensued a quest to understand the often counterintuitive predictions of the theory. These endeavors invariably begin with the assumption of the "truth" of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and then proceed to investigate the theory's implications for the physical world. One of the outcomes has been endless discussions of the quantum measurement problem, wave/particle duality, the non-locality of entangled quantum states, Schroedinger's cat, and other philosophical conundrums. In this essay, I take the point of view that quantum mechanics is a mathematical model, a human invention, and rather than pondering what the theory implies about our world, I consider the transposed question: what is it about our world that leads us to a quantum mechanical model of it? One consequence is the realization that discrete quanta, the quantum of action in particular, leads to the wave nature and statistical behavior of matter rather than the other way around.

In the paper we consider an interesting possibility of a time as a stochastic process in quantum mechanics.In order to do it we reconsider time as a mechanical quantity in classical mechanics and afterwards we quantize it. We consider continuous and discrete time.

Non-classical correlations can be regarded as resources for quantum information processing. However, the classification problem of non-classical correlations for quantum states remains a challenge, even for finite-size systems. Although there exists a set of criteria for determining individual non-classical correlations, a unified framework that is capable of simultaneously classifying multiple correlations is still missing. In this work, we experimentally explored the possibility of applying machine-learning methods for simultaneously identifying non-classical correlations. Specifically, by using partial information, we applied artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees for learning entanglement, quantum steering, and non-locality. Overall, we found that for a family of quantum states, all three approaches can achieve high accuracy for the classification problem. Moreover, the run time of the machine-learning methods to output the state label is experimentally found to be significantly less than that of state tomography.

We revisit the basic properties of Fano-Feshbach resonances in two-body systems with van der Waals tail interactions, such as ultracold neutral atoms. Using a two-channel model and two different methods, we investigate the relationship between the width and shift of the resonances and their dependence on the low-energy parameters of the system. Unlike what was previously believed [Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1225 (2010)] for magnetic resonances, we find that the ratio between the width and the shift of a resonance does not depend only on the background scattering length, but also on a closed-channel scattering length. We obtain different limits corresponding to different cases of optical and magnetic resonances. Although the generalisation of the theory to the multi-channel case remains to be done, we found that our two-channel predictions are verified for a specific resonance of lithium-6.

In this paper we continue to explore "hybrid" quantum circuit models in one-dimension with both unitary and measurement gates, focussing on the entanglement properties of wavefunction trajectories at long times, in the steady state. We simulate a large class of Clifford circuits, including models with or without randomness in the unitary gates, and with or without randomness in the locations of measurement gates, using stabilizer techniques to access the long time dynamics of systems up to 512 qubits. In all models we find a volume law entangled phase for low measurement rates, which exhibits a sub-dominant logarithmic behavior in the entanglement entropy, S_A = {\alpha} ln |A| + s|A|, with sub-system size |A|. With increasing measurement rate the volume law phase is unstable to a disentangled area law phase, passing through a single entanglement transition at a critical rate of measurement. At criticality we find a purely logarithmic entanglement entropy, S_A = {\alpha}(p_c) ln|A|, a power law decay and conformal symmetry of the mutual information, with exponential decay off criticality. Various spin-spin correlation functions also show slow decay at criticality. Critical exponents are consistent across all models, indicative of a single universality class. These results suggest the existence of an effective underlying statistical mechanical model for the entanglement transition. Beyond Clifford circuit models, numerical simulations of up to 20 qubits give consistent results.

A closed-trajectory evolution of a quantum state generally imprints a phase that contains both dynamical and geometrical contributions. While dynamical phases depend on the reference system, geometric phase factors are uniquely defined by the properties of the outlined trajectory. Here, we generate and measure geometric phases in a Bose-Einstein condensate of $^{87}$Rb using a combination of dynamical quantum Zeno effect and measurement-free evolution. We show that the dynamical quantum Zeno effect can inhibit the formation of a geometric phase without altering the dynamical phase. This can be used to extract the geometric Aharonov-Anandan phase from any closed-trajectory evolution without requiring knowledge or control of the Hamiltonian.

We derive an inequality for the linear entropy, that gives sharp bounds for all finite dimensional systems. The derivation is based on generalised Bloch decompositions and provides a strict improvement for the possible distribution of purities for all finite dimensional quantum states. It thus extends the widely used concept of entropy inequalities from the asymptotic to the finite regime, and should also find applications in entanglement detection and efficient experimental characterisations of quantum states.

The recent experimental advancement to realise ultracold gases scattering off an eight-fold optical potential [Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 110404 (2019)] heralds the beginning of a new technique to study the properties of quasicrystalline structures. Quasicrystals possess long-range order but are not periodic, and are still little studied in comparison to their periodic counterparts. Here, we consider an ultracold bosonic gas in an eight-fold symmetric lattice and assume a toy model where the atoms occupy the ground states of the local minima of the potential. The ground state phases of the system are studied, with particular interest in the local nature of the phases. The usual Mott-insulator, density wave, and supersolid phases of the standard and extended Bose-Hubbard model are observed. For non-zero long-range interactions, we find that density wave states can spontaneously break the eight-fold symmetry, and may even possess no rotational symmetry. We find the local variation in the number of nearest neighbours to play a vital role in the phase transitions, local structure, and global symmetries of the ground states. This variation in the number of nearest neighbours is not a unique property of the considered eight-fold lattice, and we expect our results to be generalisable to any quasicrystalline potential where there are only small position dependent variations in the site energy, tunnelling and interactions.

Nowadays, quantum simulation schemes come in two flavours. Either they are continuous-time discrete-space models (a.k.a Hamiltonian-based), pertaining to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Or they are discrete-spacetime models (a.k.a Quantum Walks or Quantum Cellular Automata-based) enjoying a relativistic continuous spacetime limit. We provide a first example of a quantum simulation scheme that unifies both approaches. The proposed scheme supports both a continuous-time discrete-space limit, leading to lattice fermions, and a continuous-spacetime limit, leading to the Dirac equation. The transition between the two can be thought of as a general relativistic change of coordinates, pushed to an extreme. As an emergent by-product of this procedure, we obtain a Hamiltonian for lattice-fermions in curved spacetime with synchronous coordinates.

We present a technique that improves the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of range-finding, sensing, and other light-detection applications. The technique filters out low photon numbers using photon-number-resolving detectors (PNRDs). This technique has no classical analog and cannot be done with classical detectors. We investigate the properties of our technique and show under what conditions the scheme surpasses the classical SNR. Finally, we simulate the operation of a rangefinder, showing improvement with a low number of signal samplings and confirming the theory with a high number of signal samplings.

The characterisation of loss in optical waveguides is essential in understanding the performance of these devices and their limitations. Whilst interferometric-based methods generally provide the best results for low-loss waveguides, they are almost exclusively used to provide characterization in cases where the waveguide is spatially single-mode. Here, we introduce a Fabry-P\'erot-based scheme to estimate the losses of a nonlinear (birefringent or quasi-phase matched) waveguide at a wavelength where it is multi-mode. The method involves measuring the generated second harmonic power as the pump wavelength is scanned over the phasematching region. Furthermore, it is shown that this method allows one to infer the losses of different second harmonic spatial modes by scanning the pump field over the separated phase matching spectra. By fitting the measured phasematching spectra from a titanium indiffused lithium niobate waveguide sample to the model presented in this paper, it is shown that one can estimate the second harmonic losses of a single spatial-mode, at wavelengths where the waveguides are spatially multi-mode.

Entangled two-photon absorption (ETPA) is a process characterized by a linear dependence of the absorption rate of entangled pairs on their flux density, leading to tens of orders of magnitude lower flux densities required than in conventional two-photon absorption (TPA) schemes. However, the role of different entangled degrees of freedom in ETPA was unclear following recent experimental studies, when compared to earlier theoretical works. Here, we clarify this situation by investigating ETPA in Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G). We first demonstrate a linear dependence of the ETPA absorption rate with the photon-pair flux, a clear signature of ETPA, and estimate the first values for the concentration-dependent ETPA cross-section for Rh6G.We then investigate the signature of energy-time entanglement and polarization dependence in the ETPA fluorescence rate and demonstrate a strong dependence of the signal on the inter-photon delay that reflects the coherence time of the entangled two-photon wave-packet. In contrast, we show that there is no significant dependence on the polarization.