Physics

Loss-tolerant parity measurement for distant quantum bits

PRA: Quantum information - Mon, 2017-03-27 16:00

Author(s): Alain Sarlette and Mazyar Mirrahimi

We propose a scheme to measure the parity of two distant qubits, while ensuring that losses on the quantum channel between them does not destroy coherences within the parity subspaces. This capability enables deterministic preparation of highly entangled qubit states whose fidelity is not limited by…


[Phys. Rev. A 95, 032329] Published Mon Mar 27, 2017

Categories: Journals, Physics

Dissipative nonlinear waves in a gravitating quantum fluid. (arXiv:1703.08174v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Nonlinear wave propagation is studied analytically in a dissipative, self-gravitating Bose Einstein condensate, in the framework of Gross-Pitaevskii model. The linear dispersion relation shows that the effect of dissipation is to suppress dynamical instabilities that destabilize the system. The small amplitude analysis using reductive perturbation technique is found to yield a modified form of KdV equation. The soliton energy, amplitude and velocity are found to decay with time, whereas the soliton width increases, such that the soliton exists for a finite time only

Categories: Journals, Physics

Einstein in 1916: "On the Quantum Theory of Radiation". (arXiv:1703.08176v1 [physics.hist-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

In this contribution I discuss a peak in Einstein's endeavor to extract as much information as possible about the nature of radiation from the Planck distribution is his paper "On the Quantum Theory of Radiation" of 1916. This is one of the most important contributions of Einstein to quantum theory.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tailored codes for small quantum memories. (arXiv:1703.08179v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We demonstrate that small quantum memories, realized via quantum error correction in multi-qubit devices, can benefit substantially by choosing a quantum code that is tailored to the relevant error model of the system. For a biased noise model, with independent bit and phase flips occurring at different rates, we show that a single code greatly outperforms the well-studied Steane code across the full range of parameters of the noise model, including for unbiased noise. In fact, this tailored code performs almost optimally when compared with 10,000 randomly selected stabilizer codes of comparable experimental complexity. Tailored codes can even outperform the Steane code with realistic experimental noise, and without any increase in the experimental complexity, as we demonstrate by comparison in the observed error model in a recent 7-qubit trapped ion experiment.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Monte Carlo tunneling from quantum chemistry to quantum annealing. (arXiv:1703.08189v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Quantum Tunneling is ubiquitous across different fields, from quantum chemical reactions, and magnetic materials to quantum simulators and quantum computers. While simulating the real-time quantum dynamics of tunneling is infeasible for high-dimensional systems, quantum tunneling also shows up in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations that scale polynomially with system size. Here we extend a recent results obtained for quantum spin models {[{Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\bf 117}, 180402 (2016)]}, and study high-dimensional continuos variable models for proton transfer reactions. We demonstrate that QMC simulations efficiently recover ground state tunneling rates due to the existence of an instanton path, which always connects the reactant state with the product. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of quantum chemical reactions and quantum annealing, where quantum tunneling is expected to be a valuable resource for solving combinatorial optimization problems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Hidden Vacuum Rabi oscillations: Dynamical Quantum Superpositions of On/Off Interaction between a Single Quantum Dot and a Microcavity. (arXiv:1703.08197v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We show that it is possible to realize quantum superpositions of switched-on and -off strong light-matter interaction in a single quantum dot- semiconductor microcavity system. Such superpositions enable the observation of counterintuitive quantum conditional dynamics effects. Situations are possible where cavity photons as well as the emitter luminescence display exponential decay but their joint detection probability exhibits vacuum Rabi oscillations. Remarkably, these quantum correlations are also present in the nonequilibrium steady state spectra of such coherently driven dissipative quantum systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On the Qubits Dynamics in Random Matrix Environment. (arXiv:1703.08209v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We consider the entanglement evolution of two qubits embedded into disordered multiconnected environment at zero temperature. We model the environment as well as its interaction with qubits by large random matrices allowing for a possibility to describe environments of meso- and even nanosize. We obtain general formulas for the time dependent reduced density matrix of the qubits corresponding to several versions of the qubit-environment interaction and initial conditions and then workout an analog of Born-Markov approximation to find the evolution of the widely used entanglement quantifiers: the negativity, the concurrence and the quantum discord. We show that even in this approximation the time evolution of the reduced density matrix can be non-Markovian, thereby describing certain memory effects due to the backaction of the environment on the qubits, in particular the vanishing of the entanglement at a finite moment and its subsequent revival (Entanglement Sudden Death and Entanglement Sudden Birth). Our results can be viewed as a manifestation of the universality of certain properties of decoherent qubit evolution which have been found previously in various versions of bosonic macroscopic environment.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Emulating Majorana fermions and their braiding by Ising spin chains. (arXiv:1703.08224v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We analyse the control of Majorana zero-energy states by mapping the fermionic system onto a chain of Ising spins. Although the topological protection is lost for the Ising chain, the properties of this system provide added insight into the nature of the quantum states. By controlling the local magnetic field, the Ising chain can be separated into topological and non-topological parts. In this paper we propose (topologically non-protected) schemes which allow performing the braiding operation, and in fact also more general rotations. We consider a T-junction geometry, but we also propose a protocol for a strictly one-dimensional setup. Both setups rely on an extra spin-1/2 coupler included either in the T-junction, or as part of the chain such that it controls one of the Ising links. Depending on the quantum state of the coupler, this link can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. The coupler can be manipulated once the topological parts of the chain hosting the Majorana fermions are moved far away. Our scheme overcomes limitations which are a consequence of the 1D character of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. We also propose an experimental implementation of our scheme based on a chain of flux qubits with a design providing the needed control fields.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Spin-helix states in the $XXZ$ spin chain with strong dissipation. (arXiv:1703.08233v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We investigate the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) in an open quantum XXZ chain with strong $XY$ plane boundary polarization gradient. Using the general theory developed in [1], we show that in the critical $XXZ$ $|\Delta|<1$ easy plane case, the steady current in large systems under strong driving shows resonance-like behaviour, by an infinitesimal change of the spin chain anisotropy or other parameters. Alternatively, by fine tuning the system parameters and varying the boundary dissipation strength, we observe a change of the NESS current from diffusive (of order $1/N$, for small dissipation strength) to ballistic regime (of order 1, for large dissipation strength). This drastic change results from an accompanying structural change of the NESS, which becomes a pure spin-helix state characterized by a winding number which is proportional to the system size. We calculate the critical dissipation strength needed to observe this surprising effect.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Molecular quantum spin network controlled by a single qubit. (arXiv:1703.08248v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Scalable quantum technologies will require an unprecedented combination of precision and complexity for designing stable structures of well-controllable quantum systems. It is a challenging task to find a suitable elementary building block, of which a quantum network can be comprised in a scalable way. Here we present the working principle of such a basic unit, engineered using molecular chemistry, whose control and readout are executed using a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The basic unit we investigate is a synthetic polyproline with electron spins localized on attached molecular sidegroups separated by a few nanometers. We demonstrate the readout and coherent manipulation of very few ($\leq 6 $) of these $S=1/2$ electronic spin systems and access their direct dipolar coupling tensor. Our results show, that it is feasible to use spin-labeled peptides as a resource for a molecular-qubit based network, while at the same time providing simple optical readout of single quantum states through NV-magnetometry. This work lays the foundation for building arbitrary quantum networks using well-established chemistry methods, which has many applications ranging from mapping distances in single molecules to quantum information processing.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Negativity Bounds for Weyl-Heisenberg Quasiprobability Representations. (arXiv:1703.08272v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

The appearance of negative terms in quasiprobability representations of quantum theory is known to be inevitable, and, due to its equivalence with the onset of contextuality, of central interest in quantum computation and information. Until recently, however, nothing has been known about how much negativity is necessary in a quasiprobability representation. Zhu proved that the upper and lower bounds with respect to one type of negativity measure are saturated by quasiprobability representations which are in one-to-one correspondence with the elusive symmetric informationally complete quantum measurements (SICs). We define a family of negativity measures which includes Zhu's as a special case and consider another member of the family which we call "sum negativity." We prove a sufficient condition for local maxima in sum negativity and find exact global maxima in dimensions $3$ and $4$. Notably, we find that Zhu's result on the SICs does not generally extend to sum negativity, although the analogous result does hold in dimension $4$. Finally, the Hoggar lines in dimension $8$ make an appearance in a conjecture on sum negativity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Anderson localization of a Rydberg electron along a classical orbit. (arXiv:1703.08339v1 [physics.atom-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Anderson localization is related to exponential localization of a particle in the configuration space in the presence of a disorder potential. Anderson localization can be also observed in the momentum space and corresponds to quantum suppression of classical diffusion in systems that are classically chaotic. Another kind of Anderson localization has been recently proposed, i.e. localization in the time domain due to the presence of {\it disorder} in time. That is, the probability density for the detection of a system at a fixed position in the configuration space is localized exponentially around a certain moment of time if a system is driven by a force that fluctuates in time. We show that an electron in a Rydberg atom, perturbed by a fluctuating microwave field, Anderson localizes along a classical periodic orbit. In other words the probability density for the detection of an electron at a fixed position on an orbit is exponentially localized around a certain time moment. This phenomenon can be experimentally observed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Interpretation miniatures. (arXiv:1703.08341v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the "Copenhagen" interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of "local non-reality" interpretation. About the many-world interpretation, we explain that it is neither local nor non-local, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between non-local correlation and non-local causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how non-relativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum non-locality. Finally, we explain why life is compatible with the 2nd law.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Stability and area law for rapidly mixing quantum dissipative systems. (arXiv:1703.08346v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

In this thesis we study properties of open quantum dissipative evolutions of spin systems on lattices described by Lindblad generators, in a particular regime that we denote rapid mixing. We consider dissipative evolutions with a unique fixed point, and which compress the whole space of input states into increasingly small neighborhoods of the fixed point. The time scale at which this compression takes place, or in other words the time we have to wait for any input state to become almost indistinguishable from the fixed point, is called the mixing time of the process. Rapid mixing is a condition on the scaling of this mixing time with the system size: if it is logarithmic, then we have rapid mixing.

The main contribution of this thesis is to show that rapid mixing has profound implications for the corresponding system: it is stable against external perturbations and its fixed point satisfies an area law for mutual information.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Ultracold atoms in quasi-1D traps: a step beyond the Lieb-Liniger model. (arXiv:1703.08364v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Ultracold atoms placed in a tight cigar-shaped trap are usually described in terms of the Lieb-Liniger model. We study the extensions of this model which arise when van der Waals interaction between atoms is taken into account. We find that the corrections induced by the finite range of interactions can become especially important in the vicinity of narrow Feshbach resonances and suggest realistic schemes of their experimental detection. The interplay of confinement and interactions can lead to effective transparency where the one-dimensional interactions are weak in a wide range of parameters.

Categories: Journals, Physics

The Path to Increasing the Coincidence Efficiency of Integrated Photon Sources. (arXiv:1703.08368v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

Silicon ring resonators are used as photon pair sources by taking advantage of silicon's large third order nonlinearity with a process known as spontaneous four wave mixing. These sources are capable of producing pairs of indistinguishable photons but typically suffer from an effective $50\%$ loss. By slightly decoupling the input waveguide from the ring, the drop port coincidence ratio can be significantly increased with the trade-off being that the pump is less efficiently coupled into the ring. Ring resonators with this design have been demonstrated having coincidence ratios of $\sim 96\%$ but requiring a factor of $\sim 10$ increase in the pump power. Through the modification of the coupling design that relies on additional spectral dependence, it is possible to achieve similar coincidence ratios without the increased pumping requirement. This can be achieved by coupling the input waveguide to the ring multiple times, thus creating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This coupler design can be used on both sides of the ring resonator so that resonances supported by one of the couplers are suppressed by the other. This is the ideal configuration for a photon-pair source as it can only support the pump photons at the input side while only allowing the generated photons to leave through the output side. Recently, this device has been realized with preliminary results exhibiting the desired spectral dependence and with a coincidence ratio as high as $\sim 97\%$ while allowing the pump to be nearly critically coupled to the ring. The demonstrated near unity coincidence ratio infers a near maximal heralding efficiency from the fabricated device. This device has the potential to greatly improve the scalability and performance of quantum computing and communication systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Zeno effects from measurement controlled qubit-bath interactions. (arXiv:1703.08371v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

The Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are features of measurement-driven quantum evolution where frequent measurement inhibits or accelerates the decay of a quantum state. Either type of evolution can emerge depending on the system-environment interaction and measurement method. In this experiment, we use a superconducting qubit to map out both types of Zeno effect in the presence of structured noise baths and variable measurement rates. We observe both the suppression and acceleration of qubit decay as repeated measurements are used to modulate the qubit spectrum causing the qubit to sample different portions of the bath. We compare the Zeno effects arising from dispersive energy measurements and purely-dephasing `quasi'-measurements, showing energy measurements are not necessary to accelerate or suppress the decay process.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Density-of-states of many-body quantum systems from tensor networks. (arXiv:1703.08411v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We present a technique to compute the microcanonical thermodynamical properties of a manybody quantum system using tensor networks. The Density Of States (DOS), and more general spectral properties, are evaluated by means of a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation performed on top of a real-time evolution, which is carried out via numerical methods based on tensor networks. As a consequence, the free energy and thermal averages can be also calculated. We test this approach on the one-dimensional Ising and Fermi-Hubbard models. Using matrix product states, we show that the thermodynamical quantities as a function of temperature are in very good agreement with the exact results. This approach can be extended to higher-dimensional system by properly employing other types of tensor networks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantization(s): a compendium. (arXiv:1703.08443v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We present a list of formulae useful for Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantizations, with arbitrary weight, of functions or distributions on the plane. Most of these formulae are known, others are original. The list encompasses particular cases like Weyl-Wigner quantization (constant weight) and coherent states (CS) or Berezin quantization (Gaussian weight). The formulae are given with implicit assumptions on their validity on appropriate space(s) of functions (or distributions). One of the aims of the document is to accompany a work in progress on Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantization of dynamics for the motion of a point particle on the line.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Adiabatic tracking for photo- and magneto-association of Bose-Einstein condensates with Kerr nonlinearities. (arXiv:1703.08447v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-03-27 06:23

We develop the method of adiabatic tracking for photo- and magneto-association of Bose-Einstein atomic condensates with models that include Kerr type nonlinearities. We show that the inclusion of these terms can produce qualitatively important modifications in the adiabatic dynamics, like the appearance of bifurcations, in which the trajectory that is being tracked loses its stability. As a consequence the adiabatic theorem does not apply and the adiabatic transfer can be strongly degraded. This degradation can be compensated by using fields that are strong enough compared with the values of the Kerr terms. The main result is that, despite these potentially detrimental features, there is always a choice of the detuning that leads to an efficient adiabatic tracking, even for relatively weak fields.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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