We investigate the quantum dynamics of a harmonically trapped particle (e.g. an ion) that is immersed in a Bose--Einstein condensate. The ultracold environment acts as a refrigerator, and thus, the influence on the motion of the ion is dissipative. We study the fully coupled quantum dynamics of particle and Bose gas in a linearized regime, treating the quasi-particle excitations of the gas as a (non-Markovian) environment for the particle dynamics. The density operator of the latter follows a known non-Markovian master equation with a highly non-trivial bath correlation function that we determine and study in detail. The corresponding damping rate and frequency shift of the particle oscillations can be read off. We are able to identify a Quantum Landau criterion for harmonically trapped particles in a superfluid environment: for frequencies $\omega$ well below the chemical potential, the damping rate is strongly suppressed by a power law $\omega^4$. This criterion can be seen as emerging from the classical Landau criterion involving a critical velocity combined with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for the localized wave packet of the quantum particle. Furthermore, due to the finite size of the Bose gas, after some time we observe memory effects and thus non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum oscillator.

Author(s): Bryan T. Gard, Kurt Jacobs, R. McDermott, and M. Saffman

A candidate for converting quantum information from microwave to optical frequencies is the use of a single atom that interacts with a superconducting microwave resonator on one hand and an optical cavity on the other. The large electric dipole moments and microwave transition frequencies possessed ...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 013833] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

Author(s): Bismarck C. Lima, Pablo I. R. Pincheira, Ernesto P. Raposo, Leonardo de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, Anderson S. L. Gomes, and Raman Kashyap

We report on the extreme-value statistics of output intensities in a one-dimensional cw-pumped erbium-doped random fiber laser, with a strongly scattering disordered medium consisting of randomly spaced Bragg gratings. The experimental findings from the analysis of a large number of emission spectra...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 013834] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

Author(s): Koen van Kruining, Armen G. Hayrapetyan, and Jörg B. Götte

We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stron...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030401] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

Author(s): Giacomo Torlai and Roger G. Melko

We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the trainin...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 030501] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

The most precise measurement to date of the proton mass finds a value that is 3 standard deviations lower than previous estimates.

[Physics] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Dave Bacon

We consider quantum algorithms for the unique sink orientation problem on cubes. This problem is widely considered to be of intermediate computational complexity. This is because there is no known polynomial algorithm (classical or quantum) for the problem and yet it arises as part of a series of pr...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 012323] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

Author(s): Kent A. G. Fisher, Duncan G. England, Jean-Philippe W. MacLean, Philip J. Bustard, Khabat Heshami, Kevin J. Resch, and Benjamin J. Sussman

Bulk diamond phonons have been shown to be a versatile platform for the generation, storage, and manipulation of high-bandwidth quantum states of light. Here we demonstrate a diamond quantum memory that stores, and releases on demand, an arbitrarily polarized ∼250 fs duration photonic qubit. The sin...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 012324] Published Tue Jul 18, 2017

We study the impact of finite-size effects on the key rate of continuous-variable (CV) measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Inspired by the parameter estimation technique developed in [Rupert \textit{et al.} Phys. Rev. A \textbf{90}, 062310 (2014)]~we adapt it to study CV-MDI-QKD and, assuming realistic experimental conditions, we analyze the impact of finite-size effects on the key rate. We find that, increasing the block-size, the performance of the protocol converges towards the ideal one, and that block-sizes between $10^{6}$ and $10^{9}$ data points can already provide a key rate $\sim10^{-2}$ bit/use over metropolitan distances.

It is well known that in quantum mechanics we cannot always define consistently properties that are context independent. Many approaches exist to describe contextual properties, such as Contextuality by Default (CbD), sheaf theory, topos theory, and non-standard or signed probabilities. In this paper we propose a treatment of contextual properties that is specific to quantum mechanics, as it relies on the relationship between contextuality and indistinguishability. In particular, we propose that if we assume the ontological thesis that quantum particles or properties can be indistinguishable yet different, no contradiction arising from a Kochen-Specker-type argument appears: when we repeat an experiment, we are in reality performing an experiment measuring a property that is indistinguishable from the first, but not the same. We will discuss how the consequences of this move may help us understand quantum contextuality.

We propose and analyse a nonlinear optical apparatus in which the direction of asymmetric steering is controllable within the apparatus, rather than by adding noise to measurements. Using a nondegenerate parametric oscillator with an injected signal field, we show how the directionality and extent of the steering can be readily controlled for output modes which can be up to one octave apart. The two downconverted modes, which exhibit the greater violations of the steering inequalities, can also be controlled to exhibit asymmetric steering in some regimes.

Paramagnetic centres in a solid hold promise in future sensing applications. Numerous sensing applications have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. However, the improvement of sensitivity remains challenging. One approach to overcome this is hybrid quantum sensing with quantum memories. The key to this approach is a trade-off between the number of memory and coherence times (T2) of spins. We propose a new concept of a hybrid quantum sensing with virtual memories using dressed states. We also observe the preliminarily generation of two dressed states in a single paramagnetic centre based on Autler-Townes splitting (ATS). Furthermore, we simulate the sensitivity according to the number of dressed states generated in strong microwave driving fields. The experimental results and the simulation will pave the way to new hybrid quantum sensing, which can flexibly manipulate a higher sensitivity in accordance with the number of quantum virtual memories.

We point out that the momentum distribution is not a proper observable for a system of anyons in two-dimensions. In view of anyons as Wilczek's composite charged flux-tubes, this is a consequence of the fact that the orthogonal components of the kinetic momentum operator do not commute at the position of a flux tube, and thus cannot be diagonalized in the same basis. As a substitute for the momentum distribution of an anyonic (spatially localized) state, we propose to use the asymptotic single-particle density after expansion of anyons in free space from the state. This definition is identical with the standard one when the statistical parameter approaches that for bosons or fermions. Exact examples of expansion dynamics, which underpin our proposal, and observables that can be used to measure anyonic statistics, are shown.

We systematically study a Kitaev chain with imbalanced pair creation and annihilation, which is introduced by non-Hermitian pairing terms. Exact phase diagram shows that the topological phase is still robust under the influence of the conditional imbalance. The gapped phases are characterized by a topological invariant, the extended Zak phase, which is defined by the biorthonormal inner product. Such phases are destroyed at the points where the coalescence of groundstates occur, associating with the time-reversal symmetry breaking. We find that the Majorana edge modes also exist for the open chain within unbroken time-reversal symmetric region, demonstrating the bulk-edge correspondence in such a non-Hermitian system.

In this paper, we prove that $K_G(3)<K_G(4)$, where $K_G(d)$ denotes the Grothendieck constant of order $d$. To this end, we use a branch-and-bound algorithm commonly used in the solution of NP-hard problems. It has recently been proven that $K_G(3)\le 1.4644$. Here we prove that $K_G(4)\ge 1.4841$, which has implications for device-independent witnessing dimensions greater than two. Furthermore, the algorithm with some modifications may find applications in various black-box quantum information tasks with large number of inputs and outputs.

This paper proposes an efficient method for the simultaneous estimation of the state of a quantum system and the classical parameters that govern its evolution. This hybrid approach benefits from efficient numerical methods for the integration of stochastic master equations for the quantum system, and efficient parameter estimation methods from classical signal processing. The classical techniques use Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, which aim to optimize the selection of points within the parameter space, conditioned by the measurement data obtained. We illustrate these methods using a specific example, an SMC sampler applied to a nonlinear system, the Duffing oscillator, where the evolution of the quantum state of the oscillator and three Hamiltonian parameters are estimated simultaneously.

Logical information theory is the quantitative version of the logic of partitions just as logical probability theory is the quantitative version of the dual Boolean logic of subsets. The resulting notion of information is about distinctions, differences, and distinguishability, and is formalized as the distinctions of a partition (a pair of points distinguished by the partition). All the definitions of simple, joint, conditional, and mutual entropy of Shannon information theory are derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding definitions at the logical level. The purpose of this paper is to give the direct generalization to quantum logical information theory that similarly focuses on the pairs of eigenstates distinguished by an observable, i.e., qubits of an observable. The fundamental theorem for quantum logical entropy and measurement establishes a direct quantitative connection between the increase in quantum logical entropy due to a projective measurement and the eigenstates (cohered together in the pure superposition state being measured) that are distinguished by the measurement (decohered in the post-measurement mixed state). Both the classical and quantum versions of logical entropy have simple interpretations as "two-draw" probabilities. The conclusion is that quantum logical entropy is the simple and natural notion of information for a quantum information theory focusing on the distinguishing of quantum states.

We investigate an optimization problem of finding quantum sequential measurements, which forms a wide class of state discrimination problems with the restriction that only sequential measurements are allowed. Sequential measurements from Alice to Bob on a bipartite system are considered. Using the fact that the optimization problem can be formulated as a problem with only Alice's measurement and is convex programming, we derive its dual problem and necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal solution. In the problem we address, the output of Alice's measurement can be infinite or continuous, while sequential measurements with a finite number of outcomes are considered. It is shown that there exists an optimal sequential measurement in which Alice's measurement with a finite number of outcomes as long as a solution exists. We also show that if the problem has a certain symmetry, then there exists an optimal solution with the same type of symmetry. A minimax version of the problem is considered, and necessary and sufficient conditions for a minimax solution are derived. An example in which our results can be used to obtain an analytical expression for an optimal sequential measurement is finally provided.

A possible quantum-mechanical origin of statistical mechanics is discussed. Microcanonical and canonical ensembles of bosons and fermions are derived from quantum mechanics. The interaction Hamiltonians are constructed based on the discrete phase operators and the gauge invariance associated with them. A discussion is also made about the interrelation between disappearance of the interactions and random phases.

In digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with qubits, one requires the use of non-local maps for encoding. Such maps require linear or logarithmic overhead in circuit depth which could render the simulation useless, for a given decoherence time. Here we show how one can use a cavity-QED system to perform digital quantum simulation of fermionic models. In particular, we show that highly nonlocal Jordan-Wigner (JW) or Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) transformations can be efficiently implemented through a hardware approach. The key idea is using ancilla cavity modes, which are dispersively coupled to a qubit string, to collectively manipulate and measure qubit states. Our scheme reduces the circuit depth in each Trotter step of JW (BK) encoding, by a factor of $N^2$ ($N \log N$), where $N$ is the number of orbitals for a generic two-body Hamiltonian. Additional analysis for the Fermi-Hubbard model on an $N\times N$ square lattice results in a similar reduction. We also discuss a detailed implementation of our scheme with superconducting qubits and cavities.