Entangled states are an important resource for quantum computation, communication, metrology, and the simulation of many-body systems. However, noise limits the experimental preparation of such states. Classical data can be efficiently denoised by autoencoders---neural networks trained in unsupervised manner. We develop a novel quantum autoencoder that successfully denoises Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states subject to spin-flip errors and random unitary noise. Various emergent quantum technologies could benefit from the proposed unsupervised quantum neural networks.

We construct a collision model description of the thermalization of a finite many-body system by using careful derivation of the corresponding Lindblad-type master equation. In particular, we show that collision model thermalization is crucially dependent on the various relevant system and bath timescales and on ensuring that the environment is composed of ancillae which are resonant with the system transition frequencies. Unlike other collision models that employ partial swap system-environment interactions, our scheme can lead to thermalization for certain classes of many-body systems.

We generalize a standard benchmark of reinforcement learning, the classical cartpole balancing problem, to the quantum regime by stabilizing a particle in an unstable potential through measurement and feedback. We use the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning to stabilize the quantum cartpole and find that our deep learning approach performs comparably to or better than other strategies in standard control theory. Our approach also applies to measurement-feedback cooling of quantum oscillators, showing the applicability of deep learning to general continuous-space quantum control.

A class of high-order canonical symplectic structure-preserving geometric algorithms are developed for high-quality simulations of the quantized Dirac-Maxwell theory based strong-field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) and relativistic quantum plasmas (RQP) phenomena. With minimal coupling, the Lagrangian density of an interacting bispionr-gauge fields theory is constructed in a conjugate real fields form. The canonical symplectic form and canonical equations of this field theory are obtained by the general Hamilton's principle on cotangent bundle. Based on discrete exterior calculus, the gauge field components are discreted to form a cochain complex, and the bispionr components are naturally discreted on a staggered dual lattice as different differential forms. With pull-back and push-forward gauge covariant derivatives, the discrete action is gauge invariant. A well-defined discrete canonical Poisson bracket generates a semi-discrete lattice canonical field theory (LCFT), which admits canonical symplectic form, unitary property, gauge symmetry and Poincar\'e invariance. The Hamiltonian splitting method, Cayley transformation and symmetric composition technique are introduced to construct a class of high-order numerical schemes for the semi-discrete LCFT. These schemes are fermion doubling free and locally unconditional stable, which also preserve the geometric structures. Equipped with statistically quantization-equivalent ensemble models of the Dirac vacuum and non-trivial plasma backgrounds, the schemes are expected to have excellent performance in secular simulations of relativistic quantum effects. The algorithms are verified in detail by numerical energy spectra. Real-time LCFT simulations are successfully implemented for the nonlinear Schwinger mechanism induced e-e^+ pairs creation and vacuum Kerr effect, which open a new door toward high-quality simulations in SFQED and RQP.

We investigate the properties of Lindblad equations on $d$-dimensional lattices supporting a unique steady-state configuration. We consider the case of a time evolution weakly symmetric under the action of a finite group $G$, which is also a symmetry group for the lattice structure. We show that in such case the steady-state belongs to a relevant subspace, and provide an explicit algorithm for constructing an orthonormal basis of such set. As explicitly shown for a spin-1/2 system, the dimension of such subspace is extremely smaller than the dimension of the set of square operators. As a consequence, by projecting the dynamics within such set, the steady-state configuration can be determined with a considerable reduced amount of resources. We demonstrate the validity of our theoretical results by determinining the \emph{exact} structure of the steady-state configuration of the two dimensional XYZ model in the presence of uniform dissipation, with and without magnetic fields, up to a number of sites equal to 12. As far as we know, this is the first time one is capable of determining the steady-state structure of such model for the 12 sites cluster exactly. Altough in this work we consider explicitly only spin-1/2 systems, our approach can be exploited in the characterisation of arbitrary spin systems, fermion and boson systems (with truncated Fock space), as well as many-particle systems with degrees of freedom having different statistical properties.

We assess the performance of an entanglement indicator which can be obtained directly from tomograms, avoiding state reconstruction procedures. In earlier work, we have examined this tomographic entanglement indicator, and a variant obtained from it, in the context of continuous variable systems. It has been shown that, in multipartite systems of radiation fields, these indicators fare as well as standard measures of entanglement. In this paper, we assess these indicators in the case of two generic hybrid quantum systems, the double Jaynes-Cummings model and the double Tavis-Cummings model using, for purposes of comparison, the quantum mutual information as a standard reference for both quantum correlations and entanglement. The dynamics of entanglement is investigated in both models over a sufficiently long time interval. We establish that the tomographic indicator provides a good estimate of the extent of entanglement both in the atomic subsystems and in the field subsystems. An indicator obtained from the tomographic indicator as an approximation, however, does not capture the entanglement properties of atomic subsystems, although it is useful for field subsystems. Our results are inferred from numerical calculations based on the two models, simulations of relevant equivalent circuits in both cases, and experiments performed on the IBM computing platform.

The dynamics of any quantum system is unavoidably influenced by the external environment. Thus, the observation of a quantum system (probe) can allow the measure of the environmental features. Here, to spectrally resolve a noise field coupled to the quantum probe, we employ dissipative manipulations of the probe, leading to so-called Stochastic Quantum Zeno (SQZ) phenomena. A quantum system coupled to a stochastic noise field and subject to a sequence of protective Zeno measurements slowly decays from its initial state with a survival probability that depends both on the measurement frequency and the noise. We present a robust sensing method to reconstruct the unkonwn noise power spectral density by evaluating the survival probability that we obtain when we additionally apply a set of coherent control pulses to the probe. The joint effect of coherent control, protective measurements and noise field on the decay provides us the desired information on the noise field.

We consider a family of states in a model of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, with positive Hamiltonian $H$. For a given initial state $\Psi$, the return probability amplitude $R_{\Psi}(t) = (\Psi, \exp(-iHt) \Psi)$ may be written for positive times, as the sum of an exponentially decaying term and a correction $O(\frac{1}{t})$, for large times $t$ and small coupling constants (Theorem 4.1). The correction term is seen to be related both to the positivity of $H$ and to the existence of the virtual process of regeneration of the decaying state from the decay products, which is shown to be essentially quantum field theoretic, i.e., not present in nonrelativistic Schroedinger quantum mechanics. Some implications of this fact are analysed from the point of view of a general picture of irreversibility and the "arrow of time" in quantum field theory. Finally, we make a first application of a time-energy uncertainty theorem to a quantum field theoretic model, in order to find a lower bound to the energy fluctuation in the state $\Psi$ (Theorem 5.2). In the process, it is also suggested that the time of sojourn $\tau_{H}(\Psi)= \int_{0}^{\infty} |R_{\Psi}(t)|^{2}dt$ is the most natural quantity to consider in connection with the decay of unstable atoms or particles: it is proved to coincide with the the average lifetime of the decaying state, a standard quantity in quantum probability. No use is made of complex energies associated to analytic continuations of the resolvent operator to "unphysical" Riemann sheets.

In order to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, one needs to implement a logical non-Clifford gate. Consequently, it is important to understand codes that implement such gates transversally. In this paper, we adopt an algebraic approach to characterize all stabilizer codes for which transversal $T$ and $T^{-1}$ gates preserve the codespace. Our Heisenberg perspective reduces this to a finite geometry problem that translates to the design of certain classical codes. We prove three corollaries: (a) For any non-degenerate $[[ n,k,d ]]$ stabilizer code supporting a physical transversal $T$, there exists an $[[ n,k,d ]]$ CSS code with the same property; (b) Triorthogonal codes are the most general CSS codes that realize logical transversal $T$ via physical transversal $T$; (c) Triorthogonality is necessary for physical transversal $T$ on a CSS code to realize the logical identity. The main tool we use is a recent efficient characterization of certain diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy (arXiv:1902.04022). We refer to these gates as Quadratic Form Diagonal (QFD) gates. Our framework generalizes all existing code constructions that realize logical gates via transversal $T$. We provide several examples and briefly discuss connections to decreasing monomial codes, pin codes, generalized triorthogonality and quasitransversality. We partially extend these results towards characterizing all stabilizer codes that support transversal $\pi/2^{\ell}$ $Z$-rotations. In particular, using Ax's theorem on residue weights of polynomials, we provide an alternate characterization of logical gates induced by transversal $\pi/2^{\ell}$ $Z$-rotations on a family of quantum Reed-Muller codes. We also briefly discuss a general approach to analyze QFD gates that might lead to a characterization of all stabilizer codes that support any given physical transversal $1$- or $2$-local diagonal gate.

We explore a counterfactual protocol for energy transfer. A modified version of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer dissociates a photon's position and energy into separate channels, resulting in a photoelectric effect in one channel without the absorption of a photon. We use the quantum Zeno effect to extend our results by recycling the same photon through the system and obtain a stream of photoelectrons. If dissociation of properties such as energy can be demonstrated experimentally, there may be a variety of novel energy-related applications that may arise from the capacity to do non-local work. The dissociation of intrinsic properties, like energy, from elementary particles may also lead to theoretical discussions of the constitution of quantum objects.

We show that the commonly accepted treatment of the photon antibunching effect as a natural consequence of a probability distribution of particles in a particle flow contradicts the high visibility of the experimentally observed intensity correlation function.

We theoretically proposed one of the approaches achieving the quantum entanglement between light and microwave by means of electro-optic effect. Based on the established full quantum model of electro-optic interaction, the entanglement characteristics between light and microwave are studied by using the logarithmic negativity as a measure of the steady-state equilibrium operating point of the system. The investigation shows that the entanglement between light and microwave is a complicated function of multiple physical parameters, the parameters such as ambient temperature, optical detuning, microwave detuning and coupling coefficient have an important influence on the entanglement. When the system operates at narrow pulse widths and/or low repetition frequencies, it has obvious entanglement about 20 K, which is robust to the thermal environment.

We prove that quantum Gibbs states of spin systems above a certain threshold temperature are approximate quantum Markov networks, meaning that the conditional mutual information decays rapidly with distance. We prove exponential decay (power-law decay) for short-ranged (long-ranged) interacting systems. As consequences, we establish the efficiency of quantum Gibbs sampling algorithms, a strong version of the area law, the quasi-locality of effective Hamiltonians on subsystems, a clustering theorem for mutual information, and a polynomial-time algorithm for classical Gibbs state simulation.

We demonstrate that it is feasible to carry out a real time simulation of a quantum field theory in one spacial dimension using current quantum computers. We use the transverse Ising model in one spatial dimension with 4 sites as an example on two of IBM's quantum computers, Poughkeepsie and Boeblingen, but this methodology is easily extendable to other field theories such as the Schwinger model and the Thirring model. We demonstrate that a Richardson extrapolation can allow us to mitigate the machine noise and to look at the time evolution with enough Trotter steps corresponding to the characteristic time scale of the model. We show that for sufficiently small time frames, algorithmic errors from the Suzuki-Trotter approximation can also be reduced on current machines.

We report on a quantum-classical simulation of the single-band Hubbard model using two-site dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Our approach uses IBM's superconducting qubit chip to compute the zero-temperature impurity Green's function in the time domain and a classical computer to fit the measured Green's functions and extract their frequency domain parameters. We find that the quantum circuit synthesis (Trotter) and hardware errors lead to incorrect frequency estimates, and subsequently to an inaccurate quasiparticle weight when calculated from the frequency derivative of the self-energy. These errors produce incorrect hybridization parameters that prevent the DMFT algorithm from converging to the correct self-consistent solution. To avoid this pitfall, we compute the quasiparticle weight by integrating the quasiparticle peaks in the spectral function. This method is much less sensitive to Trotter errors and allows the algorithm to converge to self-consistency for a half-filled Mott insulating system after applying quantum error mitigation techniques to the quantum simulation data.

Harnessing quantum processes is an efficient method to generate truly indeterministic random numbers, which are of fundamental importance for cryptographic protocols, security applications or Monte-Carlo simulations. Recently, quantum random number generators based on continuous variables have gathered a lot of attention due to the potentially high bit rates they can deliver. Especially quadrature measurements on shot-noise limited states have been studied in detail as they do not offer any side information to potential adversaries under ideal experimental conditions. However, they may be subject to additional classical noise beyond the quantum limit, which may become a source of side information for eavesdroppers. While such eavesdropping attacks have been investigated in theory in some detail, experimental studies are still rare. We experimentally realize a continuous variable eavesdropping attack, based on heterodyne detection, on a trusted quantum random number generator and discuss the limitations for secure random number generation that arise.

Recent experiments have shown that preparing an array of Rydberg atoms in a certain initial state can lead to unusually slow thermalization and persistent density oscillations [Bernien et al., Nature 551, 579 (2017)]. This type of non-ergodic behavior has been attributed to the existence of "quantum many-body scars", i.e., atypical eigenstates of a system that have high overlaps with a small subset of vectors in the Hilbert space. Periodic dynamics and many-body scars are believed to originate from a "hard" kinetic constraint: due to strong interactions, no two neighbouring Rydberg atoms are both allowed to be excited. Here we propose a realization of quantum many-body scars in a 1D bosonic lattice model with a "soft" constraint: there are no restrictions on the allowed boson states, but the amplitude of a hop depends on the occupancy of the hopping site. We find that this model exhibits similar phenomenology to the Rydberg atom chain, including weakly entangled eigenstates at high energy densities and the presence of a large number of exact zero energy states, with distinct algebraic structure. We discuss the relation of this model to the standard Bose-Hubbard model and possible experimental realizations using ultracold atoms.

In a recent paper, we showed that secondary storage can extend the range of quantum circuits that can be practically simulated with classical algorithms. Here we refine those techniques and apply them to the simulation of Sycamore circuits with 53 and 54 qubits, with the entanglement pattern ABCDCDAB that has proven difficult to classically simulate with other approaches. Our analysis shows that on the Summit supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, such circuits can be simulated with high fidelity to arbitrary depth in a matter of days, outputting all the amplitudes.

The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) is designed to run on a gate model quantum computer and has shallow depth. It takes as input a combinatorial optimization problem and outputs a string that satisfies a high fraction of the maximum number of clauses that can be satisfied. For certain problems the lowest depth version of the QAOA has provable performance guarantees although there exist classical algorithms that have better guarantees. Here we argue that beyond its possible computational value the QAOA can exhibit a form of Quantum Supremacy in that, based on reasonable complexity theoretic assumptions, the output distribution of even the lowest depth version cannot be efficiently simulated on any classical device. We contrast this with the case of sampling from the output of a quantum computer running the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QADI) with the restriction that the Hamiltonian that governs the evolution is gapped and stoquastic. Here we show that there is an oracle that would allow sampling from the QADI but even with this oracle, if one could efficiently classically sample from the output of the QAOA, the Polynomial Hierarchy would collapse. This suggests that the QAOA is an excellent candidate to run on near term quantum computers not only because it may be of use for optimization but also because of its potential as a route to establishing quantum supremacy.

We introduce the concept of degree of quantumness in quantum synchronization, a measure of the quantum nature of synchronization in quantum systems. Following techniques from quantum information, we propose the number of non-commuting observables that synchronize as a measure of quantumness. This figure of merit is compatible with already existing synchronization measurements, and it captures different physical properties. We illustrate it in a quantum system consisting of two weakly interacting cavity-qubit systems, which are coupled via the exchange of bosonic excitations between the cavities. Moreover, we study the synchronization of the expectation values of the Pauli operators and we propose a feasible superconducting circuit setup. Finally, we discuss the degree of quantumness in the synchronization between two quantum van der Pol oscillators.