Measurements that occur within the internal layers of a quantum circuit -- mid-circuit measurements -- are an important quantum computing primitive, most notably for quantum error correction. Mid-circuit measurements have both classical and quantum outputs, so they can be subject to error modes that do not exist for measurements that terminate quantum circuits. Here we show how to characterize mid-circuit measurements, modelled by quantum instruments, using a technique that we call quantum instrument linear gate set tomography (QILGST). We then apply this technique to characterize a dispersive measurement on a superconducting transmon qubit within a multiqubit system. By varying the delay time between the measurement pulse and subsequent gates, we explore the impact of residual cavity photon population on measurement error. QILGST can resolve different error modes and quantify the total error from a measurement; in our experiment, for delay times above 1000 ns we measured a total error rate (i.e., half diamond distance) of $\epsilon_{\diamond} = 8.1 \pm 1.4 \%$, a readout fidelity of $97.0 \pm 0.3\%$, and output quantum state fidelities of $96.7 \pm 0.6\%$ and $93.7 \pm 0.7\%$ when measuring $0$ and $1$, respectively.

Computers has been endowed with a part of human-like intelligence owing to the rapid development of the artificial intelligence technology represented by the neural networks. Facing the challenge to make machines more imaginative, we consider a quantum stochastic neural network (QSNN), and propose a learning algorithm to update the parameters governing the network evolution. The QSNN can be applied to a class of classification problems, we investigate its performance in sentence classification and find that the coherent part of the quantum evolution can accelerate training, and improve the accuracy of verses recognition which can be deemed as a quantum enhanced associative memory. In addition, the coherent QSNN is found more robust against both label noise and device noise so that it is a more adaptive option for practical implementation.

We report the existence of a sizeable quantum tunnelling splitting between the two lowest electronic spin levels of mononuclear Ni complexes. The level anti-crossing, or magnetic clock transition, associated with this gap has been directly monitored by heat capacity experiments. The comparison of these results with those obtained for a Co derivative, for which tunnelling is forbidden by symmetry, shows that the clock transition leads to an effective suppression of intermolecular spin-spin interactions. In addition, we show that the quantum tunnelling splitting admits a chemical tuning via the modification of the ligand shell that determines the crystal field and the magnetic anisotropy. These properties are crucial to realize model spin qubits that combine the necessary resilience against decoherence, a proper interfacing with other qubits and with the control circuitry and the ability to initialize them by cooling.

We theoretically and experimentally investigate quantum features of an interacting light-matter system from a multidisciplinary perspective, unifying approaches from semiconductor physics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. To this end, we quantify the amount of quantum coherence that results from the quantum superposition of Fock states, constituting a measure of the resourcefulness of the produced state for modern quantum protocols. As an archetypal example of a hybrid light-matter interface, we study a polariton condensate and implement a numerical model to predict its properties. Our simulation is confirmed by our proof-of-concept experiment in which we measure and analyze the phase-space distributions of the emitted light. Specifically, we drive a polariton microcavity across the condensation threshold and observe the transition from an incoherent thermal state to a coherent state in the emission, thus confirming the build-up of quantum coherence in the condensate itself.

Quantum multifractality is a fundamental property of systems such as non-interacting disordered systems at an Anderson transition and many-body systems in Hilbert space. Here we discuss the origin of the presence or absence of a fundamental symmetry related to this property. The anomalous multifractal dimension $\Delta_q$ is used to characterize the structure of quantum states in such systems. Although the multifractal symmetry relation \mbox{$\Delta_q=\Delta_{1-q}$} is universally fulfilled in many known systems, recently some important examples have emerged where it does not hold. We show that the reason for this is the presence of atypically small eigenfunction amplitudes induced by two different mechanisms. The first one was already known and is related to Gaussian fluctuations well described by random matrix theory. The second one, not previously explored, is related to the presence of an algebraically localized envelope. While the effect of Gaussian fluctuations can be removed by coarse graining, the second mechanism is robust to such a procedure. We illustrate the violation of the symmetry due to algebraic localization on two systems of very different nature, a 1D Floquet critical system and a model corresponding to Anderson localization on random graphs.

We propose a general tensor network method for simulating quantum circuits. The method is massively more efficient in computing a large number of correlated bitstring amplitudes and probabilities than existing methods. As an application, we study the sampling problem of Google's Sycamore circuits, which are believed to be beyond the reach of classical supercomputers and have been used to demonstrate quantum supremacy. Using our method, employing a small computational cluster containing 60 graphical processing units (GPUs), we have generated one million correlated bitstrings with some entries fixed, from the Sycamore circuit with 53 qubits and 20 cycles, with linear cross-entropy benchmark (XEB) fidelity equals 0.739, which is much higher than those in Google's quantum supremacy experiments.

Unsharp measurements play an increasingly important role in quantum information theory. In this paper, we study a three-party prepare-transform-measure experiment with unsharp measurements based on $ 3 \rightarrow 1 $ sequential random access codes (RACs). We derive optimal trade-off between the two correlation witnesses in $ 3 \rightarrow 1 $ sequential quantum random access codes (QRACs), and use the result to complete the self-testing of quantum preparations, instruments and measurements for three sequential parties. We also give the upper and lower bounds of the sharpness parameter to complete the robustness analysis of the self-testing scheme. In addition, we find that classical correlation witness violation based on $3 \rightarrow 1 $ sequential RACs cannot be obtained by both correlation witnesses simultaneously. This means that if the second party uses strong unsharp measurements to overcome the classical upper bound, the third party cannot do so even with sharp measurements. Finally, we give the analysis and comparison of the random number generation efficiency under different sharpness parameters based on the determinant value, $2 \rightarrow 1 $ and $3 \rightarrow 1 $ QRACs separately. This letter sheds new light on generating random numbers among multi-party in semi-device independent framework.

We show the following generic result. Whenever a quantum query algorithm in the quantum random-oracle model outputs a classical value $t$ that is promised to be in some tight relation with $H(x)$ for some $x$, then $x$ can be efficiently extracted with almost certainty. The extraction is by means of a suitable simulation of the random oracle and works online, meaning that it is straightline, i.e., without rewinding, and on-the-fly, i.e., during the protocol execution and without disturbing it.

The technical core of our result is a new commutator bound that bounds the operator norm of the commutator of the unitary operator that describes the evolution of the compressed oracle (which is used to simulate the random oracle above) and of the measurement that extracts $x$.

We show two applications of our generic online extractability result. We show tight online extractability of commit-and-open $\Sigma$-protocols in the quantum setting, and we offer the first non-asymptotic post-quantum security proof of the textbook Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, i.e, without adjustments to facilitate the proof.

Gedanken experiments in quantum gravity motivate generalised uncertainty relations (GURs) implying deviations from the standard quantum statistics close to the Planck scale. These deviations have been extensively investigated for the non-spin part of the wave function but existing models tacitly assume that spin states remain unaffected by the quantisation of the background in which the quantum matter propagates. Here, we explore a new model of nonlocal geometry in which the Planck-scale smearing of classical points generates GURs for angular momentum. These, in turn, imply an analogous generalisation of the spin uncertainty relations. The new relations correspond to a novel representation of {\rm SU(2)} that acts nontrivially on both subspaces of the composite state describing matter-geometry interactions. For single particles each spin matrix has four independent eigenvectors, corresponding to two $2$-fold degenerate eigenvalues $\pm (\hbar + \beta)/2$, where $\beta$ is a small correction to the effective Planck's constant. These represent the spin states of a quantum particle immersed in a quantum background geometry and the correction by $\beta$ emerges as a direct result of the interaction terms. In addition to the canonical qubits states, $\ket{0} = \ket{\uparrow}$ and $\ket{1} = \ket{\downarrow}$, there exist two new eigenstates in which the spin of the particle becomes entangled with the spin sector of the fluctuating spacetime. We explore ways to empirically distinguish the resulting `geometric' qubits, $\ket{0'}$ and $\ket{1'}$, from their canonical counterparts.

We provide a Bell-type analysis of complementarity via a suitably designed hidden-variables model that leads to a set of Bell-like inequalities that can be tested by easily measured observables. We show that this violation is equivalent to Fine-like theorems regarding the lack of a joint distribution for incompatible observables. This is illustrated by path-interference duality in a Young interferometer.

Development of outreach skills is critical for researchers when communicating their work to non-expert audiences. However, due to the lack of formal training, researchers are typically unaware of the benefits of outreach training and often under-prioritize outreach. We present a training programme conducted with an international network of PhD students in quantum physics, which focused on developing outreach skills and an understanding of the associated professional benefits by creating an outreach portfolio consisting of a range of implementable outreach products. We describe our approach, assess the impact, and provide a list of guidelines for designing similar programmes across scientific disciplines in the future.

For a quantum system with energy E, there is a limitation in quantum computation which is identified by the minimum time needed for the state to evolve to an orthogonal state. In this paper, we will compute the minimum time of orthogonalization (i.e. quantum speed limit) for a simple anharmonic oscillator and find an upper bound on the rate of computations. We will also investigate the growth rate of complexity for the anharmonic oscillator by treating the anharmonic terms perturbatively. More precisely, we will compute the maximum rate of change of complexity and show that for even order perturbations, the rate of complexity increases while for the odd order terms it has a decreasing behavior.

The no-masking theorem says that masking quantum information is impossible in a bipartite scenario. However, there exist schemes to mask quantum states in multipartite systems. In this work, we show that, the joint measurement in the teleportation is really a masking process, when the apparatus is regarded as a quantum participant in the whole system.Based on the view, we present two four-partite maskers and a tripartite masker. One of the former provides a generalization in arbitrary dimension of the four-qubit scheme given by Li and Wang [Phys. Rev. A 98, 062306 (2018)], and the latter is precisely their tripartite scheme. The occupation probabilities and coherence of quantum states are masked in two steps of our schemes. And the information can be extracted naturally in their reverse processes.

Dimensionality reduction (DR) of data is a crucial issue for many machine learning tasks, such as pattern recognition and data classification. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm and a quantum circuit to efficiently perform linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for dimensionality reduction. Firstly, the presented algorithm improves the existing quantum LDA algorithm to avoid the error caused by the irreversibility of the between-class scatter matrix $S_B$ in the original algorithm. Secondly, a quantum algorithm and quantum circuits are proposed to obtain the target state corresponding to the low-dimensional data. Compared with the best-known classical algorithm, the quantum linear discriminant analysis dimensionality reduction (QLDADR) algorithm has exponential acceleration on the number $M$ of vectors and a quadratic speedup on the dimensionality $D$ of the original data space, when the original dataset is projected onto a polylogarithmic low-dimensional space. Moreover, the target state obtained by our algorithm can be used as a submodule of other quantum machine learning tasks. It has practical application value of make that free from the disaster of dimensionality.

Noise in quantum systems is a major obstacle to implementing many quantum algorithms on large quantum circuits. In this work, we study the effects of noise on the Rademacher complexity of quantum circuits, which is a measure of statistical complexity that quantifies the richness of classes of functions generated by these circuits. We consider noise models that are represented by convex combinations of unitary channels and provide both upper and lower bounds for the Rademacher complexities of quantum circuits characterized by these noise models. In particular, we find a lower bound for the Rademacher complexity of noisy quantum circuits that depends on the Rademacher complexity of the corresponding noiseless quantum circuit as well as the free robustness of the circuit. Our results show that the Rademacher complexity of quantum circuits decreases with the increase in noise.

A consistent theory, which describes the incoherent scattering of classically moving relativistic particles by the nuclei of crystal planes without any phenomenological parameter is presented. The basic notions of quantum mechanics are applied to introduce a fundamental compact formula for the mean square incoherent scattering angle per unit length of particle trajectory. The latter is used to implement the effects of the crystal atom distribution inhomogeneity into the Coulomb scattering simulations without noticeable elongation of the simulation time. The theory essentially reconsiders the nature of positively charged particle dechanneling from the low nuclear density regions, being essential in both the crystal undulators and envisaged measurements of the specific electromagnetic momenta of short living particles.

The information of a quantum system acquired by a Maxwell demon can be used for either work extraction or entanglement preparation. We study these two tasks by using a thermal qubit, in which a demon obtains her information from measurements on the environment of the qubit. The allowed entanglement, between the qubit and an auxiliary system, is enhanced by the information. And, the increment is find to be equivalent to the extractable work. The Maxwell demon is called to be quantum by Beyer \textit{et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett 123, 250606 (2019) ] if there is quantum steering from the environment to the qubit. In this case, the postmeasured states of the qubit, after the measurements on its environment, cannot be simulated by an objective local statistical ensemble. We present a upper bound of extractable work, and equivalently of the allowed entanglement, for unsteerable demons, considering two measurements inducing two orthogonal changes of the Bloch vector of the qubit.

We report near-deterministic generation of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave Townes solitons, and a precision test on scale invariance in attractive 2D Boses gases. We induce a shape-controlled modulational instability in an elongated 2D matter-wave to create an array of isolated solitary waves of various sizes and peak densities. We confirm scale invariance by observing the collapse of solitary-wave density profiles onto a single curve in a dimensionless coordinate rescaled according to their peak densities, and observe that the scale-invariant profiles measured at different coupling constants $g$ can further collapse onto the universal profile of Townes solitons. The reported scaling behavior is tested with a nearly 60-fold difference in soliton interaction energies, and allows us to discuss the impact of a non-negligible magnetic dipole-dipole interaction (MDDI) on 2D scale invariance. We confirm that the effect of MDDI in our alkali cesium quasi-2D samples effectively conforms to the same scaling law governed by a contact interaction to well within our experiment uncertainty.

Assuming that the free energy of a gas depends non-locally on the logarithm of its mass density, the body force in the resulting equation of motion consists of the sum of density gradient terms. Truncating this series after the second term, Bohm's quantum potential and the Madelung equation are identically obtained, showing explicitly that some of the hypotheses that led to the formulation of quantum mechanics admit a classical interpretation based on non-locality.

It can be argued that the ordinary description of the reversible quantum process between two one-to-one correlated measurement outcomes is incomplete because, by not specifying the direction of causality, it allows causal structures that violate the time symmetry that is required of a reversible process. This also means that it can be completed simply by time-symmetrizing it, namely by requiring that the initial and final measurements evenly contribute to the selection of their correlated pair of outcomes. This leaves the description unaltered but shows that it is the quantum superposition of unobservable time-symmetrized instances whose causal structure is completely defined. Each instance consists of a causal loop: the final measurement that changes backwards in time the input state of the unitary transformation that leads to the state immediately before it. In former works, we have shown that such loops exactly explain the quantum computational speedup and quantum nonlocality. In this work we show that they lead to a completion of the anthropic principle that allows a universe evolution with quantum speedup.