Physics

Physical-depth architectural requirements for generating universal photonic cluster states. (arXiv:1706.07325v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

Most leading proposals for linear-optical quantum computing (LOQC) use cluster states, which act as a universal resource for measurement-based (one-way) quantum computation (MBQC). In ballistic approaches to LOQC, cluster states are generated passively from small entangled resource states using so-called fusion operations. Results from percolation theory have previously been used to argue that universal cluster states can be generated in the ballistic approach using schemes which exceed the critical threshold for percolation, but these results consider cluster states with unbounded size. Here we consider how successful percolation can be maintained using a physical architecture with fixed physical depth, assuming that the cluster state is continuously generated and measured, and therefore that only a finite portion of it is visible at any one point in time. We show that universal LOQC can be implemented using a constant-size device with modest physical depth, and that percolation can be exploited using simple pathfinding strategies without the need for high-complexity algorithms.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A generalization of the injectivity condition for Projected Entangled Pair States. (arXiv:1706.07329v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We introduce a family of tensor network states that we term quasi-injective Projected Entangled-Pair States (PEPS). They extend the class of injective PEPS and include other states, like the ground states of the AKLT and the CZX models in square lattices. We construct parent Hamiltonians for which quasi-injective PEPS are unique ground states. We also determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for two tensors to generate the same family of such states in two spatial dimensions. Using this result, we show that the third cohomology labeling of Symmetry Protected Topological phases extends to quasi-injective PEPS.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Extracting random numbers from quantum tunnelling through a single diode. (arXiv:1706.07348v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

Random number generation is crucial in many aspects of everyday life, as online security and privacy depend ultimately on the quality of random numbers. Many current implementations are based on pseudo-random number generators, but information security requires true random numbers for sensitive applications like key generation in banking, defence or even social media. True random number generators are systems whose outputs cannot be determined, even if their internal structure and response history are known. Sources of quantum noise are thus ideal for this application due to their intrinsic uncertainty. In this work, we propose using resonant tunnelling diodes as practical true random number generators based on a quantum mechanical effect. The output of the proposed devices can be directly used as a random stream of bits or can be further distilled using randomness extraction algorithms, depending on the application.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Symmetry between repulsive and attractive interactions in driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard systems. (arXiv:1706.07349v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

The driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model can be experimentally realized in superconducting circuits with either negative or positive onsite detunings, inter-site hopping energies, and onsite interaction energies. Here we use one dimensional tensor networks to perform a fully quantum investigation of the dependence of the non-equilibrium steady states of this model on the signs of these parameters. Due to a symmetry in the Lindblad master equation, we find that simultaneously changing the sign of the interaction energies, hopping energies, and chemical potentials leaves the local boson number distribution and inter-site number correlations invariant, and the steady-state complex conjugated. This shows that all driven-dissipative phenomena of interacting bosons described by the Lindblad master equation, such as "fermionization" and "superbunching", can equivalently occur with attractive or repulsive interactions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Many-Body effects in the snaking instability of bent dark solitons. (arXiv:1706.07360v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

The beyond mean-field dynamics of a bent dark soliton embedded in a two-dimensional repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensate is explored. We examine the case of a single bent dark soliton comparing the mean-field dynamics to a correlated approach, the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree Method for bosons. The dynamical manifestation of the "snaking" instability is observed, signaling the onset of fragmentation which becomes significant during the vortex nucleation. In contrast to the mean-field approximation "filling" of the vortex core is observed, leading in turn to the formation of filled-core vortices, instead of the mean-field vortex-antivortex pairs. The resulting smearing effect in the density is a rather generic feature, occurring when solitonic structures are exposed to quantum fluctuations. Here, we show that this filling owes its existence to the dynamical building of an antidark structure developed in the next-to-leading order orbital. Additionally, a variety of excitations including vortices, oblique dark solitons, and open ring dark soliton-like structures building upon higher-lying orbitals is observed. We demonstrate that signatures of the higher-lying orbital excitations emerge in the total density, and can be clearly captured by inspecting the one-body coherence. In the latter context, the localization of one-body correlations exposes the existence of the multi-orbital vortex-antidark structure.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Sustained state-independent quantum contextual correlations from a single ion. (arXiv:1706.07370v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We use a single trapped-ion qutrit to demonstrate the violation of an input-state-independent non-contextuality inequality using a sequence of randomly chosen quantum non-demolition projective measurements. We concatenate 54 million sequential measurements of 13 observables, and violate an optimal non-contextual bound by 214 standard deviations. We use the same dataset to characterize imperfections including signaling and repeatability of the measurements. The experimental sequence was generated in real time with a quantum random number generator integrated into our control system to select the subsequent observable with a latency below 50 {\mu}s, which can be used to constrain hidden-variable models that might describe our results. The state-recycling experimental procedure is resilient to noise, self-correcting and independent of the qutrit state, substantiating the fact that quantumness is connected to measurements as opposed to designated states.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Thermalization after holographic bilocal quench. (arXiv:1706.07390v1 [hep-th])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We study thermalization in the holographic (1+1)-dimensional CFT after simultaneous generation of two high-energy excitations in the antipodal points on the circle. The holographic picture of such quantum quench is the creation of BTZ black hole from a collision of two massless particles. We perform holographic computation of entanglement entropy and mutual information in the boundary theory and analyze their evolution with time. We show that equilibration of the entanglement in the regions which contained one of the initial excitations is generally similar to that in other holographic quench models, but with some important distinctions. We observe that entanglement propagates along a sharp effective light cone from the points of initial excitations on the boundary. The characteristics of entanglement propagation in the global quench models such as entanglement velocity and the light cone velocity also have a meaning in the bilocal quench scenario. We also observe the loss of memory about the initial state during the equilibration process. We find that the memory loss reflects on the time behavior of the entanglement similarly to the global quench case, and it is related to the universal linear growth of entanglement, which comes from the interior of the forming black hole. We also analyze general two-point correlation functions in the framework of the geodesic approximation, focusing on the study of the late time behavior.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Excitonic Bell States with Entangled Angular Momenta. (arXiv:1706.07420v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

A class of centrosymmetric molecules support excitons with a well-defined quasi-angular momentum. Cofacial arrangements of these molecules can be engineered so that quantum cutting produces a pair of excitons on sandwiching acceptors with angular momenta that are maximally entangled. These Bell state constituents can subsequently travel in opposite directions down molecular chains as ballistic wave packets. This is a direct excitonic analog to the entangled polarization states produced by the spontaneous parametric downconversion of light. As in optical settings, the ability to produce Bell states should enable experiments and technologies based on non-local excitonic quantum correlation. The idea is elucidated with a combination of quantum electrodynamics theory and numerical simulations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Entanglement, coherence, and redistribution of quantum resources in double spontaneous downconversion processes. (arXiv:1607.05043v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We study the properties of bi-squeezed tripartite Gaussian states created by two spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes that share a common idler. We give a complete description of the quantum correlations across of all partitions, as well as of the genuine multipartite entanglement, obtaining analytical expressions for most of the quantities of interest. We find that the state contains genuine tripartite entanglement, in addition to the bipartite entanglement among the modes that are directly squeezed. We also investigate the effect of homodyne detection of the photons in the common idler mode, and analyse the final reduced state of the remaining two signal modes. We find that this measurement leads to a conversion of the coherence of the two signal modes into entanglement, a phenomenon that can be regarded as a redistribution of quantum resources between the modes. The applications of these results to quantum optics and circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms are also discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Determinism and Computational Power of Real Measurement-based Quantum Computation. (arXiv:1610.02824v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a universal model for quantum computation. The combinatorial characterisation of determinism in this model, powered by measurements, and hence, fundamentally probabilistic, is the cornerstone of most of the breakthrough results in this field. The most general known sufficient condition for a deterministic MBQC to be driven is that the underlying graph of the computation has a particular kind of flow called Pauli flow. The necessity of the Pauli flow was an open question. We show that the Pauli flow is necessary for real-MBQC, and not in general providing counterexamples for (complex) MBQC. We explore the consequences of this result for real MBQC and its applications. Real MBQC and more generally real quantum computing is known to be universal for quantum computing. Real MBQC has been used for interactive proofs by McKague. The two-prover case corresponds to real-MBQC on bipartite graphs. While (complex) MBQC on bipartite graphs are universal, the universality of real MBQC on bipartite graphs was an open question. We show that real bipartite MBQC is not universal proving that all measurements of real bipartite MBQC can be parallelised leading to constant depth computations. As a consequence, McKague techniques cannot lead to two-prover interactive proofs.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Vortex-core structure in a mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids. (arXiv:1701.06245v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We study a single quantized vortex in the fermionic component of a mixture of Fermi superfluid and Bose-Einstein condensate. As the density ratio between the boson and the fermion components is tuned, we identify a transition in the vortex-core structure, across which fermions in the vortex core become completely depleted even in the weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer regime. This is accompanied by changes in key properties of the vortex state, as well as by the localization of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the vortex core. The transition in the vortex-core structure can be experimentally probed in Bose-Fermi superfluid mixtures by detecting the size and visibility of the vortices.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nonclassical distance in multimode bosonic systems. (arXiv:1701.07688v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We revisit the notion of nonclassical distance of states of bosonic quantum systems introduced in [M. Hillery, Phys. Rev. A 35, 725 (1987)] in a general multimode setting. After reviewing its definition, we establish some of its general properties. We obtain new upper and lower bounds on the nonclassical distance in terms of the supremum of the Husimi function of the state. Considering several examples, we elucidate the cases for which our lower bound is tight, which include the multimode number states and a class of multimode N00N states. The latter provide examples of states of definite photon number $n \geq 2$ whose nonclassical distance can be made arbitrarily close to the upper limit of $1$ by increasing the number of modes. We show that the nonclassical distance of the even and odd Schr\"odinger cat states is bounded away from unity regardless of how macroscopic the superpositions are, and that the nonclassical distance is not necessarily monotonically increasing with respect to macroscopicity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum to classical transition induced by gravitational time dilation. (arXiv:1702.02433v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We study the loss of quantumness caused by time dilation [1] for a Schr\"odinger cat state. We give a holistic view of the quantum to classical transition by comparing the dynamics of several nonclassicality indicators, such as the Wigner function interference fringe, the negativity of the Wigner function, the nonclassical depth, the Vogel criterion and the Klyshko criterion. Our results show that only two of these indicators depend critically on the size of the cat, namely on how macroscopic the superposition is. Finally we compare the gravitation-induced decoherence times to the typical decoherence times due to classical noise originating from the unavoidable statistical fluctuations in the characteristic parameters of the system [21]. We show that the experimental observation of decoherence due to time dilation imposes severe limitations on the allowed levels of classical noise in the experiments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nonuniform currents and spins of relativistic electron vortices in a magnetic field. (arXiv:1702.05271v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stronger corotating current. Contrary to many other problems in relativistic quantum mechanics, there exists a set of vortex beams with exactly zero spin-orbit mixing in the highly relativistic and nonparaxial regime. The well defined phase structure of these beams is analogous to simpler scalar vortex beams, owing to the protection by the Zeeman effect. For states that do show spin-orbit mixing, the spin polarization across the beam is nonuniform rendering the spin and orbital degrees of freedom inherently inseparable.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Multi-harmonic Quantum Dot Optomechanics in fused LiNbO$_3$-(Al)GaAs hybrids. (arXiv:1705.09948v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall] CROSS LISTED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We fabricated an acousto-optic semiconductor hybrid device for strong optomechanical coupling of single quantum emitters and a surface acoustic wave. Our device comprises a surface acoustic wave chip made from highly piezoelectric LiNbO$_3$ and a GaAs-based semiconductor membrane with an embedded single layer of quantum dots. Employing multi-harmonic transducers, we generated sound waves on LiNbO$_3$ over a wide range of radio frequencies. We monitored their coupling to and propagation across the semiconductor membrane both in the electrical and optical domain. We demonstrate enhanced optomechanical tuning of the embedded quantum dots with increasing frequencies. This effect was verified by finite element modelling of our device geometry and attributed to an increased localization of the acoustic field within the semiconductor membrane. For moderately high acoustic frequencies, our simulations predict giant optomechanical coupling making our hybrid device ideally suited for applications in semiconductor based quantum acoustics

Categories: Journals, Physics

Mutually unbiased bases in dimension six containing a product-vector basis. (arXiv:1706.00311v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

Excluding the existence of four MUBs in $\bbC^6$ is an open problem in quantum information. We investigate the number of product vectors in the set of four mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in dimension six, by assuming that the set exists and contains a product-vector basis. We show that in most cases the number of product vectors in each of the remaining three MUBs is at most two. We further construct the exceptional case in which the three MUBs respectively contain at most three, two and two product vectors. We also investigate the number of vectors mutually unbiased to an orthonormal basis.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Weyl fermions in a family of G\"odel-type spacetimes. (arXiv:1705.10631v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

In this paper we study Weyl fermions in a family of G\"odel-type solutions in Einstein general relativity theory. We also consider that these solutions are embedded in a cosmic string background. We solve the Weyl equation and find the energy eigenvalues and eigenspinors for all three cases of G\"odel-type spacetimes where a cosmic string is passing through them. We show that the presence of a cosmic string in these spacetimes contributes to modification of the spectrum of energy. The energy zero modes for all three cases of the G\"odel spacetimes are discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Non-equilibrium quantum thermodynamics in Coulomb crystals. (arXiv:1704.08253v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We present an in-depth study of the non-equilibrium statistics of the irreversible work produced during sudden quenches in proximity to the structural linear-zigzag transition of ion Coulomb crystals in 1+1 dimensions. By employing both an analytical approach based on a harmonic expansion and numerical simulations, we show the divergence of the average irreversible work in proximity to the transition. We show that the non-analytic behaviour of the work fluctuations can be characterized in terms of the critical exponents of the quantum Ising chain. Due to the technological advancements in trapped ion experiments, our results can be readily verified.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Towards fully commercial, UV-compatible fiber patch cords. (arXiv:1704.05879v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

We present and analyze two pathways to produce commercial optical-fiber patch cords with stable long-term transmission in the ultraviolet (UV) at powers up to $\sim$ 200 mW, and typical bulk transmission between 66-75\%. Commercial fiber patch cords in the UV are of great interest across a wide variety of scientific applications ranging from biology to metrology, and the lack of availability has yet to be suitably addressed. We provide a guide to producing such solarization-resistant, hydrogen-passivated, polarization-maintaining, connectorized and jacketed optical fibers compatible with demanding scientific and industrial applications. Our presentation describes the fabrication and hydrogen loading procedure in detail and presents a high-pressure vessel design, calculations of required \Ht\ loading times, and information on patch cord handling and the mitigation of bending sensitivities. Transmission at 313 nm is measured over many months for cumulative energy on the fiber output of > 10 kJ with no demonstrable degradation due to UV solarization, in contrast to standard uncured fibers. Polarization sensitivity and stability are characterized yielding polarization extinction ratios between 15 dB and 25 dB at 313 nm, where we find patch cords become linearly polarizing. We observe that particle deposition at the fiber facet induced by high-intensity UV exposure can (reversibly) deteriorate patch cord performance and describe a technique for nitrogen purging of fiber collimators which mitigates this phenomenon.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Synchronization Blockade: Energy Quantization hinders Synchronization of Identical Oscillators. (arXiv:1703.04595v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Sat, 2017-06-24 00:45

Classically, the tendency towards spontaneous synchronization is strongest if the natural frequencies of the self-oscillators are as close as possible. We show that this wisdom fails in the deep quantum regime, where the uncertainty of amplitude narrows down to the level of single quanta. Under these circumstances identical self-oscillators cannot synchronize and detuning their frequencies can actually help synchronization. The effect can be understood in a simple picture: Interaction requires an exchange of energy. In the quantum regime, the possible quanta of energy are discrete. If the extractable energy of one oscillator does not exactly match the amount the second oscillator may absorb, interaction, and thereby synchronization is blocked. We demon- strate this effect, which we coin quantum synchronization blockade, in the minimal example of two Kerr-type self-oscillators and predict consequences for small oscillator networks, where synchronization between blocked oscillators can be mediated via a detuned oscillator. We also propose concrete implementations with super- conducting circuits and trapped ions. This paves the way for investigations of new quantum synchronization phenomena in oscillator networks both theoretically and experimentally.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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