Coherence is a fundamental ingredient for quantum physics and a key resource for quantum information theory. Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio established a rigorous framework (BCP framework) for quantifying coherence [T. Baumgratz, M. Cramer, and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{113}, 140401 (2014)]. In this paper, under the BCP framework we provide three classes of coherence measures based on the Tsallis relative entropy and sandwiched R\'{e}nyi relative entropy.

We propose a quantum simulator based on driven superconducting qubits where the interactions are generated parametrically by a polychromatic magnetic flux modulation of a tunable bus element. Using a time-dependent Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we analytically derive a multi-qubit Hamiltonian which features independently tunable $XX$ and $YY$-type interactions as well as local bias fields over a large parameter range. We demonstrate the adiabatic simulation of the ground state of a hydrogen molecule using two superconducting qubits and one tunable bus element. The time required to reach chemical accuracy lies in the few microsecond range and therefore could be implemented on currently available superconducting circuits. Further applications of this technique may also be found in the simulation of interacting spin systems.

For the Abner Shimony (AS) inequalities, the simplest unified forms of directions attaining the maximum quantum violation are investigated. Based on these directions, a family of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequalities is derived from the AS inequalities in a systematic manner. For these inequalities, the local hidden state (LHS) bounds are strictly less than the local hidden variable (LHV) bounds. This means that the EPR steering is a form of quantum nonlocality strictly weaker than Bell-nonlocality.

We study unital quantum channels which are obtained via partial trace of a $*$-automorphism of a finite unital matrix $*$-algebra. We prove that any such channel, $q$, on a unital matrix $*$-algebra, $\mathcal{A}$, admits a finite matrix $N-$dilation, $\alpha _N$, for any natural number N. Namely, $\alpha _N$ is a $*$-automorphism of a larger bi-partite matrix algebra $\mathcal{A} \otimes \mathcal{B}$ so that partial trace of $M$-fold self-compositions of $\alpha _N$ yield the $M$-fold self-compositions of the original quantum channel, for any $1\leq M \leq N$. This demonstrates that repeated applications of the channel can be viewed as $*$-automorphic time evolution of a larger finite quantum system.

The quantum mechanical predictions for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of qubits are shown to be easier to reproduce with a classical model as the number of particles increases, even in the absence of loopholes or conspiratorial mechanisms of any kind. It is conjectured that this result may lead to a simple way to express the principle of correspondence.

The recently introduced by us two- and three-parameter ($p,q$)- and ($p,q,\mu$)-deformed extensions of the Heisenberg algebra were explored under the condition of their direct link with the respective (nonstandard) deformed quantum oscillator algebras. In this paper we explore certain Hermitian Hamiltonian build in terms of non-Hermitian position and momentum operators obeying definite $\eta(N)$-pseudo-Hermiticity properties. A generalized nonlinear (with the coefficients depending on the excitation number operator $N$) one-mode Bogolyubov transformation is developed as main tool for the corresponding study. Its application enables to obtain the spectrum of "almost free" (but essentially nonlinear) Hamiltonian.

We report results of a new ground-state entanglement protocol for a pair of Cs atoms separated by 6~$\mu$m, combining the Rydberg blockade mechanism with a two-photon Raman transitions to prepare the $\vert\Psi^+\rangle=(\vert 10\rangle+\vert 01\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ Bell state with a loss-corrected fidelity of 0.81(5), equal to the best demonstrated fidelity for atoms trapped in optical tweezers but without the requirement for dynamically adjustable interatomic spacing. Qubit state coherence is also critical for quantum information applications, and we characterise both ground-state and ground-Rydberg dephasing rates using Ramsey spectroscopy. We demonstrate transverse dephasing times $T_2^*=10(1)$~ms and $T_2'=0.14(1)$~s for the qubit levels and achieve long ground-Rydberg coherence times of $T_2^*=17(2)~\mu$s as required for implementing high-fidelity multi-qubit gate sequences where a control atom remains in the Rydberg state while applying local operations on neighbouring target qubits.

We propose a methodical approach to controlling and enhancing deviations from exponential decay in quantum and optical systems by exploiting recent progress surrounding another subtle effect: the bound states in continuum, which have been observed in optical waveguide array experiments within this past decade. Specifically, we show that by populating an initial state orthogonal to that of the bound state in continuum, it is possible to engineer system parameters for which the usual exponential decay process is suppressed in favor of inverse power law dynamics and coherent effects that typically would be extremely difficult to detect in experiment. We demonstrate our method using a model based on an optical waveguide array experiment, and further show that the method is robust even in the face of significant detuning from the precise location of the bound state in continuum.

In the present note, we uncover a remarkable connection between the length of periodic orbit of a classical particle enclosed in a class of 2-dimensional planar billiards and the energy of a quantum particle confined to move in an identical region with infinitely high potential wall on the boundary. We observe that the quantum energy spectrum of the particle is in exact one-to-one correspondence with the spectrum of the amplitude squares of the periodic orbits of a classical particle for the class of integrable billiards considered. We have established the results by geometric constructions and exploiting the method of reflective tiling and folding of classical trajectories. We have further extended the method to 3-dimensional billiards for which exact analytical results are scarcely available - exploiting the geometric construction, we determine the exact energy spectra of two new tetrahedral domains which we believe are integrable. We test the veracity of our results by comparing them with numerical results.

We study weakly interacting mixtures of ultracold atoms composed of bosonic and fermionic species in 2D and 1D space. When interactions between particles are appropriately tuned, self-bound quantum liquids can be formed. Formation of these droplets is due to the higher order correction terms contributing to the total energy and originating in quantum fluctuations. The fluctuations depend drastically on the dimensionality of the system. We concentrate here on low dimensional systems because they are the most promising from experimental point of view due to significant reduction of three-body losses. We analyse stability conditions for 2D and 1D systems and predict values of equilibrium densities of droplets.

We develop multipolar theory of nonlinear generation of entangled photons from subwavelength dielectric particles due to the spontaneous parametric downconversion. We demonstrate that optical excitation in resonance with the high-quality supercavity mode of the aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) nanodisk leads to a strong enhancement of generation of entangled photon pairs associated with electric and magnetic dipole modes. Our rigorous numerical results are corroborated by an analytical model, universally describing formation of high-$Q$ resonant states and dark states due to the interference and interplay of the parent multipoles, namely, magnetic dipoles and magnetic octupole. Our findings and description can be instructive for quantum and nonlinear nanophotonics applications.

In this paper, we study the close relationship between Reed-Muller codes and single-qubit phase gates from the perspective of $T$-count optimization. We prove that minimizing the number of $T$ gates in an $n$-qubit quantum circuit over CNOT and $T$, together with the Clifford group powers of $T$, corresponds to finding a minimum distance decoding of a length $2^n-1$ binary vector in the order $n-4$ punctured Reed-Muller code. Moreover, we show that the problems are polynomially equivalent in the length of the code. As a consequence, we derive an algorithm for the optimization of $T$-count in quantum circuits based on Reed-Muller decoders, along with a new upper bound of $O(n^2)$ on the number of $T$ gates required to implement an $n$-qubit unitary over CNOT and $T$ gates. We further generalize this result to show that minimizing small angle rotations corresponds to decoding lower order binary Reed-Muller codes. In particular, we show that minimizing the number of $R_Z(2\pi/d)$ gates for any integer $d$ is equivalent to minimum distance decoding in $\mathcal{RM}(n - k - 1, n)^*$, where $k$ is the highest power of $2$ dividing $d$.

We show how to obtain perfect samples from a quantum Gibbs state on a quantum computer. To do so, we adapt one of the `Coupling from the Past'-algorithms proposed by Propp and Wilson. The algorithm has a probabilistic run-time and produces perfect samples without any previous knowledge of the mixing time of a quantum Markov chain. To implement it, we assume we are able to perform the phase estimation algorithm for the underlying Hamiltonian and implement a quantum Markov chain such that the transition probabilities between eigenstates only depend on their energy. We provide some examples of quantum Markov chains that satisfy these conditions and analyze the expected run-time of the algorithm, which depends strongly on the degeneracy of the underlying Hamiltonian. For Hamiltonians with highly degenerate spectrum, it is efficient, as it is polylogarithmic in the dimension and linear in the mixing time. For non-degenerate spectra, its runtime is essentially the same as its classical counterpart, which is linear in the mixing time and quadratic in the dimension, up to a logarithmic factor in the dimension. We analyze the circuit depth necessary to implement it, which is proportional to the sum of the depth necessary to implement one step of the quantum Markov chain and one phase estimation. This algorithm is stable under noise in the implementation of different steps. We also briefly discuss how to adapt different `Coupling from the Past'-algorithms to the quantum setting.

A tripartite state $\rho_{ABC}$ forms a Markov chain if there exists a recovery map $\mathcal{R}_{B \to BC}$ acting only on the $B$-part that perfectly reconstructs $\rho_{ABC}$ from $\rho_{AB}$. To achieve an approximate reconstruction, it suffices that the conditional mutual information $I(A:C|B)_{\rho}$ is small, as shown recently. Here we ask what conditions are necessary for approximate state reconstruction. This is answered by a lower bound on the relative entropy between $\rho_{ABC}$ and the recovered state $\mathcal{R}_{B\to BC}(\rho_{AB})$. The bound consists of the conditional mutual information and an entropic correction term that quantifies the disturbance of the $B$-part by the recovery map.

Searching for simple models that possess non-trivial controlling properties is one of the central tasks in the field of quantum technologies. In this work, we construct a quantum spin-$1/2$ chain of finite size, termed as controllable spin wire (CSW), in which we have $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ (Ising) interactions with a transverse field in the bulk, and $\hat{S}^{x} \hat{S}^{z}$ and $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ couplings with a canted field on the boundaries. The Hamiltonians on the boundaries, dubbed as tuning Hamiltonians (TH's), bear the same form as the effective Hamiltonians emerging in the so-called `quantum entanglement simulator' that is originally proposed for mimicking infinite models. We show that tuning the TH's (parametrized by $\alpha$) can trigger non-trivial controlling of the bulk properties, including the degeneracy of energy/entanglement spectra, and the response to the magnetic field $h_{bulk}$ in the bulk. A universal point dubbed as $\alpha^s$ emerges. For $\alpha > \alpha^s$, the ground-state diagram versus $h_{bulk}$ consists of three `phases', which are Ne\'eL and polarized phases, and an emergent pseudo-magnet phase, distinguished by entanglement and magnetization. For $\alpha < \alpha^s$, the phase diagram changes completely, with no step-like behaviors to distinguish phases. Due to its controlling properties and simplicity, the CSW could potentially serve in future the experiments for developing quantum devices.

We present an idiosyncratic view of the race for quantum computational supremacy. Google's approach and IBM challenge are examined in depth.

We investigate randomized benchmarking in a general setting with quantum gates that form a representation, not necessarily an irreducible one, of a finite group. We derive an estimate for the average fidelity, to which experimental data may then be calibrated. Furthermore, we establish that randomized benchmarking can be achieved by the sole implementation of quantum gates that generate the group as well as one additional arbitrary group element. In this case, we need to assume that the noise is close to being covariant. This yields a more practical approach to randomized benchmarking. Moreover, we show that randomized benchmarking is stable with respect to approximate Haar sampling for the sequences of gates. This opens up the possibility of using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to obtain the random sequences of gates more efficiently. We demonstrate these results numerically using the well-studied example of the Clifford group as well as the group of monomial unitary matrices. For the latter, we focus on the subgroup with nonzero entries consisting of n-th roots of unity, which contains T gates.

Operationally accessible entanglement in bipartite systems of indistinguishable particles could be reduced due to restrictions on the allowed local operations as a result of particle number conservation. In order to quantify this effect, Wiseman and Vaccaro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 097902 (2003)] introduced an operational measure of the von Neumann entanglement entropy. Motivated by advances in measuring R\'enyi entropies in quantum many-body systems subject to conservation laws, we derive a generalization of the operational entanglement that is both computationally and experimentally accessible. Using the Widom theorem, we investigate its scaling with the size of a spatial subregion for free fermions and find a logarithmically violated area law scaling, similar to the spatial entanglement entropy, with at most, a double-log leading-order correction. A modification of the correlation matrix method confirms our findings in systems of up to $10^5$ particles.

Interior-boundary conditions (IBCs) have been suggested as a possibility to circumvent the problem of ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. In the IBC approach, particle creation and annihilation is described with the help of linear conditions that relate the wave functions of two sectors of Fock space: $\psi^{(n)}(p)$ at an interior point $p$ and $\psi^{(n+m)}(q)$ at a boundary point $q$, typically a collision configuration. Here, we extend the concept of IBCs to the relativistic case. To do this, we make use of Dirac's concept of multi-time wave functions, i.e., wave functions $\psi(x_1,...,x_N)$ depending on $N$ space-time coordinates $x_i$ for $N$ particles. This provides the manifestly covariant particle-position representation that is required in the IBC approach. In order to obtain rigorous results, we construct a model for massless Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions that can create or annihilate each other when they meet. Our main results are an existence and uniqueness theorem for that model, and the identification of a class of IBCs that ensure local probability conservation on all Cauchy surfaces. We thus demonstrate that IBCs are compatible with relativity. Furthermore, we explain how these IBCs relate to the usual formulation with creation and annihilation operators.

Arnoldi method and conjugate gradient method are important classical iteration methods in solving linear systems and estimating eigenvalues. Their efficiency often affected by the high dimension of the space, where quantum computer can play a role in. In this work, we establish their corresponding quantum algorithms. To achieve high efficiency, a new method about linear combination of quantum states will be proposed. The final complexity of quantum Arnoldi iteration method is $O(m^{3+\log (m/\epsilon)}(\log n)^2 /\epsilon^4)$ and the final complexity of quantum conjugate gradient iteration method is $O(m^{1+\log m/\epsilon} (\log n)^2 \kappa/\epsilon)$, where $\epsilon$ is precision parameter, $m$ is the iteration steps, $n$ is the dimension of space and $\kappa$ is the condition number of the coefficient matrix of the linear system the conjugate gradient method works on. Compared with the classical methods, whose complexity are $O(mn^2+m^2n)$ and $O(mn^2)$ respectively, these two quantum algorithms provide us more efficient methods to solve linear systems and to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of general matrices. Different from the work \cite{rebentros}, the complexity here is almost polynomial in the iteration steps. Also this work is more general than the iteration method considered in \cite{kerenidis}.