Compact and robust ion traps for thorium are enabling technology for the next generation of atomic clocks based on a low-lying nuclear transition in thorium-229 atoms. We aim to study a laser ablation loading process for single thorium ions in a radio-frequency electromagnetic trap. We use a linear Paul trap loaded by laser ablation from metal targets. Detection of ions is based on a modified mass spectrometer and a channeltron with single-ion sensitivity. We successfully detected Yb+, Th+, and Th2+ ions from plasma plumes, studied their yield evolution, and compared the loading to a quadrupole ion trap. The thorium ablation yield shows a strong depletion, suggesting that we have ablated oxide layers from the surface and the ions were a result of the plasma plume evolution and collisions. Our results are in good agreement with similar experiments for other elements and their oxides.

We show that highly confined superfluid films are extremely nonlinear mechanical resonators, offering the prospect to realize a mechanical qubit. Specifically, we consider third-sound surface waves, with nonlinearities introduced by the van der Waals interaction with the substrate. Confining these waves to a disk, we derive analytic expressions for the cubic and quartic nonlinearities and determine the resonance frequency shifts they introduce. We predict single-phonon shifts that are three orders of magnitude larger than in current state-of-the-art nonlinear resonators. Combined with the exquisitely low intrinsic dissipation of superfluid helium, we predict that this could allow blockade interactions between phonons as well as two-level-system-like behavior. Our work provides a new pathway towards extreme mechanical nonlinearities, and towards quantum devices that use mechanical resonators as qubits.

General relativity as a classical field theory does not predict gravitationally induced entanglement, as such, recent proposals seek an empirical demonstration of this feature which would represent a significant milestone for physics. We introduce improvements to a spin witness protocol that reduce the highly challenging experimental requirements. After rigorously assessing approximations from the original proposal [S. Bose et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 240401 (2017)], we focus on entanglement witnessing. We propose a new witness which greatly reduces the required interaction time, thereby making the experiment feasible for higher decoherence rates, and we show how statistical analysis can separate the gravitational contribution from other possibly dominant and ill-known interactions. We point out a potential loophole and show how it can be closed using state tomography.

We analyze the structure of the space of temporal correlations generated by quantum systems. We show that the temporal correlation space under dimension constraints can be nonconvex, and derive nonlinear inequalities to witness the nonconvexity for qubits and qutrits in the simplest scenario. For the general case, we provide the necessary and sufficient dimension of a quantum system needed to generate a convex correlation space for a given scenario. We further prove that this dimension coincides with the dimension necessary to generate any point in the temporal correlation polytope. Finally, we present an algorithm which can help to find the minimum for a certain type of nonlinear expressions under dimension constraints.

Assuming that the degrees of freedom of a black hole are finite in number and of fermionic nature, we naturally obtain, within a second-quantized toy model of the evaporation, that the Bekenstein bound is a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle for these fundamental degrees of freedom. We show that entanglement, Bekenstein and thermodynamic entropies of the black hole all stem from the same approach, based on the entropy operator whose structure is the one typical of Takahashi and Umezawa's Thermofield Dynamics. We then evaluate the von Neumann black hole--environment entropy and noticeably obtain a Page-like evolution. We finally show that this is a consequence of a duality between our model and a quantum dissipative-like fermionic system.

Preparing and observing quantum states of nanoscale particles is a challenging task with great relevance for quantum technologies and tests of fundamental physics. In contrast to atomic systems with discrete transitions, nanoparticles exhibit a practically continuous absorption spectrum and thus their quantum dynamics cannot be easily manipulated. Here, we demonstrate that charged nanoscale dielectrics can be artificially endowed with a discrete level structure by coherently interfacing their rotational and translational motion with a superconducting qubit. We propose a pulsed scheme for the generation and read-out of motional quantum superpositions and entanglement between several levitated nanoparticles, providing an all-electric platform for networked hybrid quantum devices.

Coupling with an external environment inevitably affects the dynamics of a quantum system. Here, we consider how charging performances of a quantum battery, modelled as a two level system, are influenced by the presence of an Ohmic thermal reservoir. The latter is coupled to both longitudinal and transverse spin components of the quantum battery including decoherence and pure dephasing mechanisms. Charging and discharging dynamics of the quantum battery, subjected to a static driving, are obtained exploiting a proper mapping into the so-called spin-boson model. Analytic expressions for the time evolution of the energy stored in the weak coupling regime are presented relying on a systematic weak damping expansion. Here, decoherence and pure dephasing dissipative coupling are discussed in details. We argue that the former results in better charging performances, showing also interesting features reminiscent of the Lamb shift level splitting renormalization induced by the presence of the reservoir. Charging stability is also addressed, by monitoring the energy behaviour after the charging protocol has been switched off. This study presents a general framework to investigate relaxation effects, able to include also non Markovian effects, and it reveals the importance of controlling and, possibly, engineering system-bath coupling in the realization of quantum batteries.

We show that shaped topological insulator (TI) nanowires, i.e. such that their cross-section radius varies along the wire length, can be tuned into a number of different transport regimes when immersed in a homogeneous coaxial magnetic field. This is in contrast with widely studied tubular nanowires with constant cross-section, and is due to magnetic confinement of Dirac surface carriers. In flat 2D systems such a confinement requires non-homogeneous magnetic fields, while for shaped nanowires of standard size homogeneous fields of the order of $B\sim\,1$T are sufficient. We put recent work [Kozlovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 126804 (2020)] into broader context and extend it to deal with axially symmetric wire geometries with arbitrary radial profile. A dumbbell-shaped TI nanowire is used as a paradigmatic example for transport through a constriction and shown to be tunable into five different transport regimes: (i) conductance steps, (ii) resonant transmission, (iii) current suppression, (iv) Coulomb blockade, and (v) transport through a triple quantum dot. Switching between regimes is achieved by modulating the strength of a coaxial magnetic field and does not require strict axial symmetry of the wire cross-section. As such, it should be observable in TI nanowires fabricated with available experimental techniques.

Constructing and implementing useful quantum algorithms is one of the central challenges in quantum information science. Efficient sampling from a classical Gibbs distribution is an important computational problem with applications ranging from statistical physics over Monte Carlo and optimization algorithms to machine learning. Here, we introduce a family of quantum algorithms that provide unbiased samples by preparing a state that encodes the entire Gibbs distribution. We show that this approach leads to a speedup over a classical Markov chain for several examples including the Ising model and sampling from weighted, independent sets of two different graphs. We further propose a realistic implementation of sampling from independent sets based on Rydberg atom arrays. Our approach connects computational complexity with phase transitions, providing a physical interpretation of quantum speedup, and opens the door to exploring potentially useful sampling algorithms using near-term quantum devices.

The self-learning Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a powerful Monte Carlo method that, with the help of machine learning, adaptively generates an easy-to-sample probability distribution for approximating a given hard-to-sample distribution. This paper provides a new self-learning Monte Carlo method that utilizes a quantum computer to output a proposal distribution. In particular, we show a novel subclass of this general scheme based on the quantum Fourier transform circuit; this sampler is classically simulable while having a certain advantage over conventional methods. The performance of this "quantum inspired" algorithm is demonstrated by some numerical simulations.

Pursuing fractionalized particles that do not bear properties of conventional bare particles such as electrons or magnons is a challenge in physics. Here we show that machine-learning methods for quantum many-body systems reveal the existence of a quantum spin liquid state with fractionalized spinons in spin-1/2 frustrated Heisenberg model convincingly, if it is combined with the state-of-the-art computational schemes known as the correlation ratio and level spectroscopy methods. The spin excitation spectra signal the emergence of gapless fractionalized spin-1/2 Dirac-type spinons in the distinctive quantum spin liquid phase. Unexplored critical behavior with coexisting power-law-decaying antiferromagnetic and dimer correlations emerges as well. The isomorph of excitations with the cuprate d-wave superconductors revealed here implies tight connection between the present spin liquid and superconductivity. This achievement manifests the power of machine learning for grand challenges in quantum many-body physics.

We analyze quantum-classical hybrid system composed of two steadily precessing noncollinear slow classical localized magnetic moments embedded into an open quantum system of fast nonequilibrium conduction electrons. The electrons reside within a metallic wire connected to macroscopic reservoirs. The model captures the essence of realistic situations in spintronics involving dynamics of noncollinear magnetization configurations and textures, such as domain walls, skyrmions and spin waves. Its simplicity makes it possible to obtain the exact time-dependent nonequilibrium density matrix of electronic system and split it into four contributions. The Fermi surface contribution generates dissipative (or damping-like in spintronics terminology) spin torque on the moments, and one of the two Fermi sea contributions generates geometric torque dominating in the regime where electron spin is expected to adiabatically follow the instantaneous configuration of magnetic moments. When the coupling to the reservoirs is reduced, the geometric torque is the only nonzero contribution which can have both nondissipative (or field-like in spintronics) and dissipative components acting as the counterparts of geometric magnetism force and geometric friction in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Such current-independent geometric torque is missing from widely used micromagnetics or atomistic spin dynamics modeling of magnetization dynamics based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, and its form cannot be mimicked by simply renormalizing the LLG parameters.

General probabilistic theories are shown to admit a Gleason-type theorem if and only if they satisfy the no-restriction hypothesis, or a "noisy" version of the hypothesis. Therefore, in precisely these theories we recover the state space by assuming that (i) states consistently assign probabilities to measurement outcomes and (ii) there is a unique state for every such assignment.

Generation of non-Gaussian quantum states of macroscopic mechanical objects is key to a number of challenges in quantum information science, ranging from fundamental tests of decoherence to quantum communication and sensing. Heralded generation of single-phonon states of mechanical motion is an attractive way towards this goal, as it is, in principle, not limited by the object size. Here we demonstrate a technique which allows for generation and detection of a quantum state of motion by phonon counting measurements near the ground state of a 1.5 MHz micromechanical oscillator. We detect scattered photons from a membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical system using an ultra-narrowband optical filter, and perform Raman-ratio thermometry and second-order intensity interferometry near the motional ground state ($\bar{n}=0.23\pm0.02$ phonons). With an effective mass in the nanogram range, our system lends itself for studies of long-lived non-Gaussian motional states with some of the heaviest objects to date.

Solid-state spin systems including nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond constitute an increasingly favored quantum sensing platform. However, present NV ensemble devices exhibit sensitivities orders of magnitude away from theoretical limits. The sensitivity shortfall both handicaps existing implementations and curtails the envisioned application space. This review analyzes present and proposed approaches to enhance the sensitivity of broadband ensemble-NV-diamond magnetometers. Improvements to the spin dephasing time, the readout fidelity, and the host diamond material properties are identified as the most promising avenues and are investigated extensively. Our analysis of sensitivity optimization establishes a foundation to stimulate development of new techniques for enhancing solid-state sensor performance.

We show that there exist non-relativistic scattering experiments which, if successful, freeze out, speed up or even reverse the free dynamics of any ensemble of quantum systems present in the scattering region. This time translation effect is universal, i.e., it is independent of the particular interaction between the scattering particles and the target systems, or the (possibly non-Hermitian) Hamiltonian governing the evolution of the latter. The protocols require careful preparation of the probes which are scattered, and success is heralded by projective measurements of these probes at the conclusion of the experiment. We fully characterize the possible time translations which we can effect on n target systems through a scattering protocol of fixed duration; the core result is that evolution time can be freely distributed between the systems, and reversed at a small cost. For high n our protocols allow one to map, in short experimental time, a system to the state it would have reached with a very long unperturbed evolution in either positive or negative time.

We consider an ensemble of indistinguishable quantum machines and show that quantum statistical effects can give rise to a genuine quantum enhancement of the collective thermodynamic performance. When multiple indistinguishable bosonic work resources are coupled to an external system, the internal energy change of the external system exhibits an enhancement arising from permutation symmetry in the ensemble, which is absent when the latter consists of distinguishable work resources.

Distributed quantum information processing is based on the transmission of quantum data over lossy channels between quantum processing nodes. These nodes may be separated by a few microns or on planetary scale distances, but transmission losses due to absorption/scattering in the channel are the major source of error for most distributed quantum information tasks. Of course quantum error detection (QED) /correction (QEC) techniques can be used to mitigate such effects but error detection approaches have severe performance limitations due to the signaling constraints between nodes and so error correction approaches are preferable -assuming one has sufficient high quality local operations. Typically, performance comparisons between loss-mitigating codes assume one encoded qubit per photon. However single photons can carry more than one qubit of information and so our focus in this work is to explore whether loss-based QEC codes utilizing quantum multiplexed photons are viable and advantageous, especially as photon loss results in more than one qubit of information being lost. We show that quantum multiplexing enables significant resource reduction: in terms of the number of single photon sources while at the same time maintaining (or even lowering) the number of two-qubit gates required. Further, our multiplexing approach requires only conventional optical gates already necessary for the implementation of these codes.

Recently, effects of nonlinearity on topologically nontrivial systems have attracted attention and the stability of topologically protected edge states has been studied for a quantum walk with nonlinear effects, which is akin to time-periodically driven systems (Floquet systems). In the previous work, it has been found that the edge states can be stable attractors or unstable repellers depending on their intrinsic topological property, while the stability is not affected by the strength of nonlinearity. In the present work, we find additional bifurcations at which edge states change from stable attractors to unstable repellers with increasing the strength of nonlinearity in nonlinear quantum walks, for the first time. The new bifurcations are unique to Floquet systems, since we take dynamical properties of Floquet systems into consideration by directly applying the time-evolution operator of the quantum walks to the linear stability analysis. Our results shed new light on nonlinear effects on topological edge states in Floquet systems.

We review the continuous monitoring of a qubit through its spontaneous emission, at an introductory level. Contemporary experiments have been able to collect the fluorescence of an artificial atom in a cavity and transmission line, and then make measurements of that emission to obtain diffusive quantum trajectories in the qubit's state. We give a straightforward theoretical overview of such scenarios, using a framework based on Kraus operators derived from a Bayesian update concept; we apply this flexible framework across common types of measurements including photodetection, homodyne, and heterodyne monitoring, and illustrate its equivalence to the stochastic master equation formalism throughout. Special emphasis is given to homodyne (phase-sensitive) monitoring of fluorescence. The examples we develop are used to illustrate basic methods in quantum trajectories, but also to introduce some more advanced topics of contemporary interest, including the arrow of time in quantum measurement, and trajectories following optimal measurement records derived from a variational principle. The derivations we perform lead directly from the development of a simple model to an understanding of recent experimental results.