Physics

Bond dimension witnesses and the structure of homogeneous matrix product states. (arXiv:1509.04507v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

For the past twenty years, Matrix Product States (MPS) have been widely used in solid state physics to approximate the ground state of one-dimensional spin chains. In this paper, we study homogeneous MPS (hMPS), or MPS constructed via site-independent tensors and a boundary condition. Exploiting a connection with the theory of matrix algebras, we derive two structural properties shared by all hMPS, namely: a) there exist local operators which annihilate all hMPS of a given bond dimension; and b) there exist local operators which, when applied over any hMPS of a given bond dimension, decouple (cut) the particles where they act from the spin chain while at the same time join (glue) the two loose ends back again into a hMPS. Armed with these tools, we show how to systematically derive `bond dimension witnesses', or 2-local operators whose expectation value allows us to lower bound the bond dimension of the underlying hMPS. We extend some of these results to the ansatz of Projected Entangled Pairs States (PEPS). As a bonus, we use our insight on the structure of hMPS to: a) derive some theoretical limitations on the use of hMPS and hPEPS for ground state energy computations; b) show how to decrease the complexity and boost the speed of convergence of the semidefinite programming hierarchies described in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 020501 (2015)] for the characterization of finite-dimensional quantum correlations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Coherent coupling between a quantum dot and a donor in silicon. (arXiv:1512.01606v3 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Individual donors in silicon chips are used as quantum bits with extremely low error rates. However, physical realizations have been limited to one donor because their atomic size causes fabrication challenges. Quantum dot qubits, in contrast, are highly adjustable using electrical gate voltages. This adjustability could be leveraged to deterministically couple donors to quantum dots in arrays of qubits. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent interaction of a $^{31}$P donor electron with the electron of a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot. We form a logical qubit encoded in the spin singlet and triplet states of the two-electron system. We show that the donor nuclear spin drives coherent rotations between the electronic qubit states through the contact hyperfine interaction. This provides every key element for compact two-electron spin qubits requiring only a single dot and no additional magnetic field gradients, as well as a means to interact with the nuclear spin qubit.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Protecting coherence by environmental decoherence: A solvable paradigmatic model. (arXiv:1601.07860v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We consider a particularly simple exactly solvable model for a qubit coupled to sequentially nested environments. The purpose is to exemplify the coherence conserving effect of a central system, that has been reported as a result of increasing the coupling between near and far environment. The paradigmatic example is the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, which we introduce into a Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation using alternatively the lowering operator of the oscillator or its number operator as Lindblad operators. The harmonic oscillator is regarded as the near environment of the qubit, while effects of a far environment are accounted for by the two options for the dissipative part of the master equation. The exact solution allows us to cover the entire range of coupling strength from the perturbative regime to strong coupling analytically. The coherence conserving effect of the coupling to the far environment is confirmed throughout.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Resource Theory for Work and Heat. (arXiv:1607.01302v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Several recent results on thermodynamics have been obtained using the tools of quantum information theory and resource theories. So far, the resource theories utilised to describe thermodynamics have assumed the existence of an infinite thermal reservoir, by declaring that thermal states at some background temperature come for free. Here, we propose a resource theory of quantum thermodynamics without a background temperature, so that no states at all come for free. We apply this resource theory to the case of many non-interacting systems, and show that all quantum states are classified by their entropy and average energy, even arbitrarily far away from equilibrium. This implies that thermodynamics takes place in a two-dimensional convex set that we call the energy-entropy diagram. The answers to many resource-theoretic questions about thermodynamics can be read off from this diagram, such as the efficiency of a heat engine consisting of finite reservoirs, or the rate of conversion between two states. This allows us to consider a resource theory which puts work and heat on an equal footing, and serves as a model for other resource theories.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum-assisted learning of hardware-embedded probabilistic graphical models. (arXiv:1609.02542v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Mainstream machine learning techniques such as deep learning and probabilistic programming rely heavily on sampling from generally intractable probability distributions. There is increasing interest in the potential advantages of using quantum computing technologies as sampling engines to speed up these tasks or to make them more effective. However, some pressing challenges in state-of-the-art quantum annealers have to be overcome before we can assess their actual performance. The sparse connectivity, resulting from the local interaction between quantum bits in physical hardware implementations, is considered the most severe limitation to the quality of constructing powerful generative unsupervised machine learning models. Here we use embedding techniques to add redundancy to datasets allowing to increase the modeling capacity of quantum annealers. We illustrate our findings by training hardware-embedded graphical models on a binarized dataset of handwritten digits and two synthetic datasets in experiments with up to $940$ quantum bits. Our model can be trained in quantum hardware without full knowledge of the effective parameters specifying the corresponding quantum Gibbs-like distribution; therefore, this approach avoids the need to infer the effective temperature at each iteration, speeding up learning, and it mitigates the effect of noise in the control parameters, making it robust to deviations from the reference Gibbs distribution. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of using quantum annealers for implementing generative models and provides a suitable framework for benchmarking these quantum technologies on machine-learning-related tasks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Chaos-assisted tunneling in the presence of Anderson localization. (arXiv:1610.00587v3 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Tunneling between two classically disconnected regular regions can be strongly affected by the presence of a chaotic sea in between. This phenomenon, known as chaos-assisted tunneling, gives rise to large fluctuations of the tunneling rate. Here we study chaos-assisted tunneling in the presence of Anderson localization effects in the chaotic sea. Our results show that the standard tunneling rate distribution is strongly modified by localization, going from the known Cauchy distribution in the ergodic regime to a log-normal distribution in the strongly localized case. We develop an analytical single-parameter scaling theory which accurately describes the numerical data, for both a deterministic and a disordered model. Several possible experimental implementations using cold atoms, photonic lattices or microwave billiards are discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Multipartite quantum correlations: symplectic and algebraic geometry approach. (arXiv:1701.03536v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We review a geometric approach to classification and examination of quantum correlations in composite systems. Since quantum information tasks are usually achieved by manipulating spin and alike systems or, in general, systems with a finite number of energy levels, classification problems are usually treated in frames of linear algebra. We proposed to shift the attention to a geometric description. Treating consistently quantum states as points of a projective space rather than as vectors in a Hilbert space we were able to apply powerful methods of differential, symplectic and algebraic geometry to attack the problem of equivalence of states with respect to the strength of correlations, or, in other words, to classify them from this point of view. Such classifications are interpreted as identification of states with `the same correlations properties' i.e. ones that can be used for the same information purposes, or, from yet another point of view, states that can be mutually transformed one to another by specific, experimentally accessible operations. It is clear that the latter characterization answers the fundamental question `what can be transformed into what \textit{via} available means?'. Exactly such an interpretations, i.e, in terms of mutual transformability can be clearly formulated in terms of actions of specific groups on the space of states and is the starting point for the proposed methods.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Singular One-Dimensional Bound State Problem and its Degeneracies. (arXiv:1703.03345v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We give a brief exposition of the formulation of the bound state problem for the one-dimensional system of $N$ attractive Dirac delta potentials, as an $N \times N$ matrix eigenvalue problem ($\Phi A =\omega A$). The main aim of this paper is to illustrate that the non-degeneracy theorem in one dimension breaks down for the equidistantly distributed Dirac delta potential, where the matrix $\Phi$ becomes a special form of the circulant matrix. We then give an elementary proof that the ground state is always non-degenerate and the associated wave function may be chosen to be positive by using the Perron-Frobenius theorem. We also prove that removing a single center from the system of $N$ delta centers shifts all the bound state energy levels upward as a simple consequence of the Cauchy interlacing theorem.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Berry Phases on Virasoro Orbits. (arXiv:1703.06142v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We point out that unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra contain Berry phases obtained by acting on a primary state with conformal transformations that trace a closed path on a Virasoro coadjoint orbit. These phases can be computed exactly thanks to the Maurer-Cartan form on the Virasoro group, and they persist after combining left- and right-moving sectors. Thinking of Virasoro representations as particles in AdS_3 dressed with boundary gravitons, the Berry phases associated with Brown-Henneaux diffeomorphisms provide a gravitational extension of Thomas precession.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Spin Stabilized Magnetic Levitation. (arXiv:1703.09346v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a non-rotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein--de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Two Gilbert-Varshamov Type Existential Bounds for Asymmetric Quantum Error-Correcting Codes. (arXiv:1705.04087v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

In this note we report two versions of Gilbert-Varshamov type existential bounds for asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Equivalence of Diverse Formulas for Generalized Two-Qubit Hilbert-Schmidt Separability/PPT-Probabilities. (arXiv:1701.01973v9 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We investigate relationships between two forms of Hilbert-Schmidt two-re[al]bit and two-qubit "separability functions"--those recently advanced by Lovas and Andai (J. Phys. A 50 [2017] 295303), and those earlier presented by Slater (J. Phys. A} 40 [2007] 14279). In the Lovas-Andai framework, the independent variable $\varepsilon \in [0,1]$ is the ratio $\sigma(V)$ of the singular values of the $2 \times 2$ matrix $V=D_2^{1/2} D_1^{-1/2}$ formed from the two $2 \times 2$ diagonal blocks ($D_1, D_2$) of a $4 \times 4$ density matrix $D$. In the Slater setting, the independent variable $\mu$ is the diagonal-entry ratio $\sqrt{\frac{\rho_{11} \rho_{44}}{\rho_{22} \rho_{33}}}$--with, of central importance, $\mu=\varepsilon$ or $\mu=\frac{1}{\varepsilon}$ when both $D_1$ and $D_2$ are themselves diagonal. Lovas and Andai established that their two-rebit "separability function" $\tilde{\chi}_1 (\varepsilon )$ ($\approx \varepsilon$) yields the previously conjectured Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of $\frac{29}{64}$. We are able, in the Slater framework (using cylindrical algebraic decompositions [CAD] to enforce positivity constraints), to reproduce this result. Further, we newly find its two-qubit (yielding $\frac{8}{33}$), two-quater[nionic]-bit (yielding $\frac{26}{323}$) and "two-octo[nionic]-bit" (yielding $\frac{44482}{4091349}$) counterparts. Then, we find a Lovas-Andai "master formula", $\tilde{\chi_d}(\varepsilon)= \frac{\varepsilon ^d \Gamma (d+1)^3 \,_3\tilde{F}_2\left(-\frac{d}{2},\frac{d}{2},d;\frac{d}{2}+1,\frac{3d}{2}+1;\varepsilon ^2\right)}{\Gamma \left(\frac{d}{2}+1\right)^2}$ encompassing both even and odd values of $d$. C. Koutschan, then, using his HolonomicFunctions program, develops an order-4 recurrence satisfied by the predictions of the several formulas, establishing their equivalence.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Environment-Assisted Quantum Transport through Single-Molecule Junctions. (arXiv:1706.02874v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Single-molecule electronics has been envisioned as the ultimate goal in the miniaturisation of electronic circuits. While the aim of incorporating single-molecule junctions into modern technology still proves elusive, recent developments in this field have begun to enable experimental investigation fundamental concepts within the area of chemical physics. One such phenomenon is the concept of Environment-Assisted Quantum Transport which has emerged from the investigation of exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. Here, we study charge transport through a two-site molecular junction coupled to a vibrational environment. We demonstrate that vibrational interactions can also significantly enhance the current through specific molecular orbitals. Our study offers a clear pathway towards finding and identifying environment-assisted transport phenomena in charge transport settings.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A "problem of time" in the multiplicative scheme for the $n$-site hopper. (arXiv:1706.03793v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Quantum Measure Theory (QMT) is an approach to quantum mechanics, based on the path integral, in which quantum theory is conceived of as a generalised stochastic process. One of the postulates of QMT is that events with zero quantum measure do not occur, however this is not sufficient to give a full picture of the quantum world. Determining the other postulates is a work in progress and this paper investigates a proposal called the Multiplicative Scheme for QMT in which the physical world corresponds, essentially, to a set of histories from the path integral. This scheme is applied to Sorkin's $n$-site hopper, a discrete, unitary model of a single particle on a ring of $n$ sites, motivated by free Schr\"odinger propagation. It is shown that the multiplicative scheme's global features lead to the conclusion that no non-trivial, time-finite event can occur.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Geometric Steering Criterion for Two-qubit States. (arXiv:1710.06691v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity S is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity S can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Geometric Local Hidden State Model for Some Two-qubit States. (arXiv:1710.06704v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Adopting the geometric description of steering assemblages and local hidden states (LHS) model, we propose a geometric LHS model for some two-qubit states under continuous projective measurements of the steering side. We show that the model is the optimal LHS model for these states, and obtain a sufficient steering criterion for all two-qubit states. Then we demonstrate asymmetric steering using the results we get.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A noisy channel less entangled than a pure can improve teleportation. (arXiv:1710.04311v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We address the following problem in the context of teleportation. A bearer holds a qubit in an unknown state $|\psi\rangle$ for teleporting and two different laboratories offer the teleportation service. In the first of them the procedure is performed with a known partially entangled pure state channel and with the capacity of performing the joint measurement on a basis with a constrained entanglement amount. The second laboratory uses a quantum channel in a known X-state and can perform the joint measurement on states with a controllable entanglement amount. After analyzing the technical information of both laboratories, the bearer takes the service of the second one. In this work, by studying the average fidelity of the teleportation, we discover the reason why the bearer makes such a decision. In particular, we find that the average fidelity achieved with the X-state can surpass the obtained with a pure channel, even though the X-state has a smaller entanglement amount. We obtain the conditions under which this effect occurs, finding threshold values and upper bounds for the involved concurrences.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Generalized eigenstate typicality in translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models. (arXiv:1709.05569v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

We demonstrate a generalized notion of eigenstate thermalization for translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models: the vast majority of eigenstates satisfying a finite number of suitable constraints (e.g. fixed energy and particle number) have the property that their reduced density matrix on small subsystems approximates the corresponding generalized Gibbs ensemble. To this end, we generalize analytic results by Lai and Yang (Phys. Rev. B 91, 081110 (2015)) and illustrate the claim numerically by example of the Jordan-Wigner transform of the XX spin chain.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nonequilibrium Work Relation from Schroedinger's Unrecognized Probability Theory. (arXiv:1709.05169v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

Jarzynski's nonequilibrium work relation can be understood as the realization of the (hidden) time-generator reciprocal symmetry satisfied for the conditional probability function. To show this, we introduce the reciprocal process where the classical probability theory is expressed with real wave functions, and derive a mathematical relation using the symmetry. We further discuss that the descriptions by the usual Markov process from an initial equilibrium state are indistinguishable from those by the reciprocal process. Then the Jarzynski relation is obtained from the mathematical relation for the Markov processes described by the Fokker-Planck, Kramers and relativistic Kramers equations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Photonic Counterparts of Cooper Pairs. (arXiv:1709.04520v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 3 hours 50 min ago

The microscopic theory of superconductivity raised the disruptive idea that electrons couple through the elusive exchange of virtual phonons, overcoming the strong Coulomb repulsion to form Cooper pairs. Light is also known to interact with atomic vibrations, as for example in the Raman effect. We show that photon pairs exchange virtual vibrations in transparent media, leading to an effective photon-photon interaction identical to that for electrons in BCS theory of supercondutivity, in spite of the fact that photons are bosons. In this scenario, photons may exchange energy without matching a quantum of vibration of the medium. As a result, pair correlations for photons scattered away from the Raman resonances are expected to be enhanced. Experimental demonstration of this effect is provided here by time correlated Raman measurements in different media. The experimental data confirm our theoretical interpretation of a photonic Cooper pairing, without the need for any fitting parameters.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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