Physics

The complex and quaternionic quantum bit from relativity of simultaneity on an interferometer. (arXiv:1412.7112v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

The patterns of fringes produced by an interferometer have long been important testbeds for our best contemporary theories of physics. Historically, interference has been used to contrast quantum mechanics to classical physics, but recently experiments have been performed that test quantum theory against even more exotic alternatives. A physically motivated family of theories are those where the state space of a two-level system is given by a sphere of arbitrary dimension. This includes classical bits, and real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory. In this paper, we consider relativity of simultaneity (that observers may disagree about the order of events at different locations) as applied to a two-armed interferometer, and show that this forbids most interference phenomena more complicated than those of complex quantum theory. If interference must depend on some relational property of the setting (such as path difference), then relativity of simultaneity will limit state spaces to standard complex quantum theory, or a subspace thereof. If this relational assumption is relaxed, we find one additional theory compatible with relativity of simultaneity: quaternionic quantum theory. Our results have consequences for current laboratory interference experiments: they have to be designed carefully to avoid rendering beyond-quantum effects invisible by relativity of simultaneity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Nonequilibrium quantum phase transition in strongly coupled spin chains. (arXiv:1703.02934v5 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We study spin transport in a boundary driven XXZ spin chain. Driving at the chain boundaries is modeled by two additional spin chains prepared in oppositely polarized states. Emergent behavior, both in the transient dynamics and in the long-time quasi-steady state, is demonstrated. Time-dependent matrix-product-state simulations of the system-bath state show ballistic spin transport below the Heisenberg isotropic point. Indications of exponentially vanishing transport are found above the Heisenberg point for low energy initial states while the current decays asymptotically as a power law for high energy states. Precisely at the critical point, non-ballistic transport is observed. Finally, it is found that the sensitivity of the quasi-stationary state on the initial state of the chain is a good witness of the different transport phases.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Time evolution of a pair of distinguishable interacting spins subjected to controllable and noisy magnetic fields. (arXiv:1703.07673v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

The quantum dynamics of a $\hat{\mathbf{J}}^2=(\hat{\mathbf{j}}_1+\hat{\mathbf{j}}_2)^2$-conserving Hamiltonian model describing two coupled spins $\hat{\mathbf{j}}_1$ and $\hat{\mathbf{j}}_2$ under controllable and fluctuating time-dependent magnetic fields is investigated. Each eigenspace of $\hat{\mathbf{J}}^2$ is dynamically invariant and the Hamiltonian of the total system restricted to any one of such $(j_1+j_2)-|j_1-j_2|+1$ eigenspaces, possesses the SU(2) structure of the Hamiltonian of a single fictitious spin acted upon by the total magnetic field. We show that such a reducibility holds regardless of the time dependence of the externally applied field as well as of the statistical properties of the noise, here represented as a classical fluctuating magnetic field. The time evolution of the joint transition probabilities of the two spins $\hat{\mathbf{j}}_1$ and $\hat{\mathbf{j}}_2$ between two prefixed factorized states is examined, bringing to light peculiar dynamical properties of the system under scrutiny. When the noise-induced non-unitary dynamics of the two coupled spins is properly taken into account, analytical expressions for the joint Landau-Zener transition probabilities are reported. The possibility of extending the applicability of our results to other time-dependent spin models is pointed out.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tailored codes for small quantum memories. (arXiv:1703.08179v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We demonstrate that small quantum memories, realized via quantum error correction in multi-qubit devices, can benefit substantially by choosing a quantum code that is tailored to the relevant error model of the system. For a biased noise model, with independent bit and phase flips occurring at different rates, we show that a single code greatly outperforms the well-studied Steane code across the full range of parameters of the noise model, including for unbiased noise. In fact, this tailored code performs almost optimally when compared with 10,000 randomly selected stabilizer codes of comparable experimental complexity. Tailored codes can even outperform the Steane code with realistic experimental noise, and without any increase in the experimental complexity, as we demonstrate by comparison in the observed error model in a recent 7-qubit trapped ion experiment.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Parametrically Activated Entangling Gates Using Transmon Qubits. (arXiv:1706.06562v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We describe and implement a family of entangling gates activated by radio-frequency flux modulation applied to a tunable transmon that is statically coupled to a neighboring transmon. The effect of this modulation is the resonant exchange of photons directly between levels of the two-transmon system, obviating the need for mediating qubits or resonator modes and allowing for the full utilization of all qubits in a scalable architecture. The resonance condition is selective in both the frequency and amplitude of modulation and thus alleviates frequency crowding. We demonstrate the use of three such resonances to produce entangling gates that enable universal quantum computation: one iSWAP gate and two distinct controlled Z gates. We report interleaved randomized benchmarking results indicating gate error rates of 6% for the iSWAP (duration 135ns) and 9% for the controlled Z gates (durations 175 ns and 270 ns), limited largely by qubit coherence.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Optimal configurations for normal-metal traps in transmon qubits. (arXiv:1706.09336v2 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

Controlling quasiparticle dynamics can improve the performance of superconducting devices. For example, it has been demonstrated effective in increasing lifetime and stability of superconducting qubits. Here we study how to optimize the placement of normal-metal traps in transmon-type qubits. When the trap size increases beyond a certain characteristic length, the details of the geometry and trap position, and even the number of traps, become important. We discuss for some experimentally relevant examples how to shorten the decay time of the excess quasiparticle density. Moreover, we show that a trap in the vicinity of a Josephson junction can reduce the steady-state quasiparticle density near that junction, thus suppressing the quasiparticle-induced relaxation rate of the qubit. Such a trap also reduces the impact of fluctuations in the generation rate of quasiparticles, rendering the qubit more stable.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Fermionic projected entangled-pair states and topological phases. (arXiv:1707.00470v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We study fermionic matrix product operator algebras and identify the associated algebraic data. Using this algebraic data we construct fermionic tensor network states in two dimensions that have non-trivial symmetry-protected or intrinsic topological order. The tensor network states allow us to relate physical properties of the topological phases to the underlying algebraic data. We illustrate this by calculating defect properties and modular matrices of supercohomology phases. Our formalism also captures Majorana defects as we show explicitly for a class of $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry-protected and intrinsic topological phases. The tensor networks states presented here are well-suited for numerical applications and hence open up new possibilities for studying interacting fermionic topological phases.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Heisenberg-Langevin vs. quantum master equation. (arXiv:1707.04135v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

The quantum master equation is an important tool in the study of quantum open systems. It is often derived under a set of approximations, chief among them the Born (factorization) and Markov (neglect of memory effects) approximations. In this article we study the paradigmatic model of quantum Brownian motion of an harmonic oscillator coupled to a bath of oscillators with a Drude-Ohmic spectral density. We obtain analytically the \emph{exact} solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin equations, with which we study correlation functions in the asymptotic stationary state. We compare the \emph{exact} correlation functions to those obtained in the asymptotic long time limit with the quantum master equation in the Born approximation \emph{with and without} the Markov approximation. In the latter case we implement a systematic derivative expansion that yields the \emph{exact} asymptotic limit under the factorization approximation \emph{only}. We find discrepancies that could be significant when the bandwidth of the bath $\Lambda$ is much larger than the typical scales of the system. We study the \emph{exact} interaction energy as a \emph{proxy} for the correlations missed by the Born approximation and find that its dependence on $\Lambda$ is similar to the \emph{discrepancy} between the exact solution and that of the quantum master equation in the Born approximation. We quantify the regime of validity of the quantum master equation in the Born approximation with or without the Markov approximation in terms of the system's relaxation rate $\gamma$, its \emph{unrenormalized} natural frequency $\Omega$ and $\Lambda$: $\gamma/\Omega \ll 1$ and \emph{also} $\gamma \Lambda/\Omega^2 \ll 1$. The reliability of the Born approximation is discussed within the context of recent experimental settings and more general environments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Bohmian trajectories for the half-line barrier. (arXiv:1707.06173v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

Bohmian trajectories are considered for a particle that is free (i.e. the potential energy is zero), except for a half-line barrier. On the barrier, both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are considered. The half-line barrier yields one of the simplest cases of diffraction. Using the exact time-dependent propagator found by Schulman, the trajectories are computed numerically for different initial Gaussian wave packets. In particular, it is found that different boundary conditions may lead to qualitatively different sets of trajectories. In the Dirichlet case, the particles tend to be more strongly repelled. The case of an incoming plane wave is also considered. The corresponding Bohmian trajectories are compared with the trajectories of an oil drop hopping on the surface of a vibrating bath.

Categories: Journals, Physics

An Infinite Family of Circulant Graphs with Perfect State Transfer in Discrete Quantum Walks. (arXiv:1707.06703v2 [math.CO] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We study perfect state transfer in a discrete quantum walk. In particular, we show that there are infinitely many $4$-regular circulant graphs that admit perfect state transfer between antipodal vertices. To the best of our knowledge, previously there was no infinite family of $k$-regular graphs with perfect state transfer, for any $k\ge 3$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A variational method for integrability-breaking Richardson-Gaudin models. (arXiv:1707.06793v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We present a variational method for approximating the ground state of spin models close to (Richardson-Gaudin) integrability. This is done by variationally optimizing eigenstates of integrable Richardson-Gaudin models, where the toolbox of integrability allows for an efficient evaluation and minimization of the energy functional. The method is shown to return exact results for integrable models and improve substantially on perturbation theory for models close to integrability. For large integrability-breaking interactions, it is shown how (avoided) level crossings necessitate the use of excited states of integrable Hamiltonians in order to accurately describe the ground states of general non-integrable models.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum majorization and a complete set of entropic conditions for quantum thermodynamics. (arXiv:1708.04302v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

What does it mean for one quantum process to be more disordered than another? Here we provide a precise answer to this question in terms of a quantum-mechanical generalization of majorization. The framework admits a complete description in terms of single-shot entropies, and provides a range of significant applications. These include applications to the comparison of quantum statistical models and quantum channels, to the resource theory of asymmetry, and to quantum thermodynamics. In particular, within quantum thermodynamics, we apply our results to provide the first complete set of of necessary and sufficient conditions for arbitrary quantum state transformation under thermodynamic processes, and which rigorously accounts for quantum-mechanical properties, such as coherence. Our framework of generalized thermal processes extends thermal operations, and is based on natural physical principles, namely, energy conservation, the existence of equilibrium states, and the requirement that quantum coherence be accounted for thermodynamically. In the zero coherence case we recover thermo-majorization while in the asymptotic coherence regime we obtain a constraint that takes the form of a Page-Wootters clock condition.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Effect of magnetization on the tunneling anomaly in compressible quantum Hall states. (arXiv:1709.06091v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

Tunneling of electrons into a two-dimensional electron system is known to exhibit an anomaly at low bias, in which the tunneling conductance vanishes due to a many-body interaction effect. Recent experiments have measured this anomaly between two copies of the half-filled Landau level as a function of in-plane magnetic field, and they suggest that increasing spin polarization drives a deeper suppression of tunneling. Here we present a theory of the tunneling anomaly between two copies of the partially spin-polarized Halperin-Lee-Read state, and we show that the conventional description of the tunneling anomaly, based on the Coulomb self-energy of the injected charge packet, is inconsistent with the experimental observation. We propose that the experiment is operating in a different regime, not previously considered, in which the charge-spreading action is determined by the compressibility of the composite fermions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

n-cluster models in a transverse magnetic field. (arXiv:1709.06147v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

In this paper we analize a family of one dimensional fully analytically solvable models, named the n-cluster models in a transverse magnetic field, in which a many-body cluster interaction competes with a uniform transverse magnetic field. These models, independently by the cluster size n + 2, exibit a quantum phase transition, that separates a paramagnetic phase from a cluster one, that corresponds to a nematic ordered phase or a symmetry-protected topological ordered phase for even or odd n respectively. Due to the symmetries of the spin correlation functions, we prove that these models have no genuine n+2-partite entanglement. On the contrary, a non vanishing concurrence arises between spins at the endpoints of the cluster, for a magnetic field strong enough. Due to their analyticity and peculiar entanglement properties, the n-cluster models in a transverse magnetic field serve as a prototype for studying non trivial-spin orderings and as a potential reference system for the applications of quantum information tasks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Arbitrary Control of Entanglement between two nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles coupling to superconducting circuit qubit. (arXiv:1704.09027v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We propose an effective scheme for realizing a Jaynes-Cummings (J-C) model with the collective nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVE) bosonic modes in a hybrid system. Specifically, the controllable transmon qubit can alternatively interact with one of the two NVEs, which results in the production of $N$ particle entangled states. Arbitrary $N$ particle entangled states, NOON states, N-dimensional entangled states and entangled coherent states are demonstrated. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed via numerical simulation. Since no cavity photons or excited levels of the NV center are populated during the whole process, our scheme is insensitive to cavity decay and spontaneous emission of the NVE. The idea provides a scalable way to realize NVEs-circuit cavity quantum information processing with current technology.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Spin in Compton scattering with pronounced polarization dynamics. (arXiv:1708.09606v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We theoretically investigate a scattering configuration in Compton scattering, in which the orientation of the electron spin is reversed and simultaneously, the photon polarization changes from linear polarization into circular polarization. The intrinsic angular momentum of electron and photon are computed along the coincident propagation direction of the incoming and outgoing photon. We find that this intrinsic angular momentum is not conserved in the considered scattering process. We also discuss the generation of entanglement for the considered scattering setup and present an angle dependent investigation of the corresponding differential cross section, Stokes parameters and spin expectation.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Superconducting Gatemon Qubit based on a Proximitized Two-Dimensional Electron Gas. (arXiv:1711.07665v3 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

The coherent tunnelling of Cooper pairs across Josephson junctions (JJs) generates a nonlinear inductance that is used extensively in quantum information processors based on superconducting circuits, from setting qubit transition frequencies and interqubit coupling strengths, to the gain of parametric amplifiers for quantum-limited readout. The inductance is either set by tailoring the metal-oxide dimensions of single JJs, or magnetically tuned by parallelizing multiple JJs in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with local current-biased flux lines. JJs based on superconductor-semiconductor hybrids represent a tantalizing all-electric alternative. The gatemon is a recently developed transmon variant which employs locally gated nanowire (NW) superconductor-semiconductor JJs for qubit control. Here, we go beyond proof-of-concept and demonstrate that semiconducting channels etched from a wafer-scale two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) are a suitable platform for building a scalable gatemon-based quantum computer. We show 2DEG gatemons meet the requirements by performing voltage-controlled single qubit rotations and two-qubit swap operations. We measure qubit coherence times up to ~2 us, limited by dielectric loss in the 2DEG host substrate.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Non-Perturbative Quantum Mechanics from Non-Perturbative Strings. (arXiv:1712.02603v1 [hep-th] CROSS LISTED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

This work develops a new method to calculate non-perturbative corrections in one-dimensional Quantum Mechanics, based on trans-series solutions to the refined holomorphic anomaly equations of topological string theory. The method can be applied to traditional spectral problems governed by the Schr\"odinger equation, where it both reproduces and extends the results of well-established approaches, such as the exact WKB method. It can be also applied to spectral problems based on the quantization of mirror curves, where it leads to new results on the trans-series structure of the spectrum. Various examples are discussed, including the modified Mathieu equation, the double-well potential, and the quantum mirror curves of local $\mathbb{P}^2$ and local $\mathbb{F}_0$. In all these examples, it is verified in detail that the trans-series obtained with this new method correctly predict the large-order behavior of the corresponding perturbative sectors.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Two-photon quantum Rabi model with superconducting circuits. (arXiv:1711.10032v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We propose a superconducting circuit to implement a two-photon quantum Rabi model in a solid-state device, where a qubit and a resonator are coupled by a two-photon interaction. We analyze the input-output relations for this circuit in the strong coupling regime and find that fundamental quantum optical phenomena are qualitatively modified. For instance, two-photon interactions are shown to yield single- or two-photon blockade when a pumping field is either applied to the cavity mode or to the qubit, respectively. In addition, we derive an effective Hamiltonian for perturbative ultrastrong two-photon couplings in the dispersive regime, where two- photon interactions introduce a qubit-state-dependent Kerr term. Finally, we analyze the spectral collapse of the multi-qubit two-photon quantum Rabi model and find a scaling of the critical coupling with the number of qubits. Using realistic parameters with the circuit proposed, three qubits are sufficient to reach the collapse point.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum statistics of a single-atom Scovil-Schulz-DuBois heat engine. (arXiv:1710.00902v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Mon, 2017-12-11 11:33

We study the statistics of the lasing output from a single atom quantum heat engine, which was originally proposed by Scovil and Schulz-DuBois (SSDB). In this heat engine model, a single three-level atom is strongly coupled with an optical cavity, and contacted with a hot and a cold heat bath together. We derive a fully quantum laser equation for this heat engine model, and obtain the photon number distribution for both below and above the lasing threshold. With the increase of the hot bath temperature, the population is inverted and lasing light comes out. However, we notice that if the hot bath temperature keeps increasing, the atomic decay rate is also enhanced, which weakens the lasing gain. As a result, another critical point appears at a very high temperature of the hot bath, after which the output light become thermal radiation again. To avoid this double-threshold behavior, we introduce a four-level heat engine model, where the atomic decay rate does not depend on the hot bath temperature. In this case, the lasing threshold is much easier to achieve, and the double-threshold behavior disappears.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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