There exist several graphical languages for quantum information processing, like quantum circuits, ZX-Calculus, ZW-Calculus, etc. Each of these languages forms a dagger-symmetric monoidal category (dagger-SMC) and comes with an interpretation functor to the dagger-SMC of (finite dimension) Hilbert spaces. In the recent years, one of the main achievements of the categorical approach to quantum mechanics has been to provide several equational theories for most of these graphical languages, making them complete for various fragments of pure quantum mechanics. We address the question of the extension of these languages beyond pure quantum mechanics, in order to reason on mixed states and general quantum operations, i.e. completely positive maps. Intuitively, such an extension relies on the axiomatisation of a discard map which allows one to get rid of a quantum system, operation which is not allowed in pure quantum mechanics. We introduce a new construction, the discard construction, which transforms any dagger-symmetric monoidal category into a symmetric monoidal category equipped with a discard map. Roughly speaking this construction consists in making any isometry causal. Using this construction we provide an extension for several graphical languages that we prove to be complete for general quantum operations. However this construction fails for some fringe cases like the Clifford+T quantum mechanics, as the category does not have enough isometries.

Studying the zeroes of partition functions in the space of complex control parameters allows to understand formally how critical behavior of a many-body system can arise in the thermodynamic limit despite various no-go theorems for finite systems. In this work we propose protocols that can be realized in quantum simulators to measure the location of complex partition function zeroes of classical Ising models. The protocols are solely based on the implementation of simple two-qubit gates, local spin rotations, and projective measurements along two orthogonal quantization axes. Besides presenting numerical simulations of the measurement outcomes for an exemplary classical model, we discuss the effect of projection noise and the feasibility of the implementation on state of the art platforms for quantum simulation.

We study one-mode Gaussian quantum channels in continuous-variable systems by performing a black-box characterization using complete positivity and trace preserving conditions, and report the existence of two subsets that do not have a functional Gaussian form. Our study covers as particular limit the case of singular channels, thus connecting our results with their known classification scheme based on canonical forms. Our full characterization of Gaussian channels without Gaussian functional form is completed by showing how Gaussian states are transformed under these operations, and by deriving the conditions for the existence of master equations for the non-singular cases.

We discuss the rotational cooling of diatomic molecules in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ultra-cold atoms by emission of phonons with orbital angular momentum. Despite the superfluidity of the BEC there is no frictionless rotation for typical molecules since the dominant cooling occurs via emission of particle-like phonons. Only for macro-dimers, whose size becomes comparable or larger than the condensate healing length, a Landau-like, critical angular momentum exists below which phonon emission is suppressed. We find that the rotational relaxation of typical molecules is in general faster than the cooling of the linear motion of impurities in a BEC. This also leads to a finite lifetime of angulons, quasi-particles of rotating molecules coupled to phonons with orbital angular-momentum. We analyze the dynamics of rotational cooling for homo-nuclear diatomic molecules based on a quantum Boltzmann equation including single- and two-phonon scattering and discuss the effect of thermal phonons.

Superposition of two or more states is one of the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and provides the basis for several advantages quantum information processing offers. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum superposition permits two-way communication between two distant parties that can exchange only one particle once, an impossible task in classical physics. This is achieved by preparing a single photon in a coherent superposition of the two parties' locations. Furthermore, we show that this concept allows the parties to perform secure quantum communication, where the transmitted bits and even the direction of communication remain private. These important features can lead to the development of new quantum communication schemes, which are simultaneously secure and resource-efficient.

General relativistic quantum dynamics of twisted (vortex) Dirac particles is constructed. The Hamiltonian and equations of motion in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation are derived for a twisted relativistic electron in arbitrary electric and magnetic fields. A critical experiment for a verification of the results is proposed. The new important effect of a radiative orbital polarization of a twisted electron beam in a magnetic field resulting in a nonzero average projection of the intrinsic orbital angular momentum on the field direction is predicted.

A sort of planar tensor networks with tensor constraints is investigated as a model for holography. We study the greedy algorithm generated by tensor constraints and propose the notion of critical protection (CP) against the action of greedy algorithm. For given tensor constraints, a CP tensor chain can be defined. We further find that the ability of quantum error correction (QEC), the non-flatness of entanglement spectrum (ES) and the correlation function can be quantitatively evaluated by the geometric structure of CP tensor chain. Four classes of tensor networks with different properties of entanglement is discussed. Thanks to tensor constraints and CP, the correlation function is reduced into a bracket of Matrix Production State and the result agrees with the one in conformal field theory.

The discrete-time quantum walk dynamics can be generated by a time-dependent Hamiltonian, repeatedly switching between the coin and the shift generators. We change the model and consider the case where the Hamiltonian is time-independent, including both the coin and the shift terms in all times. The eigenvalues and the related Bloch vectors for the time-independent Hamiltonian are then compared with the corresponding quantities for the effective Hamiltonian generating the quantum walk dynamics. Restricted to the non-localized initial quantum walk states, we optimize the parameters in the time-independent Hamiltonian such that it generates a dynamics similar to the Hadamard quantum walk. We find that the dynamics of the walker probability distribution and the corresponding standard deviation, the coin-walker entanglement, and the quantum-to-classical transition of the discrete-time quantum walk model can be approximately generated by the optimized time-independent Hamiltonian. We, further, show both dynamics are equivalent in the classical regime, as expected.

Several versions of quantum theory assume some form of localized collapse. If measurement outcomes are indeed defined by localized collapses, then a loophole-free demonstration of Bell non-locality needs to ensure space-like separated collapses associated with the measurements of the entangled systems. This collapse locality loophole remains largely untested, with one significant exception probing Diosi's and Penrose's gravitationally induced collapse hypotheses. I describe here techniques that allow much stronger experimental tests. These apply to all the well known types of collapse postulate, including gravitationally induced collapse, spontaneous localization models and Wigner's consciousness-induced collapse.

We present a generic and systematic approach for constructing D-dimensional lattice models with exactly solvable d-dimensional boundary states localized to corners, edges, hinges and surfaces. These solvable models represent a class of "sweet spots" in the space of possible tight-binding models---the exact solutions remain valid for any tight-binding parameters as long as they obey simple locality conditions that are manifest in the underlying lattice structure. Consequently, our models capture the physics of both (higher-order) topological and non-topological phases as well as the transitions between them in a particularly illuminating and transparent manner.

In this study, the Landau-Zener (LZ) transition method is applied to investigate a weak non-adiabatic effect on the Zak phase and topological charge pumping in the Rice-Mele model. The non-adiabatic effect is formulated by using the LZ transfer matrix. The effective lower band wave function picks up the Stokes phase as well as the usual dynamical phase through two avoided crossings. The interference effect from the upper band has a decisive influence to the decay behavior of the lower band population. Then a non-adiabatic extension of the Zak phase is formulated, corresponding to the Wannier center of mass of the lower band. Furthermore we estimate the efficiency of the LZ formalism and verify the breakdown of the quantization of topological charge pumping by changing the sweeping speed.

We show that a synthetic pseudospin-momentum coupling can be used to design quasi-one-dimensional disorder-resistant coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). In this structure, the propagating Bloch waves exhibit a pseudospin-momentum locking at specific momenta where backscattering is suppressed. We quantify this resistance to disorder using two methods. First, we calculate the Anderson localization length $\xi$, obtaining an order of magnitude enhancement compared to a conventional CROW for typical device parameters. Second, we study propagation in the time domain, finding that the loss of wavepacket purity in the presence of disorder rapidly saturates, indicating the preservation of phase information before the onset of Anderson localization. Our approach of directly optimizing the bulk Bloch waves is a promising alternative to disorder-robust transport based on higher dimensional topological edge states.

Recent studies using the quantum information theoretic approach to thermodynamics show that the presence of coherence in quantum systems generates corrections to classical fluctuation theorems. To explicate the physical origins and implications of such corrections, we here convert an abstract framework of an autonomous quantum Crooks relation into quantum Crooks equalities for well-known coherent, squeezed and cat states. We further provide a proposal for a concrete experimental scenario to test these equalities. Our scheme consists of the autonomous evolution of a trapped ion and uses a position dependent AC Stark shift.

In this work, we demonstrate initialization and readout of nuclear spins via a negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV) electron spin qubit. Under Hartmann-Hahn conditions the electron spin polarization is coherently transferred to the nuclear spin. The readout of the nuclear polarization is observed via the fluorescence of the SiV. We also show that the coherence time of the nuclear spin (6 ms) is limited by the electron spin-lattice relaxation due to the hyperfine coupling to the electron spin. This work paves the way towards realization of building blocks of quantum hardware with an efficient spin-photon interface based on the SiV color center coupled to a long lasting nuclear memory.

We establish a lower bound on the asymptotic secret key rate of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a discrete modulation of coherent states. The bound is valid against collective attacks and is obtained by formulating the problem as a semidefinite program. We illustrate our general approach with the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme and show that distances over 100 km are achievable for realistic values of noise. We also discuss the application to more complex quadrature amplitude modulations (QAM) schemes. This work is a major step towards establishing the full security of continuous-variable protocols with a discrete modulation in the finite-size regime and opens the way to large-scale deployment of these protocols for quantum key distribution.

We consider a family of norms (called operator E-norms) on the algebra $B(H)$ of all bounded operators on a separable Hilbert space $H$ induced by a positive densely defined operator $G$ on $H$. Each norm of this family produces the same topology on $B(H)$ depending on $G$. By choosing different generating operator $G$ one can obtain operator E-norms producing different topologies, in particular, the strong operator topology on bounded subsets of $B(H)$. We obtain a generalised version of the Kretschmann-Schlingemann-Werner theorem, which shows continuity of the Stinespring representation of CP linear maps w.r.t. the energy-constrained $cb$-norm (diamond norm) on the set of CP linear maps and the operator E-norm on the set of Stinespring operators.

The operator E-norms induced by a positive operator $G$ are naturally defined for linear operators relatively bounded w.r.t. the operator $\sqrt{G}$ and the linear space of such operators equipped with any of these norms is a Banach space. We obtain explicit relations between the operator E-norms and the standard characteristics of $\sqrt{G}$-bounded operators. The operator E-norms allow to obtain simple upper estimates and continuity bounds for some functions depending on $\sqrt{G}$-bounded operators used in applications.

Using Optimal Control Theory (OCT), we design fast ramps for the controlled transport of Bose-Einstein condensates with atom chips' magnetic traps. These ramps are engineered in the context of precision atom interferometry experiments and support transport over large distances, typically of the order of 1 mm, i.e. about 1,000 times the size of the atomic clouds, yet with durations not exceeding 200 ms. We show that with such transport durations of the order of the trap period, one can recover the ground state of the final trap at the end of the transport. The performance of the OCT procedure is compared to that of a Shortcut-To-Adiabaticity (STA) protocol and the respective advantages / disadvantages of the OCT treatment over the STA one are discussed.

We study stability of a zero temperature mixture of attractively interacting degenerate bosons and spin-polarized fermions in the absence of confinement. We demonstrate that higher order corrections to the standard mean field energy of the system can lead to a formation of Bose-Fermi liquid droplets -- self-bound incompressible systems in a three-dimensional space. The stability analysis of the homogeneous system is supported by numerical simulations of finite systems by explicit inclusion of surface effects. Our results indicate that Bose-Fermi droplets can be realized experimentally.

Users of quantum computers must be able to confirm they are indeed functioning as intended, even when the devices are remotely accessed. In particular, if the Hilbert space dimension of the components are not as advertised -- for instance if the qubits suffer leakage -- errors can ensue and protocols may be rendered insecure. We refine the method of delayed vectors, adapted from classical chaos theory to quantum systems, and apply it remotely on the IBMQ platform -- a quantum computer composed of transmon qubits. The method witnesses, in a model-independent fashion, dynamical signatures of higher-dimensional processes. We present evidence, under mild assumptions, that the IBMQ transmons suffer state leakage, with a $p$ value no larger than $5{\times}10^{-4}$ under a single qubit operation. We also estimate the number of shots necessary for revealing leakage in a two-qubit system.

Author(s): Hayato Goto, Zhirong Lin, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, and Yasunobu Nakamura

We theoretically propose a method for on-demand generation of traveling Schrödinger cat states, namely, quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states of traveling fields. This method is based on deterministic generation of intracavity cat states using a Kerr-nonlinear parametric oscillator (KPO...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 023838] Published Wed Feb 20, 2019