Author(s): Marric Stephens

A neural network can be made to produce more reliable predictions of nonlinear systems if it is created with conservation laws built in.

[Physics 14, s25] Published Thu Mar 04, 2021

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Katherine Wright

By changing the material commonly used to make devices for generating entangled photons, researchers create a quantum light source that is significantly brighter than others.

[Physics 14, s30] Published Thu Mar 04, 2021

Categories: Physics

Author(s): V. Shiltsev and F. Zimmermann

Particle accelerators have been engines of discovery for many decades. The most powerful ones are used in particle physics where intense particle beams collide to study new particles. This has led to groundbreaking discoveries in our understanding of matter and forces. In this article the key concepts behind the development of such colliders are reviewed and a historical perspective is provided of the evolution of these machines. Approaches for next-generation colliders are presented and technology developments for far-future colliders that will have the further benefit of enabling new applications in the use of accelerators for science and society are discussed.

[Rev. Mod. Phys. 93, 015006] Published Wed Mar 03, 2021

Author(s): He-Liang Huang, Marek Narożniak, Futian Liang, Youwei Zhao, Anthony D. Castellano, Ming Gong, Yulin Wu, Shiyu Wang, Jin Lin, Yu Xu, Hui Deng, Hao Rong, Jonathan P. Dowling, Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tim Byrnes, Xiaobo Zhu, and Jian-Wei Pan

A multiqubit topological quantum protocol is implemented using a superconducting quantum simulator to braid non-Abelian anyons.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 090502] Published Wed Mar 03, 2021

Author(s): Eric I. Rosenthal, Christian M. F. Schneider, Maxime Malnou, Ziyi Zhao, Felix Leditzky, Benjamin J. Chapman, Waltraut Wustmann, Xizheng Ma, Daniel A. Palken, Maximilian F. Zanner, Leila R. Vale, Gene C. Hilton, Jiansong Gao, Graeme Smith, Gerhard Kirchmair, and K. W. Lehnert

Superconducting qubits are a leading platform for scalable quantum computing and quantum error correction. One feature of this platform is the ability to perform projective measurements orders of magnitude more quickly than qubit decoherence times. Such measurements are enabled by the use of quantum...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 090503] Published Wed Mar 03, 2021

Author(s): Rachel Berkowitz

Kept out of the lab by COVID-19, an undergraduate student has performed experiments in his living room, revealing a mechanism for fracture elongation in soft materials.

[Physics 14, 29] Published Wed Mar 03, 2021

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Sophia Chen

In water, single electrons can cluster with water molecules to form a quasiparticle that oscillates in size, a behavior that could influence the equilibration speed of chemical reactions in the system.

[Physics 14, s29] Published Wed Mar 03, 2021

Categories: Physics

This article is a tutorial on the quantum treatment of superconducting electrical circuits. It is intended for new researchers with limited or no experience with the field, but should be accessible to anyone with a bachelor's degree in physics or similar. The tutorial has three parts. The first part introduces the basic methods used in quantum circuit analysis, starting from a circuit diagram and ending with a quantized Hamiltonian truncated to the lowest levels. The second part introduces more advanced methods supplementing the methods presented in the first part. The third part is a collection of worked examples of superconducting circuits. Besides the examples in the third part, the two first parts also includes examples in parallel with the introduction of the methods.

Preparing the ground state of a Hamiltonian is a problem of great significance in physics with deep implications in the field of combinatorial optimization. The adiabatic algorithm is known to return the ground state for sufficiently long preparation times which depend on the a priori unknown spectral gap. Our work relates in a twofold way. First, we propose a method to obtain information about the spectral profile of the adiabatic evolution. Second, we present the concept of a variational quantum adiabatic algorithm (VQAA) for optimized adiabatic paths. We aim at combining the strengths of the adiabatic and the variational approaches for fast and high-fidelity ground state preparation while keeping the number of measurements as low as possible. Our algorithms build upon ancilla protocols which we present that allow to directly evaluate the ground state overlap. We benchmark for a non-integrable spin-1/2 transverse and longitudinal Ising chain with $N=53$ sites using tensor network techniques. Using a black box, gradient-based approach, we report a reduction in the total evolution time for a given desired ground state overlap by a factor of ten, which makes our method suitable for the limited decoherence time of noisy-intermediate scale quantum devices.

One of the most basic notions in physics is the partitioning of a system into subsystems, and the study of correlations among its parts. In this work, we explore these notions in the context of quantum reference frame (QRF) covariance, in which this partitioning is subject to a symmetry constraint. We demonstrate that different reference frame perspectives induce different sets of subsystem observable algebras, which leads to a gauge-invariant, frame-dependent notion of subsystems and entanglement. We further demonstrate that subalgebras which commute before imposing the symmetry constraint can translate into non-commuting algebras in a given QRF perspective after symmetry imposition. Such a QRF perspective does not inherit the distinction between subsystems in terms of the corresponding tensor factorizability of the kinematical Hilbert space and observable algebra. Since the condition for this to occur is contingent on the choice of QRF, the notion of subsystem locality is frame-dependent.

Large-scale quantum devices provide insights beyond the reach of classical simulations. However, for a reliable and verifiable quantum simulation, the building blocks of the quantum device require exquisite benchmarking. This benchmarking of large scale dynamical quantum systems represents a major challenge due to lack of efficient tools for their simulation. Here, we present a scalable algorithm based on neural networks for Hamiltonian tomography in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our approach using a model for a forefront quantum simulation platform: ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Specifically, we show that our algorithm is able to reconstruct the Hamiltonian of an arbitrary size quasi-1D bosonic system using an accessible amount of experimental measurements. We are able to significantly increase the previously known parameter precision.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy usually requires high magnetic fields to create spectral resolution among different proton species. At low fields, chemical shift dispersion is insufficient to separate the species, and the spectrum exhibits just a single line. In this work, we demonstrate that spectra can nevertheless be acquired at low field using a novel pulse sequence called spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC). This probes energy level crossings induced by a weak spin-locking pulse and produces a unique J-coupling spectrum for most organic molecules. Unlike other forms of low-field J-coupling spectroscopy, our technique does not require the presence of heteronuclei and can be used for most compounds in their native state. We performed SLIC spectroscopy on a number of small molecules at 276 kHz and 20.8 MHZ, and we show that SLIC spectra can be simulated in good agreement with measurements.

Alkali-metal atomic magnetometers suffer from heading errors in geomagnetic fields as the measured magnetic field depends on the orientation of the sensor with respect to the field. In addition to the nonlinear Zeeman splitting, the difference between Zeeman resonances in the two hyperfine ground states can also generate heading errors depending on initial spin polarization. We examine heading errors in an all-optical scalar magnetometer that uses free precession of polarized $^{87}\text{Rb}$ atoms by varying the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field at different spin polarization regimes. In the high polarization limit where the lower hyperfine ground state $F = 1$ is almost depopulated, we show that heading errors can be corrected with an analytical expression, reducing the errors by two orders of magnitude in Earth's field. We also verify the linearity of the measured Zeeman precession frequency with the magnetic field. With lower spin polarization, we find that the splitting of the Zeeman resonances for the two hyperfine states causes beating in the precession signals and nonlinearity of the measured precession frequency with the magnetic field. We correct for the frequency shifts by using the unique probe geometry where two orthogonal probe beams measure opposite relative phases between the two hyperfine states during the spin precession.

The Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics divides naturally into two parts: first, the interpretation of the structure of the quantum state, in terms of branching, and second, the interpretation of this branching structure in terms of probability. This is the first of two reviews of the Everett interpretation, and focuses on structure, with particular attention to the role of decoherence theory. Written in terms of the quantum histories formalism, decoherence theory just is the theory of branching structure, in Everett's sense.

The stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) shows an efficient technique that accurately transfers population between two discrete quantum states with the same parity, in three-level quantum systems based on adiabatic evolution. This technique has widely theoretical and experimental applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. Here, we present a generally robust approach to speed up STIRAP with invariant-based shortcut to adiabaticity. By controlling the dynamical process, we inversely design a family of Hamiltonians that can realize fast and accurate population transfer from the first to the third level, while the systematic error is largely suppressed in general. Furthermore, a detailed trade-off relation between the population of the intermediate state and the amplitudes of Rabi frequencies in the transfer process is illustrated. These results provide an optimal route toward manipulating the evolution of three-level quantum systems in future quantum information processing.

We present the fundamental solutions for the spin-1/2 fields propagating in the spacetimes with power type expansion/contraction and the fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for the Dirac equation. The derivation of these fundamental solutions is based on formulas for the solutions to the generalized Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation, which are obtained by the integral transform approach.

In this paper, we study measures of quantum non-Markovianity based on the conditional mutual information. We obtain such measures by considering multiple parts of the total environment such that the conditional mutual informations can be defined in this multipartite setup. The benefit of this approach is that the conditional mutual information is closely related to recovery maps and Markov chains; we also point out its relations with the change of distinguishability. Moreover, we show how to extend the non-Markovianity measures to the case in which the initial system-environment state is correlated.

We present two fast algorithms which apply inclusion-exclusion principle to sum over the bosonic diagrams in bare diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo (dQMC) and inchworm Monte Carlo method, respectively. In the case of inchworm Monte Carlo, the proposed fast algorithm gives an extension to the work ["Inclusion-exclusion principle for many-body diagrammatics", Phys. Rev. B, 98:115152, 2018] from fermionic to bosonic systems. We prove that the proposed fast algorithms reduce the computational complexity from double factorial to exponential. Numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and to compare the efficiency of the methods.

It has been discovered that open quantum walks diffusively distribute in space, since they were introduced in 2012. Indeed, some limit distributions have been demonstrated and most of them are described by Gaussian distributions. We operate an open quantum walk on $\mathbb{Z}=\left\{0, \pm 1, \pm 2,\ldots\right\}$ with parameterized operations in this paper, and study its 1st and 2nd moments so that we find its standard deviation. The standard deviation tells us whether the open quantum walker shows diffusive or ballistic behavior, which results in a phase transition of the walker.

Superconducting circuit testing and materials loss characterization requires robust and reliable methods for the extraction of internal and coupling quality factors of microwave resonators. A common method, imposed by limitations on the device design or experimental configuration, is the single-port reflection geometry, i.e. reflection-mode. However, impedance mismatches in cryogenic systems must be accounted for through calibration of the measurement chain while it is at low temperatures. In this paper, we demonstrate a data-based, single-port calibration using commercial microwave standards and a vector network analyzer (VNA) with samples at millikelvin temperature in a dilution refrigerator, making this method useful for measurements of quantum phenomena. Finally, we cross reference our data-based, single-port calibration and reflection measurement with over-coupled 2D- and 3D-resonators against well established two-port techniques corroborating the validity of our method.