We present simulations of the superradiant dynamics of ensembles of atoms in the presence of collective and individual atomic decay processes. We unravel the density matrix with Monte-Carlo wave-functions and identify the quantum jumps in a reduced Dicke state basis, which reflects the permutation symmetry of the identical atoms. While the number of density matrix elements in the Dicke representation increases polynomially with atom number, the quantum jump dynamics populates only a single Dicke state at the time and thus efficient simulations can be carried out for tens of thousands of atoms. The calculated superradiance pulses from initially excited atoms agree quantitatively with recent experimental results with strontium atoms but rapid atom loss in these experiments does not permit steady-state superradiance. By introducing an incident flux of new atoms, the system can maintain a large average atom number, and our theoretical calculations predict lasing with millihertz linewidth despite rapid atom number fluctuations.

A mathematical extension of the weak value formalism to the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters is presented in the context of an optical focused vector beam scatterometry experiment. In this example, preselection and postselection are achieved via spatially-varying polarization control, which can be tailored to optimize the sensitivity to parameter variations. Initial experiments for the two-parameter case demonstrate that this method can be used to measure physical parameters with resolutions at least 1000 times smaller than the wavelength of illumination.

Coherent superposition is a key feature of quantum mechanics that underlies the advantage of quantum technologies over their classical counterparts. Recently, coherence has been recast as a resource theory in an attempt to identify and quantify it in an operationally well-defined manner. Here we study how the coherence present in a state can be used to implement a quantum channel via incoherent operations and, in turn, to assess its degree of coherence. We introduce the robustness of coherence of a quantum channel---which reduces to the homonymous measure for states when computed on constant-output channels---and prove that: i) it quantifies the minimal rank of a maximally coherent state required to implement the channel; ii) its logarithm quantifies the amortized cost of implementing the channel provided some coherence is recovered at the output; iii) its logarithm also quantifies the zero-error asymptotic cost of implementation of many independent copies of a channel. We also consider the generalized problem of imperfect implementation with arbitrary resource states. Using the robustness of coherence, we find that in general a quantum channel can be implemented without employing a maximally coherent resource state. In fact, we prove that \textit{every} pure coherent state in dimension larger than $2$, however weakly so, turns out to be a valuable resource to implement \textit{some} coherent unitary channel. We illustrate our findings for the case of single-qubit unitary channels.

Bohmian mechanics, widely known within the field of the quantum foundations, has been a quite useful resource for computational and interpretive purposes in a wide variety of practical problems. Here, it is used to establish a comparative analysis at different levels of approximation in the problem of the diffraction of helium atoms from a substrate consisting of a defect with axial symmetry on top of a flat surface. The motivation behind this work is to determine which aspects of one level survive in the next level of refinement and, therefore, to get a better idea of what we usually denote as quantum-classical correspondence. To this end, first a quantum treatment of the problem is performed with both an approximated hard-wall model and then with a realistic interaction potential model. The interpretation and explanation of the features displayed by the corresponding diffraction intensity patterns is then revisited with a series of trajectory-based approaches: Fermatian trajectories (optical rays), Newtonian trajectories and Bohmian trajectories. As it is seen, while Fermatian and Newtonian trajectories show some similarities, Bohmian trajectories behave quite differently due to their implicit non-classicality.

A quantum state's entanglement across a bipartite cut can be quantified with entanglement entropy or, more generally, Schmidt norms. Using only Schmidt decompositions, we present a simple iterative algorithm to maximize Schmidt norms. Depending on the choice of norm, the optimizing states maximize or minimize entanglement, possibly across several bipartite cuts at the same time and possibly only among states in a specified subspace.

Recognizing that convergence but not success is certain, we use the algorithm to explore topics ranging from fermionic reduced density matrices and varieties of pure quantum states to absolutely maximally entangled states and minimal output entropy of channels.

We study analytically and numerically decoding properties of finite rate hypergraph-product quantum LDPC codes obtained from random (3,4)-regular Gallager codes, with a simple model of independent X and Z errors. Several non-trival lower and upper bounds for the decodable region are constructed analytically by analyzing the properties of the homological difference, equal minus the logarithm of the maximum-likelihood decoding probability for a given syndrome. Numerical results include an upper bound for the decodable region from specific heat calculations in associated Ising models, and a minimum weight decoding threshold of approximately 7%.

Interfacing solid-state emitters with photonic structures is a key strategy for developing highly efficient photonic quantum technologies. Such structures are often organised into two distinct categories: nanocavities and waveguides. However, any realistic nanocavity structure simultaneously has characteristics of both a cavity and waveguide, which is particularly pronounced when the cavity is constructed using low-reflectivity mirrors in a waveguide structure with good transverse light confinement. In this regime, standard cavity quantum optics theory breaks down, as the waveguide character of the underlying dielectric is only weakly suppressed by the cavity mirrors. By consistently treating the photonic density of states of the structure, we provide a microscopic description of an emitter including the effects of phonon scattering over the full transition range from waveguide to cavity. This generalised theory lets us identify an optimal regime of operation for single-photon sources in optical nanostructures, where cavity and waveguide effects are concurrently exploited.

Using a recent proposal of circuit complexity in quantum field theories introduced by Jefferson and Myers, we compute the time evolution of the complexity following a smooth mass quench characterized by a time scale $\delta t$ in a free scalar field theory. We show that the dynamics has two distinct phases, namely an early regime of approximately linear evolution followed by a saturation phase characterized by oscillations around a mean value. The behavior is similar to previous conjectures for the complexity growth in chaotic and holographic systems, although here we have found that the complexity may grow or decrease depending on whether the quench increases or decreases the mass, and also that the time scale for saturation of the complexity is of order $\delta t$ (not parametrically larger).

Traditional anyons in two dimensions have generalized exchange statistics governed by the braid group. By analyzing the topology of configuration space, we discover that an alternate generalization of the symmetric group governs particle exchanges when there are hard-core three-body interactions in one-dimension. We call this new exchange symmetry the traid group and demonstrate that it has abelian and non-abelian representations that are neither bosonic nor fermionic, and which also transform differently under particle exchanges than braid group anyons. We show that generalized exchange statistics occur because, like hard-core two-body interactions in two dimensions, hard-core three-body interactions in one dimension create defects with co-dimension two that make configuration space no longer simply-connected. Ultracold atoms in effectively one-dimensional optical traps provide a possible implementation for this alternate manifestation of anyonic physics.

The exact quantum dynamics of a single spin-1/2 in a generic time-dependent classical magnetic field is investigated and compared with the quantum motion of a spin-1/2 studied by Rabi and Schwinger. The possibility of regarding the scenario studied in this paper as a generalization of that considered by Rabi and Schwinger is discussed and a notion of time-dependent resonance condition is introduced and carefully legitimated and analysed. Several examples help to disclose analogies and departures of the quantum motion induced in a generalized Rabi system with respect to that exhibited by the spin-1/2 in a magnetic field precessing around the $z$-axis. We find that, under generalized resonance condition, the time evolution of the transition probability $P_+^-(t)$ between the two eigenstates of ${\hat{S}}^z$ may be dominated by a regime of distorted oscillations, or may even exhibit a monotonic behaviour. At the same time we succeed in predicting no oscillations or even oscillations of maximum amplitude in the behaviour of $P_+^-(t)$ under general conditions. New scenarios of experimental interest originating a Landau-Zener transition is brought to light. Finally, the usefulness of our results is emphasized by showing their applicability in a classical guided wave optics scenario.

In this paper, we develop an analogy between the three level atomic system so called Lambda system and scattering processes in quantum electrodynamics (QED). In a Lambda system we have two ground state levels $|1 \rangle$ and $|3 \rangle$ at energy $E_1$ and excited level $|2 \rangle$ at energy $E_2$. The transition from $|1 \rangle$ to

$|2 \rangle$ has strength $\Omega_1$ and transition from $|2 \rangle$ to

$|3 \rangle$ has strength $\Omega_2$. When we adiabatically eliminate the excited state, i.e. go in the interaction frame of natural Hamiltonian of the system, we get a second order term connecting level $|1 \rangle$ to $|3 \rangle$ with strength $\frac{\Omega_1\Omega_2}{E_1-E_2}$. This term creates an effective coupling between ground state levels and drives transition from $|1 \rangle$ to $| 3\rangle$. Scattering processes in QED can be modelled like this. Feynman amplitudes are calculation of second order term ${\cal M} = \frac{\Omega_1\Omega_2}{E_1-E_2}$. In the rest frame $O'$ (CM frame) where sum of momentum of incoming particles is $0$, if the Feynman amplitude is ${\cal M'}$, then in a frame $O$ in which $O'$ moves with velocity $v$ , the time gets dilated to $t = \frac{t'}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}$ and hence it must be true that ${\cal M} = {\cal M'} \sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}$. We show that to make this relativistic invariance of $\M$ to work, we have to modify the QED interaction Hamiltonian. Using this modification, we calculate the scattering amplitude for QED processes, Compton scattering and M{\o}ller Scattering. This gives an additional factor of $\frac{\bf P}{P_0}$ in Feynman amplitude, where $P$ is sum of four momentum of incoming particles (or outgoing) and ${\bf P} = \sqrt{P^2}$. In this paper taking vacuum polarization as a example, we show that we can avoid divergences in QED if we correctly work with this factor $\frac{\bf P}{P_0}$.

Author(s): Daniel Strand, Torstein Nesse, Jacob B. Kryvi, Torstein Storflor Hegge, and Ingve Simonsen

Wave scattering from two-dimensional self-affine Dirichlet and Neumann surfaces is studied for the purpose of using the intensity scattered from them to obtain the Hurst exponent and topothesy that characterize the self-affine roughness. By the use of the Kirchhoff approximation, a closed-form mathe...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 063825] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

Author(s): Jean-Philippe W. MacLean, John M. Donohue, and Kevin J. Resch

Many quantum advantages in metrology and communication arise from interferometric phenomena. Such phenomena can occur on ultrafast timescales, particularly when energy-time entangled photons are employed. These have been relatively unexplored as their observation necessitates time resolution much sh...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 063826] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

Author(s): Chenni Xu, Adeel Abbas, Li-Gang Wang, Shi-Yao Zhu, and M. Suhail Zubairy

Wolf effect refers to a spectral shift of light during its propagation even in free space, which results from the fluctuating (or correlation) nature of light sources. In conventional optics, the propagation laws of light are usually considered in flat space. However, optical phenomena are fascinati...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 063827] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

Author(s): Yinglun Xu, Shui-Jing Tang, Xiao-Chong Yu, You-Ling Chen, Daquan Yang, Qihuang Gong, and Yun-Feng Xiao

We investigate theoretically the mode splitting induced by an arbitrarily shaped Rayleigh scatterer attached to a whispering-gallery microcavity. The information including polar position, orientation, and polarizability tensor of the nanoparticle can be obtained through the mode-splitting signal. It...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 063828] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

Simulations suggest that the gamma rays accompanying the neutron star merger detected in 2017 came from a short gamma-ray burst viewed at a 30° angle.

[Physics] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Liam Eloie, Leonardo Banchi, and Sougato Bose

The while-you-wait computing paradigm combines elements of digital and analog quantum computation with the aim of minimizing the need of external control. In this architecture the computer is split into logic units, each continuously implementing a single recurring multigate operation via the unmodu...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 062321] Published Wed Jun 13, 2018

How violently do two quantum operators disagree? Different fields of physics feature different measures of incompatibility: (i) In quantum information theory, entropic uncertainty relations constrain measurement outcomes. (ii) In condensed matter and high-energy physics, the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals scrambling, the spread of information through many-body entanglement. We unite these measures, deriving entropic uncertainty relations for scrambling. The entropies are of distributions over weak and strong measurements' possible outcomes. Weakness causes the OTOC quasiprobability (a nonclassical generalization of a probability, in terms of which the OTOC decomposes) to govern terms in the uncertainty bound. Scrambling strengthens the bound, we show, in numerical simulations of a spin chain. Beyond scrambling, we derive entropic uncertainty relations satisfied by commonly performed weak-measurement experiments. We unveil a physical significance of common quasiprobabilities and weak values (conditioned expectation values): as governing terms in entropic uncertainty bounds.

Recently, a new class of three-dimensional spin liquid models have been theoretically discovered, which feature generalized Coulomb phases of emergent symmetric tensor $U(1)$ gauge theories. These "higher rank" tensor models are particularly intriguing due to the presence of quasi-particles with restricted mobility, such as fractons. We investigate universal experimental signatures of tensor Coulomb phases. Most notably, we show that tensor Coulomb spin liquids (both quantum and classical) feature characteristic pinch-point singularities in their spin-spin correlation functions, accessible via neutron scattering, which can be readily distinguished from pinch points in conventional $U(1)$ spin liquids. These pinch points can thus serve as a crisp experimental diagnostic for such phases. We also tabulate the low-temperature heat capacity of various tensor Coulomb phases, which serves as a useful additional diagnostic in certain cases.

When can quantum information be localized to each of a collection of spacetime regions, while also excluded from another collection of regions? We answer this question by defining and analyzing the localize-exclude task, in which a state must be localized to a collection of authorized regions while also being excluded from a set of unauthorized regions. This task is a spacetime analogue of quantum secret sharing, with authorized and unauthorized regions replacing authorized and unauthorized sets of parties. Our analysis yields the first quantum secret sharing scheme for arbitrary access structures for which the number of qubits required scales polynomially with the number of parties. We also study a second related task called state-assembly, in which shares of a quantum state are requested at sets of spacetime points. We fully characterize the conditions under which both the localize-exclude and state-assembly tasks can be achieved, and give explicit protocols. Finally, we propose a cryptographic application of these tasks which we call party-independent transfer.