Large-scale quantum networks will employ telecommunication-wavelength photons to exchange quantum information between remote measurement, storage, and processing nodes via fibre-optic channels. Quantum memories compatible with telecommunication-wavelength photons are a key element towards building such a quantum network. Here, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of heralded 1532 nm-wavelength photons using a solid-state waveguide quantum memory. The heralded photons are derived from a photon-pair source that is based on parametric down-conversion, and our quantum memory is based on a 6 GHz-bandwidth atomic frequency comb prepared using an inhomogeneously broadened absorption line of a cryogenically-cooled erbium-doped lithium niobate waveguide. Using persistent spectral hole burning under varying magnetic fields, we determine that the memory is enabled by population transfer into niobium and lithium nuclear spin levels. Despite limited storage time and efficiency, our demonstration represents an important step towards quantum networks that operate in the telecommunication band and the development of on-chip quantum technology using industry-standard crystals.

Two-loop self-energy corrections to the bound-electron $g$ factor are investigated theoretically to all orders in the nuclear binding strength parameter $Z\alpha$. The separation of divergences is performed by dimensional regularization, and the contributing diagrams are regrouped into specific categories to yield finite results. We evaluate numerically the loop-after-loop terms, and the remaining diagrams by treating the Coulomb interaction in the electron propagators up to first order. The results show that such two-loop terms are mandatory to take into account for projected near-future stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and for the determination of fundamental constants through the $g$ factor.

The computational efficiency of quantum mechanics can be defined in terms of the qubit circuit model, which is characterized by a few simple properties: each computational gate is a reversible transformation in a continuous matrix group; single wires carry quantum bits, i.e. states of a three-dimensional Bloch ball; states on two or more wires are uniquely determined by local measurement statistics and their correlations. In this paper, we ask whether other types of computation are possible if we relax one of those characteristics (and keep all others), namely, if we allow wires to be described by d-dimensional Bloch balls, where d is different from three. Theories of this kind have previously been proposed as possible generalizations of quantum physics, and it has been conjectured that some of them allow for interesting multipartite reversible transformations that cannot be realized within quantum theory. However, here we show that all such potential beyond-quantum models of computation are trivial: if d is not three, then the set of reversible transformations consists entirely of single-bit gates, and not even classical computation is possible. In this sense, qubit quantum computation is an island in theoryspace.

We consider the dynamics of a particle confined in a double well potential which is subjected to a periodic drive. In the case of deep and well separated wells, we find that by adjusting the parameters of the drive we can generate, to a very good approximation, a volcano potential. The quantum dynamics in this volcano potential is studied by a variation of what can be called a generalized Ehrenfest's theorem. We find that the coupling of the mean position and the width of the wave packet in this dynamics causes the particle to escape from the central well in accordance with the fact that the volcano potential only supports resonance states.

We develop a resource theory for continuous-variable systems grounded on operations routinely available within current quantum technologies. In particular, the set of free operations is convex and includes quadratic transformations and conditional coarse-grained measurements. The present theory lends itself to quantify both quantum non-Gaussianity and Wigner negativity as resources, depending on the choice of the free-state set --- i.e., the convex hull of Gaussian states or the states with positive Wigner function, respectively. After showing that the theory admits no maximally resourceful state, we define a computable resource monotone --- the CV-mana. We use the latter to assess the resource content of experimentally relevant states --- e.g., photon-added, photon-subtracted, cubic-phase, and cat states --- and to find optimal working points of some resource concentration protocols. We envisage applications of this framework to sub-universal and universal quantum information processing over continuous variables.

Background: The Agassi model is an extension of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model that incorporates the pairing interaction. It is a schematic model that describes the interplay between particle-hole and pair correlations. It was proposed in the 1960's by D. Agassi as a model to simulate the properties of the quadrupole plus pairing model.

Purpose: The aim of this work is to extend a previous study by Davis and Heiss generalizing the Agassi model and analyze in detail the phase diagram of the model as well as the different regions with coexistence of several phases.

Method: We solve the model Hamiltonian through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, introducing two variational parameters that play the role of order parameters. We also compare the HFB calculations with the exact ones.

Results: We obtain the phase diagram of the model and classify the order of the different quantum phase transitions appearing in the diagram. The phase diagram presents broad regions where several phases, up to three, coexist. Moreover, there is also a line and a point where four and five phases are degenerated, respectively.

Conclusions: The phase diagram of the extended Agassi model presents a rich variety of phases. Phase coexistence is present in extended areas of the parameter space. The model could be an important tool for benchmarking novel many-body approximations.

We investigate the properties of the superfluid phase in the three-dimensional disordered Bose-Hubbard model using Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. The phase diagram is generated using Gaussian disorder on the on-site potential. Comparisons with box and speckle disorder show qualitative similarities leading to the re-entrant behavior of the superfluid. Quantitative differences that arise are controlled by the specific shape of the disorder. Statistics pertaining to disorder distributions are studied for a range of interaction strengths and system sizes, where strong finite-size effects are observed. Despite this, both the superfluid fraction and compressibility remain self-averaging throughout the superfluid phase. Close to the superfluid-Bose-glass phase boundary, finite-size effects dominate but still suggest that self-averaging holds. Our results are pertinent to experiments with ultracold atomic gases where a systematic disorder averaging procedure is typically not possible.

Nonlinear Riccati and Ermakov equations are combined to pair the energy spectrum of two different quantum systems via the Darboux method. One of the systems is assumed Hermitian, exactly solvable, with discrete energies in its spectrum. The other system is characterized by a complex-valued potential that inherits all the energies of the former one, and includes an additional real eigenvalue in its discrete spectrum. If such eigenvalue coincides with any discrete energy (or it is located between two discrete energies) of the initial system, its presence produces no singularities in the complex-valued potential. Non-Hermitian systems with spectrum that includes all the energies of either Morse or trigonometric Poeschl-Teller potentials are introduced as concrete examples.

Given two elliptic curves over a finite field having the same cardinality and endomorphism ring, it is known that the curves admit an isogeny between them, but finding such an isogeny is believed to be computationally difficult. The fastest known classical algorithm takes exponential time, and prior to our work no faster quantum algorithm was known. Recently, public-key cryptosystems based on the presumed hardness of this problem have been proposed as candidates for post-quantum cryptography. In this paper, we give a subexponential-time quantum algorithm for constructing isogenies, assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (but with no other assumptions). Our algorithm is based on a reduction to a hidden shift problem, together with a new subexponential-time algorithm for evaluating isogenies from kernel ideals (under only GRH), and represents the first nontrivial application of Kuperberg's quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem. This result suggests that isogeny-based cryptosystems may be uncompetitive with more mainstream quantum-resistant cryptosystems such as lattice-based cryptosystems.

We provide a detailed analysis of the question: how many measurement settings or outcomes are needed in order to identify a quantum system which is constrained by prior information? We show that if the prior information restricts the system to a set of lower dimensionality, then topological obstructions can increase the required number of outcomes by a factor of two over the number of real parameters needed to characterize the system. Conversely, we show that almost every measurement becomes informationally complete with respect to the constrained set if the number of outcomes exceeds twice the Minkowski dimension of the set. We apply the obtained results to determine the minimal number of outcomes of measurements which are informationally complete with respect to states with rank constraints. In particular, we show that 4d-4 measurement outcomes (POVM elements) is enough in order to identify all pure states in a d-dimensional Hilbert space, and that the minimal number is at most 2 log_2(d) smaller than this upper bound.

A true quantum reason for why people fib on April first.

Quantum-enhanced measurements exploit quantum mechanical effects for increasing the sensitivity of measurements of certain physical parameters and have great potential for both fundamental science and concrete applications. Most of the research has so far focused on using highly entangled states, which are, however, difficult to produce and to stabilize for a large number of constituents. In the following we review alternative mechanisms, notably the use of more general quantum correlations such as quantum discord, identical particles, or non-trivial hamiltonians; the estimation of thermodynamical parameters or parameters characterizing non-equilibrium states; and the use of quantum phase transitions. We describe both theoretically achievable enhancements and enhanced sensitivities, not primarily based on entanglement, that have already been demonstrated experimentally, and indicate some possible future research directions.

Recently it was shown that certain fluid-mechanical 'pilot-wave' systems can strikingly mimic a range of quantum properties, including single particle diffraction and interference, quantization of angular momentum etc. How far does this analogy go? The ultimate test of (apparent) quantumness of such systems is a Bell-test. Here the premises of the Bell inequality are re-investigated for particles accompanied by a pilot-wave, or more generally by a resonant 'background' field. We find that two of these premises, namely outcome independence and measurement independence, may not be generally valid when such a background is present. Under this assumption the Bell inequality is possibly (but not necessarily) violated. A class of hydrodynamic Bell experiments is proposed that could test this claim. Such a Bell test on fluid systems could provide a wealth of new insights on the different loopholes for Bell's theorem. Finally, it is shown that certain properties of background-based theories can be illustrated in Ising spin-lattices.

Characterizing genuine quantum resources and determining operational rules for their manipulation are crucial steps to appraise possibilities and limitations of quantum technologies. Two such key resources are nonclassicality, manifested as quantum superposition between reference states of a single system, and entanglement, capturing quantum correlations among two or more subsystems. Here we present a general formalism for the conversion of nonclassicality into multipartite entanglement, showing that a faithful reversible transformation between the two resources is always possible within a precise resource-theoretic framework. Specializing to quantum coherence between the levels of a quantum system as an instance of nonclassicality, we introduce explicit protocols for such a mapping. We further show that the conversion relates multilevel coherence and multipartite entanglement not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, restricting the amount of entanglement achievable in the process and in particular yielding an equality between the two resources when quantified by fidelity-based geometric measures.

The ground states of topological orders condense extended objects and support topological excitations. This nontrivial property leads to nonzero topological entanglement entropy $S_{topo}$ for conventional topological orders. Fracton topological order is an exotic class of models which is beyond the description of TQFT. With some assumptions about the condensates and the topological excitations, we derive a lower bound of the nonlocal entanglement entropy $S_{nonlocal}$ (a generalization of $S_{topo}$). The lower bound applies to Abelian stabilizer models including conventional topological orders as well as type \Rom{1} and type \Rom{2} fracton models, and it could be used to distinguish them. For fracton models, the lower bound shows that $S_{nonlocal}$ could obtain geometry-dependent values, and $S_{nonlocal}$ is extensive for certain choices of subsystems, including some choices which always give zero for TQFT. The stability of the lower bound under local perturbations is discussed.

Starting from the zero modes of the Dirac-Weyl equation for Landau levels in the symmetric gauge, we propose a novel mechanism to construct the eigenvalues and its eigenfunctions. We show that the problem may be addressed without numerical calculation and only solving the Dirac-Weyl equation for the zero modes. Specifically, the eigenstates associated to the negative magnetic field configurations may be constructed from the zero mode with positive chirality. In addition, we obtain that the eigenstates associated to the positive magnetic field configurations may be constructed from the zero mode with negative chirality. Finally, we show that our mechanism may be used to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian corresponding to bilayer graphene system.

Quantum sensing based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond has been developed as a powerful tool for microscopic magnetic resonance. However, the reported sensor-to-sample distance is limited within tens of nanometers because the signal of spin fluctuation decreases cubically with the increasing distance. Here we extend the sensing distance to tens of micrometers by detecting spin polarization rather than spin fluctuation. We detected the mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electrons of a pentacene-doped crystal, measured its two typical decay times and observed the optically enhanced spin polarization. This work paves the way for the NV-based mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging at ambient conditions.

We realize a $\Lambda$ system in a superconducting circuit, with metastable states exhibiting lifetimes up to 8\,ms. We exponentially suppress the tunneling matrix elements involved in spontaneous energy relaxation by creating a "heavy" fluxonium, realized by adding a capacitive shunt to the original circuit design. The device allows for both cavity-assisted and direct fluorescent readout, as well as state preparation schemes akin to optical pumping. Since direct transitions between the metastable states are strongly suppressed, we utilize Raman transitions for coherent manipulation of the states.

We consider complete positivity of dynamics regarding subsystems of an open composite quantum system, which is subject of a completely positive dynamics. By "completely positive dynamics", we assume the dynamical maps called the completely positive and trace preserving maps, with the constraint that domain of the map is the whole Banach space of the system's density matrices. We provide a technically simple and conceptually clear proof for the subsystems' completely positive dynamics. Actually, we prove that every subsystem of a composite open system can be subject of a completely positive dynamics if and only if the initial state of the composite open system is tensor-product of the initial states of the subsystems. An algorithm for obtaining the Kraus form for the subsystem's dynamical map is provided. As an illustrative example we consider a pair of mutually interacting qubits. The presentation is performed such that a student with the proper basic knowledge in quantum mechanics should be able to reproduce all the steps of the calculations.

There is intense effort into understanding the universal properties of finite-time models of thermal machines---at optimal performance---such as efficiency at maximum power, coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power, and other such criteria. In this letter, a {\it global} principle consistent with linear irreversible thermodynamics is proposed for the whole cycle---without considering details of irreversibilities in the individual steps of the cycle. This helps to express the total duration of the cycle as $\tau \propto {\bar{Q}^2}/{\Delta_{\rm tot} S}$, where $\bar{Q}$ models the effective heat transferred through the machine during the cycle, and $\Delta_{\rm tot} S$ is the total entropy generated. By taking $\bar{Q}$ in the form of simple algebraic means (such as arithmetic and geometric means) over the heats exchanged by the reservoirs, the present approach is able to predict various standard expressions for figures of merit at optimal performance, as well as the bounds respected by them. It simplifies the optimization procedure to a one-parameter optimization, and provides a fresh perspective on the issue of universality at optimal performance, for small difference in reservoir temperatures. As an illustration, we compare performance of a partially optimized four-step endoreversible cycle with the present approach.