Physics

Automated Generation of Shuttling Sequences for a Linear Segmented Ion Trap Quantum Computer. (arXiv:2208.04881v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

A promising approach for scaling-up trapped-ion quantum computer platforms is by storing multiple trapped-ion qubit sets ('ion crystals') in segmented microchip traps and to interconnect these via physical movement of the ions ('shuttling'). Already for realizing quantum circuits with moderate complexity, the design of suitable qubit assignments and shuttling schedules require automation. Here, we describe and test algorithms which address exactly these tasks. We describe an algorithm for fully automated generation of shuttling schedules, complying to constraints imposed by a given trap structure. Furthermore, we introduce different methods for initial qubit assignment and compare these for random circuit (of up to 20 qubits) and quantum Fourier transform-like circuits, and generalized Toffoli gates of up to 40 qubits each. We find that for quantum circuits which contain a fixed structure, advanced assignment algorithms can serve to reduce the shuttling overhead.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Bounding entanglement dimensionality from the covariance matrix. (arXiv:2208.04909v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

High-dimensional entanglement has been identified as an important resource in quantum information processing, and also as a main obstacle for simulating quantum systems. Its certification is often difficult, especially because complicated fidelity measurements are needed for the most widely used methods. Here, we consider covariances of collective observables, as in the well-known Covariance Matrix Criterion (CMC) and present a generalization of the CMC criterion for determining the Schmidt number of a bipartite system. This is particularly advantageous in many-body systems, such as cold atoms, where the set of practical measurements is very limited and only variances of collective operators can typically be estimated. To show the practical relevance of our results, we derive several corollaries of our main theorem, which are simpler Schmidt-number criteria that could be readily applied in experiments. We also compare our approach to methods based on fidelities with respect to pure entangled states, and show that our methods can outperform them in practical scenarios. Finally, we derive a specific criterion based on three orthogonal local spin covariances, which unlocks experimentally feasible detection of high-dimensional entanglement in most quantum experiments, and especially in cold atom systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Algebraic approach to a two-qubit quantum thermal machine. (arXiv:2208.04917v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Algebraic methods for solving time dependent Hamiltonians are used to investigate the performance of quantum thermal machines. We investigate the thermodynamic properties of an engine formed by two coupled q-bits, performing an Otto cycle. The thermal interaction occurs with two baths at different temperatures, while work is associated with the interaction with an arbitrary time-dependent magnetic field that varies in intensity and direction. For the coupling, we consider the 1-d isotropic Heisenberg model, which allows us to describe the system by means of the irreducible representation of the $\mathfrak{su}(2)$ Lie algebra within the triplet subspace. We inspect different settings of the temperatures and frequencies of the cycle and investigate the corresponding operation regimes of the engine. Finally, we numerically investigate the engine efficiency under a time varying Rabi frequency, interpolating the abrupt and adiabatic limits.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Zero-energy states in graphene quantum dot with wedge disclination. (arXiv:2208.04920v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

We investigate the effects of wedge disclination on charge carriers in circular graphene quantum dots subjected to a magnetic flux. Using the asymptotic solutions of the energy spectrum for large arguments, we approximate the scattering matrix elements, and then study the density of states. It is found that the density of states shows several resonance peaks under various conditions. In particular, it is shown that the wedge disclination is able to change the amplitude, width, and positions of resonance peaks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Suppressing decoherence in noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors with unitary operations. (arXiv:2208.04926v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Quantum computers have a potential to overcome devices based on classical principles in various practically relevant problems, yet the power of the existing generation of quantum processors is not enough to demonstrate this experimentally. Currently available quantum devices have serious limitations, including limited numbers of qubits and noise processes that limit circuit depth caused by effects of decoherence. In this work, by following the recent theoretical proposal [Opt. Eng. 59, 061625 (2020)] we study an application of quantum state-dependent pre- and post-processing unitary operations for protecting the given (multi-qubit) quantum state against the effect of identical single-qubit channels acting of each qubit. We demonstrate the increase in the fidelity of the output quantum state both in a quantum emulation experiment, where all unitaries are perfect, and in a real experiment with a cloud-accessible quantum processor, where protecting unitaries themselves are affected by the noise. We expect the considered approach can be useful for improving fidelity of quantum states during realization of quantum algorithms and quantum communication protocols.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A critical dissipative Schr\"odinger cat qubit. (arXiv:2208.04928v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Encoding quantum information onto bosonic systems is a promising route to quantum error correction. The bosonic Schr\"odinger's cat quantum code in particular relies on the stabilization, via two-photon drive and dissipation, of a two-dimensional subspace of the state space of the quantum harmonic oscillator to encode a logical qubit. This encoding ensures autonomous correction of dephasing errors already at moderate displacements of the boson field. Here, we study the cat code in the regime of strong third order Kerr nonlinearity. We show that the nonlinearity gives rise to a first-order dissipative phase transition, with spontaneous breaking of the ${\cal Z}_2$ strong Liouvillian symmetry, at a finite value of the frequency detuning between the driving field and the oscillator. As a consequence, the encoding is efficient over a wide range of values of the detuning defining the critical region of the phase transition. The performance of the code is greatly enhanced compared to the conventional regime of vanishing Kerr nonlinearity, where the autonomous correction only holds for close-to-zero detuning. We present a thorough analysis of the code, both by studying the spectral properties of the Liouvillian, and by quantifying the enhanced performance for parameters within reach of current experimental setups. We argue that, by efficiently operating over a wide range of detuning values, the critical dissipative cat code should considerably simplify the design of coupled and concatenated qubit operation, thanks to its resilience to frequency shifts originating from dispersively coupled elements.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Measurement of Bell-type inequalities and quantum entanglement from $\Lambda$-hyperon spin correlations at high energy colliders. (arXiv:2107.13007v3 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Spin correlations of $\Lambda$-hyperons embedded in the QCD strings formed in high energy collider experiments provide unique insight into their locality and entanglement features. We show from general considerations that while the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is less stringent for such states, they provide a benchmark for quantum-to-classical transitions induced by varying i) the associated hadron multiplicity, ii) the spin of nucleons, iii) the separation in rapidity between pairs, and iv) the kinematic regimes accessed. These studies also enable the extraction of quantitative measures of quantum entanglement. We first explore such questions within a simple model of a QCD string composed of singlets of two partial distinguishable fermion flavors and compare analytical results to those obtained on quantum hardware. We further discuss a class of spin Hamiltonians that model the dynamics of $\Lambda$ spin correlations. Prospects for extracting quantum features of QCD strings from hyperon measurements at current and future colliders are outlined.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Shadow process tomography of quantum channels. (arXiv:2110.03629v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Quantum process tomography is a critical capability for building quantum computers, enabling quantum networks, and understanding quantum sensors. Like quantum state tomography, the process tomography of an arbitrary quantum channel requires a number of measurements that scale exponentially in the number of quantum bits affected. However, the recent field of shadow tomography, applied to quantum states, has demonstrated the ability to extract key information about a state with only polynomially many measurements. In this work, we apply the concepts of shadow state tomography to the challenge of characterizing quantum processes. We make use of the Choi isomorphism to directly apply rigorous bounds from shadow state tomography to shadow process tomography, and we find additional bounds on the number of measurements that are unique to process tomography. Our results, which include algorithms for implementing shadow process tomography enable new techniques including evaluation of channel concatenation and the application of channels to shadows of quantum states. This provides a dramatic improvement for understanding large-scale quantum systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Deterministic and Entanglement-Efficient Preparation of Amplitude-Encoded Quantum Registers. (arXiv:2110.13454v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Quantum computing promises to provide exponential speed-ups to certain classes of problems. In many such algorithms, a classical vector $\mathbf{b}$ is encoded in the amplitudes of a quantum state $\left |b \right >$. However, efficiently preparing $\left |b \right >$ is known to be a difficult problem because an arbitrary state of $Q$ qubits generally requires approximately $2^Q$ entangling gates, which results in significant decoherence on today's Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers. We present a deterministic (nonvariational) algorithm that allows one to flexibly reduce the quantum resources required for state preparation in an entanglement efficient manner. Although this comes at the expense of reduced theoretical fidelity, actual fidelities on current NISQ computers might actually be higher due to reduced decoherence. We show this to be true for various cases of interest such as the normal and log-normal distributions. For low entanglement states, our algorithm can prepare states with more than an order of magnitude fewer entangling gates as compared to isometric decomposition.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A Quantum trajectory picture of single photon absorption and energy transport in photosystem II. (arXiv:2110.13811v3 [physics.bio-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

In this work we study the first step in photosynthesis for the limiting case of a single photon interacting with photosystem II (PSII). We model our system using quantum trajectory theory, which allows us to consider not only the average evolution, but also the conditional evolution of the system given individual realizations of idealized measurements of photons that have been absorbed and subsequently emitted as fluorescence. The quantum nature of the single photon input requires a fully quantum model of both the input and output light fields. We show that PSII coupled to the field via three collective ``bright states'', whose orientation and distribution correlate strongly with its natural geometry. Measurements of the transmitted beam strongly affects the system state, since a (null) detection of the outgoing photon confirms that the system must be in the electronic (excited) ground state. Using numerical and analytical calculations we show that observing the null result transforms a state with a low excited state population $O( 10^{-5} )$ to a state with nearly all population contained in the excited states. This is solely a property of the single photon input, as we confirm by comparing this behavior with that for excitation by a coherent state possessing an average of one photon, using a smaller five site ``pentamer'' system. We also examine the effect of a dissipative phononic environment on the conditional excited state dynamics. We show that the environment has a strong effect on the observed rates of fluorescence, which could act as a new photon-counting witness of excitonic coherence. The long time evolution of the phononic model predicts an experimentally consistent quantum efficiency of 92%.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Simulating quantum repeater strategies for multiple satellites. (arXiv:2110.15806v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

A global quantum repeater network involving satellite-based links is likely to have advantages over fiber-based networks in terms of long-distance communication, since the photon losses in free space scale only polynomially with the distance -- compared to the exponential losses in optical fibers. To simulate the performance of such networks, we have introduced a scheme of large-scale event-based Monte Carlo simulation of quantum repeaters with multiple memories that can faithfully represent loss and imperfections in these memories. In this work, we identify the quantum key distribution rates achievable in various satellite and ground station geometries for feasible experimental parameters. The power and flexibility of the simulation toolbox allows us to explore various strategies and parameters, some of which only arise in these more complex, multi-satellite repeater scenarios. As a primary result, we conclude that key rates in the kHz range are reasonably attainable for intercontinental quantum communication with three satellites, only one of which carries a quantum memory.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Cyclotron quantization and mirror-time transition on nonreciprocal lattices. (arXiv:2111.04412v3 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Unidirectional transport and localized cyclotron motion are two opposite physical phenomena. Here, we study the interplay effects between them on nonreciprocal lattices subject to a magnetic field. We show that, in the long-wavelength limit, the trajectories of the wave packets always form closed orbits in four-dimensional (4D) complex space. Therefore, the semiclassical quantization rules persist despite the nonreciprocity, which preserves real Landau levels. We predict a different type of non-Hermitian spectral transition induced by the spontaneous breaking of the combined mirror-time reversal ($\mathcal{MT}$) symmetry, which generally exists in such systems. An order parameter is proposed to describe the $\mathcal{MT}$ phase transition, not only to determine the $\mathcal{MT}$ phase boundary but also to quantify the degree of $\mathcal{MT}$-symmetry breaking. Such an order parameter can be generally applied to all types of non-Hermitian phase transitions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Ritus functions for graphene-like systems with magnetic fields generated by first-order intertwining operators. (arXiv:2201.03690v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

In this work, we construct the exact propagator for Dirac fermions in graphene-like systems immersed in external static magnetic fields with non-trivial spatial dependence. Such field profiles are generated within a first-order supersymmetric framework departing from much simpler (seed) magnetic field examples. The propagator is spanned on the basis of the Ritus eigenfunctions, corresponding to the Dirac fermion asymptotic states in the non-trivial magnetic field background which nevertheless admits a simple diagonal form in momentum space. This strategy enlarges the number of magnetic field profiles in which the fermion propagator can be expressed in a closed-form. Electric charge and current densities are found directly from the corresponding propagator and compared against similar findings derived from other methods.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Two-way enhancement of sensitivity by tailoring higher-order exceptional points. (arXiv:2202.07972v2 [physics.optics] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Higher-order exceptional points in non-Hermitian systems have recently been used as a tool to engineer high-sensitivity devices, attracting tremendous attention from multidisciplinary fields. Here, we present a simple yet effective scheme to enhance the device sensitivity by slightly deviating the gain-neutral-loss linear configuration to a triangular one, resulting in an abrupt phase transition from third-order to second-order exceptional points. Our analysis demonstrates that the exceptional points can be tailored by a judicious tuning of the coupling parameters of the system, resulting in enhanced sensitivity to a small perturbation. The tunable coupling also leads to a sharp change in the sensitivity slope, enabling the perturbation to be measured precisely as a function of coupling. This two-way detection of the perturbation opens up a rich landscape toward ultra-sensitive measurements, which could be applicable to a wide range of non-Hermitian ternary platforms.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Space of initial conditions and universality in nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. (arXiv:2202.12608v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

We study analytically the role of initial conditions in nonequilibrium quantum dynamics considering the one-dimensional ferromagnets in the regime of spontaneously broken symmetry. We analyze the expectation value of local operators for the infinite-dimensional space of initial conditions of domain wall type, generally intended as initial conditions spatially interpolating between two different ground states. At large times the unitary time evolution takes place inside a light cone produced by the spatial inhomogeneity of the initial condition. In the innermost part of the light cone the form of the space-time dependence is universal, in the sense that it is specified by data of the equilibrium universality class. The global limit shape in the variable $x/t$ changes with the initial condition. In systems with more than two ground states the tuning of an interaction parameter can induce a transition which is the nonequilibrium quantum analog of the interfacial wetting transition occurring in classical systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the general results through the examples of the Ising, Potts and Ashkin-Teller chains.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Three numerical approaches to find mutually unbiased bases using Bell inequalities. (arXiv:2203.09429v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Mutually unbiased bases correspond to highly useful pairs of measurements in quantum information theory. In the smallest composite dimension, six, it is known that between three and seven mutually unbiased bases exist, with a decades-old conjecture, known as Zauner's conjecture, stating that there exist at most three. Here we tackle Zauner's conjecture numerically through the construction of Bell inequalities for every pair of integers $n,d \ge 2$ that can be maximally violated in dimension $d$ if and only if $n$ MUBs exist in that dimension. Hence we turn Zauner's conjecture into an optimisation problem, which we address by means of three numerical methods: see-saw optimisation, non-linear semidefinite programming and Monte Carlo techniques. All three methods correctly identify the known cases in low dimensions and all suggest that there do not exist four mutually unbiased bases in dimension six, with all finding the same bases that numerically optimise the corresponding Bell inequality. Moreover, these numerical optimisers appear to coincide with the "four most distant bases" in dimension six, found through numerically optimising a distance measure in [P. Raynal, X. L\"u, B.-G. Englert, Phys. Rev. A, 83 062303 (2011)]. Finally, the Monte Carlo results suggest that at most three MUBs exist in dimension ten.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Topological order and entanglement dynamics in the measurement-only XZZX quantum code. (arXiv:2204.08489v3 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

We examine the dynamics of a $(1+1)$-dimensional measurement-only circuit defined by the stabilizers of the [[5,1,3]] quantum error correcting code interrupted by single-qubit Pauli measurements. The code corrects arbitrary single-qubit errors and it stabilizes an area law entangled state with a $D_2 = \mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry protected topological (SPT) order, as well as a symmetry breaking (SB) order from a two-fold bulk degeneracy. The Pauli measurements break the topological order and induce a phase transition into a trivial area law phase. Allowing more than one type of Pauli measurement increases the measurement-induced frustration, and the SPT and SB order can be broken either simultaneously or separately at nonzero measurement rate. This yields a rich phase diagram and unanticipated critical behavior at the phase transitions. Although the correlation length exponent $\nu=\tfrac43$ and the dynamical critical exponent $z=1$ are consistent with bond percolation, the prefactor of the logarithmic entanglement growth may take non-integer multiples of the percolation value. Remarkably, we identify a robust transient scaling regime for the purification dynamics of $L$ qubits. It reveals a modified dynamical critical exponent $z^*\neq z$, which is observable up to times $t\sim L^{z^*}$ and is reminiscent of the relaxation of critical systems into a prethermal state.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Compressive Sensing: Mathematical Machinery, Quantum Algorithms, and Quantum Circuitry. (arXiv:2204.13035v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Compressive sensing is a sensing protocol that facilitates reconstruction of large signals from relatively few measurements by exploiting known structures of signals of interest, typically manifested as signal sparsity. Compressive sensing's vast repertoire of applications in areas such as communications and image reconstruction stems from the traditional approach of utilizing non-linear optimization to exploit the sparsity assumption by selecting the lowest-weight (i.e. maximum sparsity) signal consistent with all acquired measurements. Recent efforts in the literature consider instead a data-driven approach, training tensor networks to learn the structure of signals of interest. The trained tensor network is updated to "project" its state onto one consistent with the measurements taken, and is then sampled site by site to "guess" the original signal. In this paper, we take advantage of this computing protocol by formulating an alternative "quantum" protocol, in which the state of the tensor network is a quantum state over a set of entangled qubits. Accordingly, we present the associated algorithms and quantum circuits required to implement the training, projection, and sampling steps on a quantum computer. We supplement our theoretical results by simulating the proposed circuits with a small, qualitative model of LIDAR imaging of earth forests. Our results indicate that a quantum, data-driven approach to compressive sensing, may have significant promise as quantum technology continues to make new leaps.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum error correction in a time-dependent transverse field Ising model. (arXiv:2205.12998v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

We describe a simple quantum error correcting code built out of a time-dependent transverse field Ising model. The code is similar to a repetition code, but has two advantages: an $N$-qubit code can be implemented with a finite-depth spatially local unitary circuit, and it can subsequently protect against both $X$ and $Z$ errors if $N\ge 10$ is even. We propose an implementation of this code with 10 ultracold Rydberg atoms in optical tweezers, along with further generalizations of the code.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Unsupervised Recognition of Informative Features via Tensor Network Machine Learning and Quantum Entanglement Variations. (arXiv:2207.06031v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 6 hours 7 min ago

Given an image of a white shoe drawn on a blackboard, how are the white pixels deemed (say by human minds) to be informative for recognizing the shoe without any labeling information on the pixels? Here we investigate such a ``white shoe'' recognition problem from the perspective of tensor network (TN) machine learning and quantum entanglement. Utilizing a generative TN that captures the probability distribution of the features as quantum amplitudes, we propose an unsupervised recognition scheme of informative features with the variations of entanglement entropy (EE) caused by designed measurements. In this way, a given sample, where the values of its features are statistically meaningless, is mapped to the variations of EE that statistically characterize the gain of information. We show that the EE variations identify the features that are critical to recognize this specific sample, and the EE itself reveals the information distribution of the probabilities represented by the TN model. The signs of the variations further reveal the entanglement structures among the features. We test the validity of our scheme on a toy dataset of strip images, the MNIST dataset of hand-drawn digits, the fashion-MNIST dataset of the pictures of fashion articles, and the images of brain cells. Our scheme opens the avenue to the quantum-inspired and interpreted unsupervised learning, which can be applied to, e.g., image segmentation and object detection.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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