This paper presents a systematic method to analyze stability and robustness of uncertain Quantum Input-Output Networks (QIONs). A general form of uncertainty is introduced into quantum networks in the SLH formalism. Results of this paper are built up on the notion of uncertainty decomposition wherein the quantum network is decomposed into nominal (certain) and uncertain sub-networks in cascade connection. Sufficient conditions for robust stability are derived using two different methods. In the first approach, a generalized small-gain theorem is presented and in the second approach, robust stability is analyzed within the framework of Lyapunov theory. In the second method, the robust stability problem is reformulated as feasibility of a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI), which can be examined using the well-established systematic methods in the literature.

This paper presents a detailed Lyapunov-based theory to control and stabilize continuously-measured quantum systems, which are driven by Stochastic Schrodinger Equation (SSE). Initially, equivalent classes of states of a quantum system are defined and their properties are presented. With the help of equivalence classes of states, we are able to consider global phase invariance of quantum states in our mathematical analysis. As the second mathematical modelling tool, the conventional Ito formula is further extended to non-differentiable complex functions. Based on this extended Ito formula, a detailed stochastic stability theory is developed to stabilize the SSE. Main results of this proposed theory are sufficient conditions for stochastic stability and asymptotic stochastic stability of the SSE. Based on the main results, a solid mathematical framework is provided for controlling and analyzing quantum system under continuous measurement, which is the first step towards implementing weak continuous feedback control for quantum computing purposes.

We study two-qubit circuits over the Clifford+CS gate set, which consists of the Clifford gates together with the controlled-phase gate CS=diag(1,1,1,i). The Clifford+CS gate set is universal for quantum computation and its elements can be implemented fault-tolerantly in most error-correcting schemes through magic state distillation. Since non-Clifford gates are typically more expensive to perform in a fault-tolerant manner, it is often desirable to construct circuits that use few CS gates. In the present paper, we introduce an efficient and optimal synthesis algorithm for two-qubit Clifford+CS operators. Our algorithm inputs a Clifford+CS operator U and outputs a Clifford+CS circuit for U, which uses the least possible number of CS gates. Because the algorithm is deterministic, the circuit it associates to a Clifford+CS operator can be viewed as a normal form for that operator. We give an explicit description of these normal forms and use this description to derive a worst-case lower bound of 5log(1/epsilon)+O(1) on the number of CS gates required to epsilon-approximate elements of SU(4). Our work leverages a wide variety of mathematical tools that may find further applications in the study of fault-tolerant quantum circuits.

Given $x,y\in\{0,1\}^n$, Set Disjointness consists in deciding whether $x_i=y_i=1$ for some index $i \in [n]$. We study the problem of computing this function in a distributed computing scenario in which the inputs $x$ and $y$ are given to the processors at the two extremities of a path of length $d$. Set Disjointness on a Line was introduced by Le Gall and Magniez (PODC 2018) for proving lower bounds on the quantum distributed complexity of computing the diameter of an arbitrary network in the CONGEST model.

In this work, we prove an unconditional lower bound of $\widetilde{\Omega}(\sqrt[3]{n d^2}+\sqrt{n} )$ rounds for Set Disjointness on a Line. This is the first non-trivial lower bound when there is no restriction on the memory used by the processors. The result gives us a new lower bound of $\widetilde{\Omega} (\sqrt[3]{n\delta^2}+\sqrt{n} )$ on the number of rounds required for computing the diameter $\delta$ of any $n$-node network with quantum messages of size $O(\log n)$ in the CONGEST model.

We draw a connection between the distributed computing scenario above and a new model of query complexity. In this model, an algorithm computing a bi-variate function $f$ has access to the inputs $x$ and $y$ through two separate oracles $O_x$ and $O_y$, respectively. The restriction is that the algorithm is required to alternately make $d$ queries to $O_x$ and $d$ queries to $O_y$. The technique we use for deriving the round lower bound for Set Disjointness on a Line also applies to the number of rounds in this query model. We provide an algorithm for Set Disjointness in this query model with round complexity that matches the round lower bound stated above, up to a polylogarithmic factor. In this sense, the round lower bound we show for Set Disjointness on a Line is optimal.

Analog quantum simulation is expected to be a significant application of near-term quantum devices. Verification of these devices without comparison to known simulation results will be an important task as the system size grows beyond the regime that can be simulated classically. We introduce a set of experimentally-motivated verification protocols for analog quantum simulators, discussing their sensitivity to a variety of error sources and their scalability to larger system sizes. We demonstrate these protocols experimentally using a two-qubit trapped-ion analog quantum simulator and numerically using models of up to five qubits.

We study ergodicity breaking in the clean Bose-Hubbard chain for small hopping strength. We see the existence of a non-ergodic regime by means of indicators as the half-chain entanglement entropy of the eigenstates, the average level spacing ratio, {the properties of the eigenstate-expectation distribution of the correlation and the scaling of the Inverse Participation Ratio averages.} We find that this ergodicity breaking {is different from many-body localization} because the average half-chain entanglement entropy of the eigenstates obeys volume law. This ergodicity breaking appears unrelated to the spectrum being organized in quasidegenerate multiplets at small hopping and finite system sizes, so in principle it can survive also for larger system sizes. We find that some imbalance oscillations in time which could mark the existence of a glassy behaviour in space are well described by the dynamics of a single symmetry-breaking doublet and {quantitatively} captured by a perturbative effective XXZ model. We show that the amplitude of these oscillations vanishes in the large-size limit. {Our findings are numerically obtained for systems with $L < 12$. Extrapolations of our scalings to larger system sizes should be taken with care, as discussed in the paper.

A key challenge in quantum computation is the implementation of fast and local qubit control while simultaneously maintaining coherence. Qubits based on hole spins offer, through their strong spin-orbit interaction, a way to implement fast quantum gates. Strikingly, for hole spins in one-dimensional germanium and silicon devices, the spin-orbit interaction has been predicted to be exceptionally strong yet highly tunable with gate voltages. Such electrical control would make it possible to switch on demand between qubit idling and manipulation modes. Here, we demonstrate ultrafast and universal quantum control of a hole spin qubit in a germanium/silicon core/shell nanowire, with Rabi frequencies of several hundreds of megahertz, corresponding to spin-flipping times as short as ~1 ns - a new record for a single-spin qubit. Next, we show a large degree of electrical control over the Rabi frequency, Zeeman energy, and coherence time - thus implementing a switch toggling from a rapid qubit manipulation mode to a more coherent idling mode. We identify an exceptionally strong but gate-tunable spin-orbit interaction as the underlying mechanism, with a short associated spin-orbit length that can be tuned over a large range down to 3 nm for holes of heavy-hole mass. Our work demonstrates a spin-orbit qubit switch and establishes hole spin qubits defined in one-dimensional germanium/silicon nanostructures as a fast and highly tunable platform for quantum computation.

The theory of quantum scarring -- a remarkable violation of quantum unique ergodicity -- rests on two complementary pillars: the existence of unstable classical periodic orbits and the so-called quasimodes, i.e., the non-ergodic states that strongly overlap with a small number of the system's eigenstates. Recently, interest in quantum scars has been revived in a many-body setting of Rydberg atom chains. While previous theoretical works have identified periodic orbits for such systems using time-dependent variational principle (TDVP), the link between periodic orbits and quasimodes has been missing. Here we provide a conceptually simple analytic construction of quasimodes for the non-integrable Rydberg atom model, and prove that they arise from a "requantisation" of previously established periodic orbits when quantum fluctuations are restored to all orders. Our results shed light on the TDVP classical system simultaneously playing the role of both the mean-field approximation and the system's classical limit, thus allowing us to firm up the analogy between the eigenstate scarring in the Rydberg atom chains and the single-particle quantum systems.

We propose a complete architecture for deterministic generation of entangled multiphoton states. Our approach utilizes periodic driving of a quantum-dot emitter and an efficient light-matter interface enabled by a photonic crystal waveguide. We assess the quality of the photonic states produced from a real system by including all intrinsic experimental imperfections. Importantly, the protocol is robust against the nuclear spin bath dynamics due to a naturally built-in refocussing method reminiscent to spin echo. We demonstrate the feasibility of producing Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and one-dimensional cluster states with fidelities and generation rates exceeding those achieved with conventional 'fusion' methods in current state-of-the-art experiments. The proposed hardware constitutes a scalable and resource-efficient approach towards implementation of measurement-based quantum communication and computing.

We devise a mathematical framework for assessing the fidelity of multi-photon entangled states generated by a single solid-state quantum emitter, such as a quantum dot or a nitrogen-vacancy center. Within this formalism, we theoretically study the role of imperfections present in real systems on the generation of time-bin encoded Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and one-dimensional cluster states. We consider both fundamental limitations, such as the effect of phonon-induced dephasing, interaction with the nuclear spin bath, and second-order emissions, as well as technological imperfections, such as branching effects, non-perfect filtering, and photon losses. In a companion paper, we consider a particular physical implementation based on a quantum dot emitter embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide and apply our theoretical formalism to assess the fidelities achievable with current technologies.

We study the time evolution of a PT-symmetric, non-Hermitian quantum system for which the associated phase space is compact. We focus on the simplest non-trivial example of such a Hamiltonian, which is linear in the angular momentum operators. In order to describe the evolution of the system, we use a particular disentangling decomposition of the evolution operator, which remains numerically accurate even in the vicinity of the Exceptional Point. We then analyze how the non-Hermitian part of the Hamiltonian affects the time evolution of two archetypical quantum states, coherent and Dicke states. For that purpose we calculate the Husimi distribution or Q function and study its evolution in phase space. For coherent states, the characteristics of the evolution equation of the Husimi function agree with the trajectories of the corresponding angular momentum expectation values. This allows to consider these curves as the trajectories of a classical system. For other types of quantum states, e.g. Dicke states, the equivalence of characteristics and trajectories of expectation values is lost.

Lieb-Robinson and related bounds set an upper limit on the rate of spreading of information in non-relativistic quantum systems. Experimentally, they have been observed in the spreading of correlations in the Bose-Hubbard model after a quantum quench. Using a recently developed two particle irreducible (2PI) strong coupling approach to out-of-equilibrium dynamics in the Bose-Hubbard model we calculate both the group and phase velocities for the spreading of single-particle correlations in one, two and three dimensions as a function of interaction strength. Our results are in quantitative agreement with measurements of the velocities for the spreading of single particle correlations in both the one and two dimensional Bose-Hubbard model realized with ultra-cold atoms. They also agree with the claim that the phase velocity rather than the group velocity was observed in recent experiments in two dimensions. We demonstrate that there can be large differences between the phase and group velocities for the spreading of correlations and also explore the variation of the anisotropy in the velocity at which correlations spread across the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results establish the 2PI strong coupling approach as a powerful tool to study out-of-equilibrium dynamics in the Bose-Hubbard model in dimensions greater than one.

The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons presents a degree of freedom for enhancing the secure key rate of free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) through mode-division multiplexing (MDM). However, atmospheric turbulence can lead to substantial modal crosstalk, which is a long-standing challenge to MDM for free-space QKD. Here, we show that the digital generation of time-reversed wavefronts for multiple probe beams is an effective method for mitigating atmospheric turbulence. We experimentally characterize seven OAM modes after propagation through a 340-m outdoor free-space link and observe an average modal crosstalk as low as 13.2% by implementing real-time time reversal. The crosstalk can be further reduced to 3.4% when adopting a mode spacing $\Delta \ell$ of 2. We implement a classical MDM system as a proof-of-principle demonstration, and the bit error rate is reduced from $3.6\times 10^{-3}$ to be less than $1.3\times 10^{-7}$ through the use of time reversal. We also propose a practical and scalable scheme for high-speed, mode-multiplexed QKD through a turbulent link. The modal crosstalk can be further reduced by using faster equipment. Our method can be useful to various free-space applications that require crosstalk suppression.

We introduce the concepts of a symmetry-protected sign problem and symmetry-protected magic to study the complexity of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter. In particular, we say a state has a symmetry-protected sign problem or symmetry-protected magic, if finite-depth quantum circuits composed of symmetric gates are unable to transform the state into a non-negative real wave function or stabilizer state, respectively. We prove that states belonging to certain SPT phases have these properties, as a result of their anomalous symmetry action at a boundary. For example, we find that one-dimensional $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$ SPT states (e.g. cluster state) have a symmetry-protected sign problem, and two-dimensional $\mathbb{Z}_2$ SPT states (e.g. Levin-Gu state) have both a symmetry-protected sign problem and symmetry-protected magic. We also comment on the relation of a symmetry-protected sign problem to the computational wire property of one-dimensional SPT states and speculate about the greater implications of our results for measurement-based quantum computing.

We investigate the quench dynamics of a two-component Bose mixture and study the onset of modulational instability, which leads the system far from equilibrium. Analogous to the single-component counterpart, this phenomenon results in the creation of trains of bright solitons. We provide an analytical estimate of the number of solitons at long times after the quench for each of the two components based on the most unstable mode of the Bogoliubov spectrum, which agrees well with our simulations for quenches to the weak attractive regime when the two components possess equal intraspecies interactions and loss rates. We also explain the significantly different soliton dynamics in a realistic experimental homonuclear potassium mixture in terms of different intraspecies interaction and loss rates. We investigate the quench dynamics of the particle number of each component estimating the characteristic time for the appearance of modulational instability for a variety of interaction strengths and loss rates. Finally, we evaluate the influence of the beyond-mean-field contribution, which is crucial for the ground-state properties of the mixture, in the quench dynamics for both the evolution of the particle number and the radial width of the mixture. In particular, even for quenches to strongly attractive effective interactions, we do not observe the dynamical formation of solitonic droplets.

Proofs of the quantum advantage available in imaging or detecting objects under quantum illumination can rely on optimal measurements without specifying what they are. We use the continuous-variable Gaussian quantum information formalism to show that quantum illumination is better for object detection compared with coherent states of the same mean photon number, even for simple direct photodetection. The advantage persists if signal energy and object reflectivity are low and background thermal noise is high. The advantage is even greater if we match signal beam detection probabilities rather than mean photon number. We perform all calculations with thermal states, even for non-Gaussian conditioned states with negative Wigner functions. We simulate repeated detection using a Monte Carlo process that clearly shows the advantages obtainable.

Out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs) have become established as a tool to characterise quantum information dynamics and thermalisation in interacting quantum many-body systems. It was recently argued that the expected exponential growth of the OTOC is connected to the existence of correlations beyond those encoded in the standard Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis (ETH). We show explicitly, by an extensive numerical analysis of the statistics of operator matrix elements in conjunction with a detailed study of OTOC dynamics, that the OTOC is indeed a precise tool to explore the fine details of the ETH. In particular, while short-time dynamics is dominated by correlations, the long-time saturation behaviour gives clear indications of an operator-dependent energy scale associated to the emergence of an effective Gaussian random matrix theory.

In this work, we introduce the concept of the fractional quantum heat engine. We examine the space-fractional quantum Szilard heat engine as an example to show that the space-fractional quantum heat engines can produce higher efficiency than the conventional quantum heat engines.

We study the dissipative preparation of many-body entangled Gaussian states in bosonic lattice models which could be relevant for quantum technology applications. We assume minimal resources, represented by systems described by particle-conserving quadratic Hamiltonians, with a single localized squeezed reservoir. We show that in this way it is possible to prepare, in the steady state, the wide class of pure states which can be generated by applying a generic passive Gaussian transformation on a set of equally squeezed modes. This includes non-trivial multipartite entangled states such as cluster states suitable for measurement-based quantum computation.

Variational Quantum Eigensolvers (VQEs) have recently attracted considerable attention. Yet, in practice, they still suffer from the efforts for estimating cost function gradients for large parameter sets or resource-demanding reinforcement strategies. Here, we therefore consider recent advances in weight-agnostic learning and propose a strategy that addresses the trade-off between finding appropriate circuit architectures and parameter tuning. We investigate the use of NEAT-inspired algorithms which evaluate circuits via genetic competition and thus circumvent issues due to exceeding numbers of parameters. Our methods are tested both via simulation and on real quantum hardware and are used to solve the transverse Ising Hamiltonian and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin model.