Diagonalization in the spirit of Cantor's diagonal arguments is a widely used tool in theoretical computer sciences to obtain structural results about computational problems and complexity classes by indirect proofs. The Uniform Diagonalization Theorem allows the construction of problems outside complexity classes while still being reducible to a specific decision problem. This paper provides a generalization of the Uniform Diagonalization Theorem by extending it to promise problems and the complexity classes they form, e.g. randomized and quantum complexity classes. The theorem requires from the underlying computing model not only the decidability of its acceptance and rejection behaviour but also of its promise-contradicting indifferent behaviour - a property that we will introduce as "total decidability" of promise problems.

Implications of the Uniform Diagonalization Theorem are mainly of two kinds: 1. Existence of intermediate problems (e.g. between BQP and QMA) - also known as Ladner's Theorem - and 2. Undecidability if a problem of a complexity class is contained in a subclass (e.g. membership of a QMA-problem in BQP). Like the original Uniform Diagonalization Theorem the extension applies besides BQP and QMA to a large variety of complexity class pairs, including combinations from deterministic, randomized and quantum classes.

We analyze state preparation within a restricted space of local control parameters between adiabatically connected states of control Hamiltonians. We formulate a conjecture that the time integral of energy fluctuations over the protocol duration is bounded from below by the geodesic length set by the quantum geometric tensor. The conjecture implies a geometric lower bound for the quantum speed limit (QSL). We prove the conjecture for arbitrary, sufficiently slow protocols using adiabatic perturbation theory and show that the bound is saturated by geodesic protocols, which keep the energy variance constant along the trajectory. Our conjecture implies that any optimal unit-fidelity protocol, even those that drive the system far from equilibrium, are fundamentally constrained by the quantum geometry of adiabatic evolution. When the control space includes all possible couplings, spanning the full Hilbert space, we recover the well-known Mandelstam-Tamm bound. However, using only accessible local controls to anneal in complex models such as glasses or to target individual excited states in quantum chaotic systems, the geometric bound for the quantum speed limit can be exponentially large in the system size due to a diverging geodesic length. We validate our conjecture both analytically by constructing counter-diabatic and fast-forward protocols for a three-level system, and numerically in nonintegrable spin chains and a nonlocal SYK model.

Quantum resource theories (QRTs) offer a highly versatile and powerful framework for studying different phenomena in quantum physics. From quantum entanglement to quantum computation, resource theories can be used to quantify a desirable quantum effect, develop new protocols for its detection, and identify processes that optimize its use for a given application. Particularly, QRTs revolutionize the way we think about familiar properties of physical systems like entanglement, elevating them from just being interesting from a fundamental point of view to being useful in performing practical tasks. The basic methodology of a general QRT involves partitioning all quantum states into two groups, one consisting of free states and the other consisting of resource states. Accompanying the set of free states is a collection of free quantum operations arising from natural restrictions on physical systems, and that consists of all the physical processes allowed by the resource theory and which acts invariantly on the set of free states. The QRT then studies what information processing tasks become possible using the restricted operations. Despite the large degree of freedom in how one defines the free states and free operations, unexpected similarities emerge among different QRTs in terms of resource measures and resource convertibility. As a result, objects that appear quite distinct on the surface, such as entanglement and quantum reference frames, appear to have great similarity on a deeper structural level. In this article we review the general framework of a quantum resource theory, focusing on common structural features, operational tasks, and resource measures. To illustrate these concepts, an overview is provided on some of the more commonly studied QRTs in the literature.

The paradigm of Schr\"{o}dinger's cat illustrates how quantum states preclude the assignment of definite properties to a macroscopic object (realism). In this work we develop a method to investigate the indefiniteness of cat states using currently available cold atom technology. The method we propose uses the observation of a statistical distribution to demonstrate the macroscopic distinction between dead and alive states, and uses the determination of the interferometric sensitivity (Fisher information) to detect the indefiniteness of the cat's vital status. We show how combining the two observations can provide information about the structure of the quantum state without the need for full quantum state tomography, and propose a measure of the indefiniteness based on this structure. We test this method using a cat state proposed by Gordon and Savage [Phys. Rev. A 59, 4623 (1999)] which is dynamically produced from a coherent state. As a control, we consider a set of states produced using the same dynamical procedure acting on an initial thermal distribution. Numerically simulating our proposed method, we show that as the temperature of this initial state is increased, the produced state undergoes a quantum to classical crossover where the indefiniteness of the cat's vital status is lost, while the macroscopic distinction between dead and alive states of the cat is maintained.

Current implementations of the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) technique for solving the electronic structure problem involve splitting the system qubit Hamiltonian into parts whose elements commute within their single qubit subspaces. The number of such parts rapidly grows with the size of the molecule, this increases the uncertainty in the measurement of the energy expectation value because elements from different parts need to be measured independently. To address this problem we introduce a more efficient partitioning of the qubit Hamiltonian using fewer parts that need to be measured separately. The new partitioning scheme is based on two ideas: 1) grouping terms into parts whose eigenstates have a single-qubit product structure, and 2) devising multi-qubit unitary transformations for the Hamiltonian or its parts to produce less entangled operators. The first condition allows the new parts to be measured in the number of involved qubit consequential one-particle measurements. Advantages of the new partitioning scheme resulting in several-fold reduction of separately measured terms are illustrated on the H2 and LiH problems.

The most obvious obstacle behind a direct test of Quantum Gravity (QG) is its energy scale ($10^{19}$ GeV), which remains well outside of any human made machine. The next best possible approach is to provide indirect tests on effective theories of QG which can be performed in a lower energy scale. This paper is aimed in this direction, and shows a promising path to test the existence of the fundamental minimal length scale of Nature by measuring the dispersion of free, large molecular wave-packets. The existence of the minimal length is believed to be the reason for a modified commutation relationship between the position and momentum operators and, in this paper, we show that such a modification of the commutator has a profound effect on the dispersion rate of free wave-packets, and precise measurement on the broadening times of large molecular wave-packets (such as $C_{60}$, $C_{176}$ and large organic molecules) provide a promising path for an indirect test of quantum gravity, in a laboratory setting.

Gaussian boson sampling is a promising scheme for demonstrating a quantum computational advantage using photonic states that are accessible in a laboratory and, thus, offer scalable sources of quantum light. In this contribution, we study two-point photon-number correlation functions to gain insight into the interference of Gaussian states in optical networks. We investigate the characteristic features of statistical signatures which enable us to distinguish classical from quantum interference. In contrast to the typical implementation of boson sampling, we find additional contributions to the correlators under study which stem from the phase dependence of Gaussian states and which are not observable when Fock states interfere. Using the first three moments, we formulate the tools required to experimentally observe signatures of quantum interference of Gaussian states using two outputs only. By considering the current architectural limitations in realistic experiments, we further show that a statistically significant discrimination between quantum and classical interference is possible even in the presence of loss, noise, and a finite photon-number resolution. Therefore, we formulate and apply a theoretical framework to benchmark the quantum features of Gaussian boson sampling under realistic conditions.

Engineered quantum systems enabling novel capabilities for communication, computation, and sensing have blossomed in the last decade. Architectures benefiting from combining distinct and complementary physical quantum systems have emerged as promising platforms for developing quantum technologies. A new class of hybrid quantum systems based on collective spin excitations in ferromagnetic materials has led to the diverse set of experimental platforms which are outlined in this review article. The coherent interaction between microwave cavity modes and collective spin-wave modes is presented as the backbone of the development of more complex hybrid quantum systems. Indeed, quanta of excitation of the spin-wave modes, called magnons, can also interact coherently with optical photons, phonons, and superconducting qubits in the fields of cavity optomagnonics, cavity magnomechanics, and quantum magnonics, respectively. Notably, quantum magnonics provides a promising platform for performing quantum optics experiments in magnetically-ordered solid-state systems. Applications of hybrid quantum systems based on magnonics for quantum information processing and quantum sensing are also outlined briefly.

Characterizing charge noise is of prime importance to the semiconductor spin qubit community. We analyze the echo amplitude data from a recent experiment [Yoneda et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 102 (2018)] and note that the data shows small but consistent deviations from a $1/f^\alpha$ noise power spectrum at the higher frequencies in the measured range. We report the results of using a physical noise model based on two-level fluctuators to fit the data and find that it can mostly explain the deviations. While our results are suggestive rather than conclusive, they provide what may be an early indication of a high-frequency cutoff in the charge noise. The location of this cutoff, where the power spectral density of the noise gradually rolls off from $1/f$ to $1/f^2$, crucial knowledge for designing precise qubit control pulses, is given by our fit of the data to be around 200 kHz.

A recovery map effectively cancels the action of a quantum operation to a partial or full extent. We study the Petz recovery map in the case where the quantum channel and input states are fermionic and Gaussian. Gaussian states are convenient because they are totally determined by their covariance matrix and because they form a closed set under so-called Gaussian channels. Using a Grassmann representation of fermionic Gaussian maps, we show that the Petz recovery map is also Gaussian and determine it explicitly in terms of the covariance matrix of the reference state and the data of the channel. As a by-product, we obtain a formula for the fidelity between two fermionic Gaussian states. We also discuss subtleties arising from the singularities of the involved matrices.

We demonstrate sub-Doppler laser cooling of $ ^{39} $K using degenerate Raman sideband cooling via the 4S$_{1/2} \rightarrow $5P$ _{1/2} $ transition at 404.8 nm. By using an optical lattice in combination with a magnetic field and optical pumping beams, we obtain a spin-polarized sample of up to $5.6 \times 10^{7}$ atoms cooled down to a sub-Doppler temperature of 4 $\mu $K, reaching a peak density of $3.9 \times 10^{9}$ atoms/cm$ ^{3} $, a phase-space density greater than $ 10^{-5} $, and an average vibrational level of $ \langle \nu \rangle=0.6 $ in the lattice. This work opens up the possibility of implementing a single-site imaging scheme in a far-detuned optical lattice utilizing shorter wavelength transitions in alkali atoms, thus allowing improved spatial resolution.

Author(s): Giovanni Giacomelli, Stefano Lepri, and Cosimo Trono

We discuss the main features of a recently introduced system capable of laser action: the complex active optical network, or lasing network (LANER) [Lepri *et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **118**, 123901 (2017)]. The system is experimentally realized with optical fibers linked each other with couplers and with ...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 023841] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): Anwei Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, and Luqi Yuan

We investigate the collective spontaneous emission from an ensemble of two-level atoms evenly distributed inside a sphere with a low density. An initial symmetric single-excitation state is considered and polarizations for all atoms are assumed to be aligned in the same direction. We find that the s...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 023842] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): Andrey B. Matsko

Nonlinear optical frequency conversion can result in redistribution of the noise of the coherent pump light among generated optical harmonics leading to improved quality of laser emission. The property is useful for making narrow line lasers suitable for various metrology applications on a chip. We ...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 023843] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): Laura C. Sinclair, Hugo Bergeron, William C. Swann, Isaac Khader, Kevin C. Cossel, Michael Cermak, Nathan R. Newbury, and Jean-Daniel Deschênes

Platform motion poses significant challenges to high-precision optical time and frequency transfer. We give a detailed description of these challenges and their solutions in comb-based optical two-way time and frequency transfer (O-TWTFT). Specifically, we discuss the breakdown in reciprocity due to...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 023844] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): Chao Zhang, Shuming Cheng, Li Li, Qiu-Yue Liang, Bi-Heng Liu, Yun-Feng Huang, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo, Michael J. W. Hall, Howard M. Wiseman, and Geoff J. Pryde

The set of all qubit states that can be steered to by measurements on a correlated qubit is predicted to form an ellipsoid—called the quantum steering ellipsoid—in the Bloch ball. This ellipsoid provides a simple visual characterization of the initial two-qubit state, and various aspects of entangle...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 070402] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): A. Kshetrimayum, M. Rizzi, J. Eisert, and R. Orús

Tensor network methods have become a powerful class of tools to capture strongly correlated matter, but methods to capture the experimentally ubiquitous family of models at finite temperature beyond one spatial dimension are largely lacking. We introduce a tensor network algorithm able to simulate t...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 070502] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Author(s): Katherine Wright

A drop of liquid can pull itself along a narrow channel by causing the channel walls to flex.

[Physics 12, 18] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Hongyi Zhou, Xiao Yuan, and Xiongfeng Ma

Quantum resources, such as coherence, discord, and entanglement, play a key role for demonstrating an advantage in many computation and communication tasks. In order to find the nature behind these resources, tremendous efforts have been made to explore the connections between them. In this work, we...

[Phys. Rev. A 99, 022326] Published Fri Feb 22, 2019

The weak coupling of photons to otherwise-free electrons is a fundamental building block of light-matter interaction. It is widely utilized for structural and material analysis in electron microscopes, and recently, also for optical manipulation of the electronic wavefunction. This work proposes an experimental approach to reach a strong coupling of electrons to a narrow band of cavity photons, and formulates an analytical model of the interaction for an arbitrary (weak and strong) coupling strength. Entanglement properties of the cavity-photons with electrons are investigated, as well as the possibility to use the cavity to mediate non-Coulombic entanglements between two distant electrons. The coupling constant is evaluated quantitatively, through comparison with known light-electron interactions. The ability to imprint quantum-optical states on free-electrons may open an exciting option to use electrons, rather than photon, as quantum-information carriers across long distances in vacuum, e.g. in space.