Entanglement in quantum mechanics contradicts local realism, and is a manifestation of quantum non-locality. Its presence can be detected through the violation of Bell, or CHSH inequalities. Paradigmatic quantum systems provide examples of both, non-entangled and entangled states. Here we consider a minimal complexity setup consisting of 6 Majorana bound states. We find that any allowed state in the degenerate Majorana space is non-locally entangled. We show how to measure (with available techniques) the CHSH-violating correlations, using either intermediate strength or weak measurement protocols.

Wave-particle duality is a typical example of Bohr's principle of complementarity that plays a significant role in quantum mechanics. Previous studies used visibility to quantify wave property and used path information to quantify particle property. However, coherence is the core and basis of the interference phenomena of wave. If we use it to characterize wave property, which will be useful to strengthen the understanding of wave-particle duality. A recent theoretical work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 160406 (2016)] found two relations between wave property quantified by coherence in different measure and particle property. Here, we demonstrated the wave-particle duality based on two coherence measures quantitatively for the first time. The path information can be obtained by the discrimination of detector states encoded in polarization of photons corresponding each path and mutual information between detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them. We obtain wave property quantified by coherence in l1 measure and relative entropy measure using tomography of photon state that encoded in paths. Our work will deepen people's further understanding of coherence and provides a new angle of view for wave-particle duality.

Quantum frequency conversion (QFC) in nonlinear optical media is a powerful tool for temporal-mode selective manipulation of light. Recent attempts at achieving high mode selectivities and/or fidelities have had to resort to multi-dimensional optimization schemes to determine the system's natural Schmidt modes. Certain combinations of relative-group velocities between the relevant frequency bands, medium length, and temporal pulse widths have been known to achieve good selectivities (exceeding 80%) for temporal modes that are nearly identical to pump pulse shapes, even for high conversion efficiencies. Working in this parameter regime using an off-the-shelf, second-harmonic generation, MgO:PPLN waveguide, and with pulses on the order of 500 fs at wavelengths around 800 nm, we verify experimentally that model-predicted Schmidt modes provide the high temporal-mode selectivity expected. This paves the way to the implementation of a proposed two-stage QFC scheme that is predicted to reach near-perfect (100%) selectivity.

Permutation symmetries of multipartite quantum states are defined only when the constituent subsystems are of equal dimensions. In this work we extend this notion of permutation symmetry to heterogeneous systems, that is, systems composed of subsystems having unequal dimensions. Given a tensor product space of $k$ subsystems (of arbitrary dimensions) and a permutation operation $\sigma$ over $k$ symbols, these states are such that they have identical decompositions (up to an overall phase) in the given tensor product space and the tensor product space obtained by the permuting the subsystems by $\sigma$. Towards this, we construct a matrix whose action is to simultaneously permute the subsystem label and subsystem dimension of a given state according to permutation $\sigma$. Eigenvectors of this matrix have the required symmetry. We then examine entanglement of states in the igenspaces of these matrices. It is found that all nonsymmetric eigenspaces of such matrices are completely entangled subspaces, with states being equally entangled in both the given tensor product space and the permuted tensor product space.

We study the problem of state redistribution both in the classical (shared randomness assisted) and quantum (entanglement assisted) one-shot settings and provide new upper bounds on the communication required. Our classical bounds are in terms of smooth-min and max relative entropies and the quantum bounds are in terms of max relative entropy and Renyi relative entropy of order $\frac{1}{2}$. We also consider a special case of this problem in the classical setting, previously studied by Braverman and Rao (2011). We show that their upper bound is optimal. In addition we provide an alternate protocol achieving a priory different looking upper bound. However, we show that our upper bound is essentially the same as their upper bound and hence also optimal. For the quantum case, we show that our achievability result is upper bounded by the achievability result obtained in Berta, Christandl, Touchette (2016).

We study port-based teleportation protocols and fully characterize their performance for arbitrary dimensions and number of ports. We develop new mathematical tools to study the symmetries of the measurement operators that arise in these protocols and belong to the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators. First, we develop the representation theory of the mentioned algebra which provides an elegant way of understanding the properties of subsystems of a large system with general symmetries. In particular, we introduce the theory of the partially reduced irreducible representations which we use to obtain a simpler representation of the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators and thus explicitly determine the properties of any port-based teleportation scheme for fixed dimension in polynomial time.

We propose an optical scheme, employing optical parametric down-converters interlaced with nonlinear sign gates (NSGs), that completely converts an $n$-photon Fock-state pump to $n$ signal-idler photon pairs when the down-converters' crystal lengths are chosen appropriately. The proof of this assertion relies on amplitude amplification, analogous to that employed in Grover search, applied to the full quantum dynamics of single-mode parametric down-conversion. When we require that all Grover iterations use the same crystal, and account for potential experimental limitations on crystal-length precision, our optimized conversion efficiencies reach unity for $1\le n \le 5$, after which they decrease monotonically for $n$ values up to 50, which is the upper limit of our numerical dynamics evaluations. Nevertheless, our conversion efficiencies remain higher than those for a conventional (no NSGs) down-converter.

Anderson localization is a consequence of coherent interference of multiple scattering events in the presence of disorder, which leads to an exponential suppression of the transmission. The decay of the transmission is typically probed at a given energy or frequency. Here we show that this decay affects the dynamics of a qubit coupled to the disordered system and we express the relaxation rate of the qubit in terms of the localization properties. Conversely, adding static disorder to a channel coupled to a qubit will reduce the decoherence rate of the qubit. Hence, when designing electrodes that couple to qubits it is possible to improve their performance by adding impurities to the channel.

We analyse the emergence of the Unruh effect within the context of a field Lagrangian theory associated to the Pais-Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator model. To this end, we introduce a transformation that brings the Hamiltonian bounded from below and is consistent with $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum mechanics. We find that, as far as we consider different frequencies within the Pais-Uhlenbeck model, a particle together with an antiparticle of different masses are created as may be traced back to the Bogoliubov transformation associated to the interaction between the Unruh-DeWitt detector and the higher derivative scalar field. On the contrary, whenever we consider the equal frequencies limit, no particle creation is detected as the pair particle/antiparticle annihilate each other. Further, following Moschella and Schaeffer, we construct a Poincar\'e invariant two-point function for the Pais-Uhlenbeck model, which in turn allows us to perform the thermal analysis for any of the emanant particles.

Communication over proven-secure quantum channels is potentially one of the most wide-ranging applications of currently developed quantum technologies. It is generally envisioned that in future quantum networks, separated nodes containing stationary solid-state or atomic qubits are connected via the exchange of optical photons over large distances. In this work we explore an intriguing alternative for quantum communication via all-microwave networks. To make this possible, we describe a general protocol for sending quantum states through thermal channels, even when the number of thermal photons in the channel is much larger than one. The protocol can be implemented with state-of-the-art superconducting circuits and enables the transfer of quantum states over distances of ~100 m via microwave transmission lines cooled to only T=4K. This opens up completely new possibilities for quantum communication within and across buildings, and consequently, for the implementation of intra-city quantum networks based on microwave technology only.

Do quantum correlations play a role in high temperature dynamics of many-body systems? A common expectation is that thermal fluctuations lead to fast decoherence and make dynamics classical. In this paper, we provide a striking example of a single particle created in a featureless, infinite temperature spin bath which not only exhibits non-classical dynamics but also induces strong long-lived correlations between the surrounding spins. We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a hole created in a fermionic or bosonic Mott insulator in the atomic limit, which corresponds to a degenerate spin system. In the absence of interactions, the spin correlations arise purely from quantum interference, and the correlations are both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, in striking contrast to the equilibrium Nagaoka effect. These results are relevant for several condensed matter spin systems, and should be observable using state of the art bosonic or fermionic quantum gas microscopes.

We address the dynamics of a bosonic system coupled to either a bosonic or a magnetic environment, and derive a set of sufficient conditions that allow one to describe the dynamics in terms of the effective interaction with a classical fluctuating field. We find that for short interaction times the dynamics of the open system is described by a Gaussian noise map for several different interaction models and independently on the temperature of the environment. More generally, our results indicate that quantum environments may be described by classical fields whenever global symmetries lead to the definition of environmental operators that remain well defined when increasing the size of the environment.

Hyperpolarisation at room temperature is one of the most important research fields in order to improve liquid, gas or nanoparticle tracer for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in medical applications. In this paper we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to investigate the hyperpolarisation effect of negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres on carbon-13 nuclei and their spin diffusion in a diamond single crystal close to the excited state level anti crossing (ESLAC) around 50 mT. Whereas the electron spins of the NV centre can be easily polarized in its m = 0 ground state at room temperature just by irradiation with green light , the swop of the NV electron spin polarization to a carbon-13 nuclei is a complex task. We found that the coupling between the polarized NV electron spin, the electron spin of a substitutional nitrogen impurity (P1) as well as its nitrogen-14 nuclei and the carbon-13 nuclear spin has to be considered. Here we show that through an optimization of this procedure, in about two minutes a signal to noise ratio which corresponds to a 23 hour standard measurement without hyperpolarisation and an accumulation of 460 single scans can be obtained. Furthermore we were able to identify several polarisation peaks of different sign at different magnetic fields in a region of some tens of gauss. Most of the peaks can be attributed to a coupling of the NV centres to nearby P1 centres. We present a new theoretical model in a framework of cross polarisation of a four spin dynamic model in good agreement with our experimental data. The results demonstrate the opportunities and power as well as limitations of hyperpolarisation in diamond via NV centres. We expect that the current work may have a significant impact on future applications.

Employing tight-binding approximation we derive a transfer matrix formalism for one-dimensional single photon transport through a composite scattering center, which consists of parallel connected resonator optical waveguides. By solving the single-mode eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian, we investigate the quantum interference effects of parallel couplings on the photon transport through this parallel waveguide structure. We find a perfect reflection regime determined by the number of coupled resonator waveguides. Numerical analysis reveals that by changing atom transition frequency, the window of perfect reflection may shift to cover almost all incoming photon energy, indicating the effective control of single photon scattering by photon-atom interaction.

By far cosmology is one of the most exciting subject to study, even more so with the current bulk of observations we have at hand. These observations might indicate different kinds of doomsdays, if dark energy follows certain patterns. Two of these doomsdays are the Little Rip (LR) and Little Sibling of the Big Rip (LSBR). In this work, aside from proving the unavoidability of the LR and LSBR in the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) scenario, we carry out a quantum analysis of the EiBI theory with a matter field, which, from a classical point of view would inevitably lead to a universe that ends with either LR or LSBR. Based on a modified Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we demonstrate that such fatal endings seems to be avoidable.

Recent theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation can behave similarly to quantum annealing (QA). The theoretical analysis was based on calculating transition rates between local minima, in the large spin limit using WentzelKramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation, for highly symmetric systems of ferromagnetically coupled qubits. The rate of transition was observed to scale the same in QMC and incoherent quantum tunneling, implying that there might be no quantum advantage of QA compared to QMC other than a prefactor. Quantum annealing is believed to provide quantum advantage through large scale superposition and entanglement and not just incoherent tunneling. Even for incoherent tunneling, the scaling similarity with QMC observed above does not hold in general. Here, we compare incoherent tunneling and QMC escape using perturbation theory, which has much wider validity than WKB approximation. We show that the two do not scale the same way when there are multiple homotopy-inequivalent paths for tunneling. We demonstrate through examples that frustration can generate an exponential number of tunneling paths, which under certain conditions can lead to an exponential advantage for incoherent tunneling over classical QMC escape. We provide analytical and numerical evidence for such an advantage and show that it holds beyond perturbation theory.

Quantum key distribution using weak coherent states and homodyne detection is a promising candidate for practical quantum-cryptographic implementations due to its compatibility with existing telecom equipment and high detection efficiencies. However, despite the actual simplicity of the protocol, the security analysis of this method is rather involved compared to discrete-variable QKD. In this article we review the theoretical foundations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) with Gaussian modulation and rederive the essential relations from scratch in a pedagogical way. The aim of this paper is to be as comprehensive and self-contained as possible in order to be well intelligible even for readers with little pre-knowledge on the subject. Although the present article is a theoretical discussion of CV-QKD, its focus lies on practical implementations, taking into account various kinds of hardware imperfections and suggesting practical methods to perform the security analysis subsequent to the key exchange. Apart from a review of well known results, this manuscript presents a set of new original noise models which are helpful to get an estimate of how well a given set of hardware will perform in practice.

Sensors based on single spins can enable magnetic field detection with very high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Previous work has concentrated on sensing of a constant magnetic field or a periodic signal. Here, we instead investigate the problem of estimating a field with non-periodic variation described by a Wiener process. We propose and study, by numerical simulations, an adaptive tracking protocol based on Bayesian estimation. The tracking protocol updates the probability distribution for the magnetic field, based on measurement outcomes, and adapts the choice of sensing time and phase in real time. By taking the statistical properties of the signal into account, our protocol strongly reduces the required measurement time, reducing the error in the estimation of a time-varying signal by up to a factor 4.

On the analytic ground we examine a physical mechanism how particle velocity can protect an entanglement when quantum system is embedded in Markovian or non-Markovian environment. In particular the effect of particle velocity is examined in the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and revival of entanglement (ROE) phenomena. Even though particles move fast, the ESD phenomenon does not disappear if it occurs at zero velocity. However the time domain $0 \leq t \leq t_*$ for nonvanishing entanglement becomes larger and larger with increasing velocity. When ROE phenomenon occurs at zero velocity, even small velocity can make this phenomenon not to occur although the oscillatory behavior of entanglement in time is maintained. For comparatively large velocity the amplitude of the oscillatory behavior becomes extremely small. In this way the entanglement can be protected by particle velocity. The protection of entanglement via velocity is compared with that via the detuning parameter.

We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a non-rotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein--de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.