Physics

Quantum phase transitions in spin-1 XXZ chains with rhombic single-ion anisotropy. (arXiv:1801.04922v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We explore the fidelity susceptibility and the quantum coherence along with the entanglement entropy in the ground-state of one-dimensional spin-1 XXZ chains with the rhombic single-ion anisotropy. By using the techniques of density matrix renormalization group, effects of the rhombic single-ion anisotropy on a few information theoretical measures are investigated, such as the fidelity susceptibility, the quantum coherence and the entanglement entropy. Their relations with the quantum phase transitions are also analyzed. The phase transitions from the Y-N\'{e}el phase to the Large-$E_x$ or the Haldane phase can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. The second-order derivative of the ground-state energy indicates all the transitions are of second order. We also find that the quantum coherence, the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap can be used to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions. Conclusions drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. Finally we provide a ground-state phase diagram as functions of the exchange anisotropy $\Delta$ and the rhombic single-ion anisotropy $E$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Single-photon absorption by single photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. (arXiv:1801.04924v1 [physics.chem-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We provide a unified theoretical approach to the quantum dynamics of absorption of single photons and subsequent excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. Our analysis combines a continuous mode <n>-photon quantum optical master equation for the chromophoric system with the hierarchy of equations of motion describing excitonic dynamics in presence of non-Markovian coupling to vibrations of the chromophores and surrounding protein. We apply the approach to simulation of absorption of single-photon coherent states by pigment-protein complexes containing between one and seven chromophores, and compare with results obtained by excitation using a thermal radiation field. We show that the values of excitation probability obtained under single-photon absorption conditions can be consistently related to bulk absorption cross-sections. Analysis of the timescale and efficiency of single-photon absorption by light-harvesting systems within this full quantum description of pigment-protein dynamics coupled to a quantum radiation field reveals a non-trivial dependence of the excitation probability and the excited state dynamics induced by exciton-phonon coupling during and subsequent to the pulse, on the bandwidth of the incident photon pulse. For bandwidths equal to the spectral bandwidth of Chlorophyll a, our results yield an estimation of an average time of ~0.09 s for a single chlorophyll chromophore to absorb the energy equivalent of one (single-polarization) photon under irradiation by single-photon states at the intensity of sunlight.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Using Gaussian Basis-Sets with Gaussian Nuclear Charge Distribution to Solve Dirac-Hartree-Fock Equation for 83 Bi-Atom. (arXiv:1801.04926v1 [physics.atom-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

In this paper, we consider the Dirac-Hartree-Fock equations for system has many-particles. The difficulties associated with Gaussians model are likely to be more complex in relativistic Dirac- Hartree-Fock calculations. To processing these problem, we use accurate techniques. The four- component spinors will be expanded into a finite basis-set, using Gaussian basis-set type dyall.2zp to describe 4-component wave functions, in order to describe the upper and lower two components of the 4-spinors, respectively. The small component Gaussian basis functions have been generated from large component Gaussian basis functions using kinetic balance relation. The considered techniques have been applied for the heavy element 83 Bi. We adopt the Gaussian charge distribution model to describe the charge of nuclei. To calculate accurate properties of the atomic levels, we used Dirac-Hartree-Fock method, which have more flexibility through Gaussian basis-set to treat relativistic quantum calculation for a system has many-particle. Our obtained results for the heavy atom (Z=83), including the total energy, energy for each spinor in atom, and expectation value of <r n > give are good compared with relativistic Visscher treatment. This accuracy is attributed to the use of the Gaussian basis-set type Dyall to describe the four-component spinors.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Exact distribution of spacing ratios for random and localized states in quantum chaotic systems. (arXiv:1801.05013v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

Typical eigenstates of quantum systems, whose classical limit is chaotic, are well approximated as random states. Corresponding eigenvalue spectra is modeled through appropriate ensemble of random matrix theory. However, a small subset of states violate this principle and display eigenstate localization, a counter-intuitive feature known to arise due to purely quantum or semiclassical effects. In the spectrum of chaotic systems, the localized and random states interact with one another and modifies the spectral statistics. In this work, a $3 \times 3$ random matrix model is used to obtain exact result for the ratio of spacing between a generic and localized state. We consider time-reversal-invariant as well as non-invariant scenarios. These results agree with the spectra computed from realistic physical systems that display localized eigenmodes.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Axiomatic Information Thermodynamics. (arXiv:1801.05015v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We present an axiomatic framework for thermodynamics that incorporates information as a fundamental concept. The axioms describe both ordinary thermodynamic processes and those in which information is acquired, used and erased, as in the operation of Maxwell's demon. This system, like previous axiomatic systems for thermodynamics, supports the construction of conserved quantities and an entropy function governing state changes. Here, however, the entropy exhibits both information and thermodynamic aspects. Although our axioms are not based upon probabilistic concepts, a natural and highly useful concept of probability emerges from the entropy function itself. Our abstract system has many models, including both classical and quantum examples.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Ultrathin Films of Superconducting Metals as a Platform for Topological Superconductivity. (arXiv:1801.05020v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

The ingredients normally required to achieve topological superconductivity (TSC) are Cooper pairing, broken inversion symmetry, and broken time-reversal symmetry. We present a theoretical exploration of the possibility of using ultra-thin films of superconducting metals as a platform for TSC. Because they necessarily break inversion symmetry when prepared on a substrate and have intrinsic Cooper pairing, they can be TSCs when time-reversal symmetry is broken by an external magnetic field. Using microscopic density functional theory calculations we show that for ultrathin Pb and $\beta$-Sn superconductors the position of the Fermi level can be tuned to quasi-2D band extrema energies using strain, and that the $g$-factors of these Bloch states can be extremely large enhancing the influence of external magnetic fields.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Two-dimensional Dirac fermion in presence of an asymmetric vector potential. (arXiv:1801.05045v1 [hep-th])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We introduce an exactly solvable model of two-dimensional Dirac fermion in presence of an asymmetric vector potential. Fundamental solutions of its stationary equation are represented by an irreducible combination of two Gauss hypergeometric functions. Peculiar spectral properties of the system are analyzed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A simple protocol for certifying graph states and applications in quantum networks. (arXiv:1801.05057v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We present a simple protocol for certifying graph states in quantum networks using stabiliser measurements. The certification statements can easily be applied to different protocols using graph states. We see for example how it can be used to for measurement based verified quantum compu- tation, certified sampling of random unitaries and quantum metrology and sharing quantum secrets over untrusted channels.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantifying the Imaginarity of Quantum Mechanics. (arXiv:1801.05123v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

The use of imaginary numbers in modelling quantum mechanical systems encompasses the wave-like nature of quantum states. Here we introduce a resource theoretic framework for imaginarity, where the free states are taken to be those with density matrices that are real with respect to a fixed basis. This theory is closely related to the resource theory of coherence, as it is basis dependent, and the imaginary numbers appear in the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. Unlike coherence however, the set of physically realizable free operations is identical to both completely resource non-generating operations, and stochastically resource non-generating operations. Moreover, the resource theory of imaginarity does not have a self-adjoint resource destroying map. After introducing and characterizing the free operations, we provide several measures of imaginarity, and give necessary and sufficient conditions for pure state transformations via physically consistent free operations in the single shot regime.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Local Sensing with an AC Stark Spectrum Analyzer. (arXiv:1801.05144v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

Analyzing weak microwave signals in the GHz regime is a challenging task if the signal level is very low and the photon energy widely undefined. Due to its discrete level structure, a superconducting qubit is only sensitive to photons of certain energies. With a multi-level quantum system (qudit) in contrast, the unknown photon frequency can be deduced from the higher level AC Stark shift. The measurement accuracy is given by the signal amplitude, its detuning from the discrete qudit energy level structure and the anharmonicity. We demonstrate an energy sensitivity in the order of $10^{-4}$ with a measurement range of 1 GHz. Here, using a transmon qubit, we experimentally observe shifts in the transition frequencies involving up to three excited levels. These shifts are in good agreement with an analytic circuit model and master equation simulations. For large detunings, we find the shifts to scale linearly with the power of the applied microwave drive.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum dynamics intervened by repeated nonselective measurements. (arXiv:1801.05160v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We derive the theory of open quantum system dynamics intervened by a series of nonselective measurements. We analyze the cases of time independent and time dependent Hamiltonian dynamics in between the measurements and find the approximate master equation in the stroboscopic limit. We also consider a situation, in which the measurement basis changes in time, and illustrate it by nonselective measurements in the basis of diabatic states of the Landau-Zener model.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Information-entropic measures in free and confined hydrogen atom. (arXiv:1801.05172v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

Shannon entropy ($S$), R{\'e}nyi entropy ($R$), Tsallis entropy ($T$), Fisher information ($I$) and Onicescu energy ($E$) have been explored extensively in both \emph{free} H atom (FHA) and \emph{confined} H atom (CHA). For a given quantum state, accurate results are presented by employing respective \emph{exact} analytical wave functions in $r$ space. The $p$-space wave functions are generated from respective Fourier transforms$-$for FHA these can be expressed analytically in terms of Gegenbauer polynomials, whereas in CHA these are computed numerically. \emph{Exact} mathematical expressions of $R_r^{\alpha}, R_p^{\beta}$, $T_r^{\alpha}, T_p^{\beta}, E_r, E_p$ are derived for \emph{circular} states of a FHA. Pilot calculations are done taking order of entropic moments ($\alpha, \beta$) as $(\frac{3}{5}, 3)$ in $r$ and $p$ spaces. A detailed, systematic analysis is performed for both FHA and CHA with respect to state indices $n,l$, and with confinement radius ($r_c$) for the latter. In a CHA, at small $r_{c}$, kinetic energy increases, whereas $S_{\rvec}, R^{\alpha}_{\rvec}$ decrease with growth of $n$, signifying greater localization in high-lying states. At moderate $r_{c}$, there exists an interplay between two mutually opposing factors: (i) radial confinement (localization) and (ii) accumulation of radial nodes with growth of $n$ (delocalization). Most of these results are reported here for the first time, revealing many new interesting features. Comparison with literature results, wherever possible, offers excellent agreement.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tradeoff relations between accessible information, informational power, and purity. (arXiv:1801.05185v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

The accessible information and the informational power quantify the maximum amount of information that can be extracted from a quantum ensemble and by a quantum measurement, respectively. Here, we investigate the tradeoff between the accessible information (informational power, respectively) and the purity of the states of the ensemble (the elements of the measurement, respectively). Under any given lower bound on the purity, i) we compute the minimum informational power and show that it is attained by the depolarized uniformly-distributed measurement; ii) we give a lower bound on the accessible information. Under any given upper bound on the purity, i) we compute the maximum accessible information and show that it is attained by an ensemble of pairwise commuting states with at most two distinct non-null eigenvalues; ii) we give a lower bound on the maximum informational power. The present results provide, as a corollary, novel sufficient conditions for the tightness of the Jozsa-Robb-Wootters lower bound to the accessible information.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Geometrical bounds on irreversibility in open quantum systems. (arXiv:1801.05188v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

Clausius inequality has deep implications for reversibility and the arrow of time. Quantum theory is able to extend this result for closed systems by inspecting the trajectory of the density matrix on its manifold. Here we show that this approach can provide an upper and lower bound to the irreversible entropy production for open quantum systems as well. These provide insights on the thermodynamics of the information erasure. Limits of the applicability of our bounds are discussed, and demonstrated in a quantum photonic simulator.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Note on Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. (arXiv:1801.05220v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

This paper provides, firstly, a succinct mathematical derivation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of photons elaborating on previous results [M\"uller, E.E., Annals of Phys. 184, 219-230 (1988); M\"uller, E.E. Physica 139A, 165-174 (1986)] including new results on the condensate function, and, secondly, applies this framework to consistently explain experimental findings reported in Klaers J., Schmitt, J., Vewinger, F & Weitz, M., Nature 468, 545-548 (2010). The theoretical approach presented here invites to significantly widen the experimental framework for BEC of photons including three-dimensional photon resonators and thermalization mechanisms different from a dye medium in the cavity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Accurate density measurement of a cold Rydberg gas via non collisional two-body transitions. (arXiv:1801.05228v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We experimentally demonstrate an original method to measure very accurately the density of a frozen Rydberg gas. It is based on the use of adiabatic transitions induced by the long-range dipole-dipole interaction in pairs of nearest neighbor Rydberg atoms by sweeping an electric field with time. The efficiency of this two-body process is experimentally tunable, depends strongly on the density of the gas and can be accurately calculated. The analysis of this efficiency leads to an accurate determination of the Rydberg gas density, and to a calibration of the Rydberg detection. Our method does not require any prior knowledge or estimation of the volume occupied by the Rydberg gas, or of the efficiency of the detection.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Various complexity measures in confined hydrogen atom. (arXiv:1801.05232v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

Several well-known statistical measures similar to \emph{LMC} and \emph{Fisher-Shannon} complexity have been computed for confined hydrogen atom in both position ($r$) and momentum ($p$) spaces. Further, a more generalized form of these quantities with R\'enyi entropy ($R$) is explored here. The role of scaling parameter in the exponential part is also pursued. $R$ is evaluated taking order of entropic moments $\alpha, \beta$ as $(\frac{2}{3},3)$ in $r$ and $p$ spaces. Detailed systematic results of these measures with respect to variation of confinement radius $r_c$ is presented for low-lying states such as, $1s$-$3d,~4f$ and $5g$. For \emph{nodal} states, such as $2s,~3s$ and $3p$, as $r_c$ progresses there appears a maximum followed by a minimum in $r$ space, having certain values of the scaling parameter. However, the corresponding $p$-space results lack such distinct patterns. This study reveals many other interesting features.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Information is not a thermodynamic resource. (arXiv:1801.05237v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

The so-called information-thermodynamics link has been created in a series of works starting from Maxwell demon and established by the idea of transforming information into work in the though experiment of Szilard which then evolved into the vast field of research. The aim of this note is firstly to present two new models of the Szilard engine containing arbitrary number of molecules which show irrelevance of acquiring information for work extraction. Secondly, the difference between the definition of entropy for ergodic systems and systems with ergodicity breaking constraints is emphasized. The role of nonergodic systems as information carriers and the thermodynamic cost of stability and accuracy of information encoding and processing is briefly discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

de Finetti reductions for partially exchangeable probability distributions. (arXiv:1801.05240v1 [math.PR])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

We introduce a general framework for de Finetti reduction results, applicable to various notions of partially exchangeable probability distributions. Explicit statements are derived for the cases of exchangeability, Markov exchangeability, and some generalizations of these. Our techniques are combinatorial and rely on the "BEST" theorem, enumerating the Eulerian cycles of a multigraph.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Deterministic teleportation of a quantum gate between two logical qubits. (arXiv:1801.05283v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2018-01-17 04:45

A quantum computer has the potential to effciently solve problems that are intractable for classical computers. Constructing a large-scale quantum processor, however, is challenging due to errors and noise inherent in real-world quantum systems. One approach to this challenge is to utilize modularity--a pervasive strategy found throughout nature and engineering--to build complex systems robustly. Such an approach manages complexity and uncertainty by assembling small, specialized components into a larger architecture. These considerations motivate the development of a quantum modular architecture, where separate quantum systems are combined via communication channels into a quantum network. In this architecture, an essential tool for universal quantum computation is the teleportation of an entangling quantum gate, a technique originally proposed in 1999 which, until now, has not been realized deterministically. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a teleported controlled-NOT (CNOT) operation made deterministic by utilizing real-time adaptive control. Additionally, we take a crucial step towards implementing robust, error-correctable modules by enacting the gate between logical qubits, encoding quantum information redundantly in the states of superconducting cavities. Such teleported operations have significant implications for fault-tolerant quantum computation, and when realized within a network can have broad applications in quantum communication, metrology, and simulations. Our results illustrate a compelling approach for implementing multi-qubit operations on logical qubits within an error-protected quantum modular architecture.

Categories: Journals, Physics
Syndicate content