Physics

Synopsis: Relativity Survives Scrutiny, Again

APS Physics - Thu, 2017-11-16 11:00

Two independent studies show no evidence that a fundamental symmetry in relativity, known as Lorentz invariance, breaks down.


[Physics] Published Thu Nov 16, 2017

Categories: Physics

Vacuum spin squeezing

PRA: Quantum information - Thu, 2017-11-16 11:00

Author(s): Jiazhong Hu, Wenlan Chen, Zachary Vendeiro, Alban Urvoy, Boris Braverman, and Vladan Vuletić

We investigate the generation of entanglement (spin squeezing) in an optical-transition atomic clock through the coupling to an optical cavity in its vacuum state. We show that if each atom is prepared in a superposition of the ground state and a long-lived electronic excited state, and viewed as a ...


[Phys. Rev. A 96, 050301(R)] Published Thu Nov 16, 2017

Categories: Journals, Physics

Interpreting quantum coherence through a quantum measurement process

PRA: Quantum information - Thu, 2017-11-16 11:00

Author(s): Yao Yao, G. H. Dong, Xing Xiao, Mo Li, and C. P. Sun

Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the quantification of coherence or other coherencelike concepts within the framework of quantum resource theory. However, rigorously defined or not, the notion of coherence or decoherence has already been used by the community for decades since the adve...


[Phys. Rev. A 96, 052322] Published Thu Nov 16, 2017

Categories: Journals, Physics

Witnessing arbitrary bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way

PRA: Quantum information - Thu, 2017-11-16 11:00

Author(s): Arindam Mallick and Sibasish Ghosh

Experimental detection of entanglement of an arbitrary state of a given bipartite system is crucial for exploring many areas of quantum information processing. But such a detection should be made in a device-independent way if the preparation process of the state is considered to be faithful, in ord...


[Phys. Rev. A 96, 052323] Published Thu Nov 16, 2017

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantifying non-Gaussianity of quantum-state correlation

PRA: Quantum information - Thu, 2017-11-16 11:00

Author(s): Jiyong Park, Jaehak Lee, Se-Wan Ji, and Hyunchul Nha

We consider how to quantify non-Gaussianity for the correlation of a bipartite quantum state by using various measures such as relative entropy and geometric distances. We first show that an intuitive approach, i.e., subtracting the correlation of a reference Gaussian state from that of a target non...


[Phys. Rev. A 96, 052324] Published Thu Nov 16, 2017

Categories: Journals, Physics

Dephasing of Majorana-based qubits. (arXiv:1711.03968v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

We analyze charging-energy-protected Majorana-based qubits, focusing on the residual dephasing that is present when the distance between Majorana zero modes (MZMs) is insufficient for full topological protection. We argue that the leading source of dephasing is $1/f$ charge noise. This noise affects the qubit as a result of the hybridization energy and charge distribution associated with weakly-overlapping MZMs, which we calculate using a charge-conserving formalism. We estimate the coherence time to be hundreds of nanoseconds for Majorana-based qubits whose MZM separation is $L\sim 5\xi$ (with $\xi$ being the coherence length). The coherence time grows exponentially with MZM separation and eventually becomes temperature-limited, reaching values of the order of minutes for $L/\xi \sim 30$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Disordered Crystals from First Principles I: Quantifying the Configuration Space. (arXiv:1711.04002v1 [physics.comp-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

This work represents the first chapter of a project on the foundations of first-principle calculations of the electron transport in crystals at finite temperatures. We are interested in the range of temperatures, where most electronic components operate, that is, room temperature and above. The aim is a predictive first-principle formalism that combines ab-initio molecular dynamics and a finite-temperature Kubo-formula for homogeneous thermodynamic phases. The input for this formula is the ergodic dynamical system $(\Omega,\mathbb G,{\rm d}\mathbb P)$ defining the crystalline phase, where $\Omega$ is the configuration space for the atomic degrees of freedom, $\mathbb G$ is the space group acting on $\Omega$ and ${\rm d}\mathbb P$ is the ergodic Gibbs measure relative to the $\mathbb G$-action. The present work develops an algorithmic method for quantifying $(\Omega,\mathbb G,{\rm d}\mathbb P)$ from first principles. Using the silicon crystal as a working example, we find the Gibbs measure to be extremely well characterized by a multivariate normal distribution, which can be quantified using a small number of parameters. The latter are computed at various temperatures and communicated in the form of a table. Using this table, one can generate large and accurate thermally-disordered atomic configurations to serve, for example, as input for subsequent simulations of the electronic degrees of freedom.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Generalized Unitarity Relation for Linear Scattering Systems in One Dimension. (arXiv:1711.04003v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

We derive a generalized unitarity relation for an arbitrary linear scattering system that may violate unitarity, time-reversal invariance, ${\cal PT}$-symmetry, and transmission reciprocity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Faster Quantum Algorithm to simulate Fermionic Quantum Field Theory. (arXiv:1711.04006v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

In quantum algorithms discovered so far for simulating scattering processes in quantum field theories, state preparation is the slowest step. We present a new algorithm for preparing particle states to use in simulation of Fermionic Quantum Field Theory (QFT) on a quantum computer, which is based on the matrix product state ansatz. We apply this to the massive Gross-Neveu model in one spatial dimension to illustrate the algorithm, but we believe the same algorithm with slight modifications can be used to simulate any one-dimensional massive Fermionic QFT. In the case where the number of particle species is one, our algorithm can prepare particle states using $O\left( \epsilon^{-3.23\ldots}\right)$ gates, which is much faster than previous known results, namely $O\left(\epsilon^{-8-o\left(1\right)}\right)$. Furthermore, unlike previous methods which were based on adiabatic state preparation, the method given here should be able to simulate quantum phases unconnected to the free theory.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Coherent states in a magnetic field and their generalizations. (arXiv:1711.04034v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

This is a brief review of various families of coherent and squeezed states (and their generalizations) for a charged particle in a magnetic field, that have been constructed for the past 50 years. Although the main attention is paid to the Gaussian states, various families of non-Gaussian states are also discussed, and the list of relevant references is provided.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Variance uncertainty relations without covariances for three and four observables. (arXiv:1711.04037v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

New sum and product uncertainty relations, containing variances of three or four observables, but not containing explicitly their covariances, are derived. One of consequences is the new inequality, giving a nonzero lower bound for the product of two variances in the case of zero mean value of the commutator between the related operators. Moreover, explicit examples show that in some cases this new bound can be better than the known Robertson--Schr\"odinger one.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Intrinsic Retrieval Efficiency for Quantum Memory: A Three Dimensional Theory of Light Interaction with an Atomic Ensemble. (arXiv:1711.04039v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Entanglement, non-Markovianity, and causal non-separability. (arXiv:1711.04065v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

Quantum mechanics, in principle, allows for processes with indefinite causal order. However, most of these causal anomalies have not yet been detected experimentally. We show that every such process can be simulated experimentally by means of non-Markovian dynamics with a measurement on additional degrees of freedom. Explicitly, we provide a constructive scheme to implement arbitrary acausal processes. Furthermore, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for open system dynamics with measurement to yield processes that respect causality locally, and find that tripartite entanglement and nonlocal unitary transformations are crucial requirements for the simulation of causally indefinite processes. These results show a direct connection between three counter-intuitive concepts: non-Markovianity, entanglement, and causal indefiniteness.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Fast forward of adiabatic spin dynamics of entangled states. (arXiv:1711.04074v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

We develop a scheme of fast forward of adiabatic spin dynamics of quantum entangled states. We settle the quasi-adiabatic dynamics by adding the regularization terms to the original Hamiltonian and then accelerate it with use of a large time-scaling factor. Assuming the experimentally-realizable candidate Hamiltonian consisting of the exchange interactions and magnetic field, we solved the regularization terms. These terms multiplied by the velocity function give rise to the state-dependent counter-diabatic terms. The scheme needs neither knowledge of full spectral properties of the system nor solving the initial and boundary value problem. Our fast forward Hamiltonian generates a variety of state-dependent counter-diabatic terms for each of adiabatic states, which can include the state-independent one. We highlight this fact by using minimum (two-spin) models for a simple transverse Ising model, quantum annealing and generation of entanglement.

Categories: Journals, Physics

From Near to Eternity: Spin-glass planting, tiling puzzles, and constraint satisfaction problems. (arXiv:1711.04083v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

We present a methodology for generating Ising Hamiltonians of tunable complexity and with a priori known ground states based on a decomposition of the model graph into edge-disjoint subgraphs. The idea is illustrated with a spin-glass model defined on a cubic lattice, where subproblems, whose couplers are restricted to the two values {-1,+1}, are specified on unit cubes and are parametrized by their local degeneracy. The construction is shown to be equivalent to a type of three-dimensional constraint satisfaction problem known as the tiling puzzle. By varying the proportions of subproblem types, the Hamiltonian can span a dramatic range of typical computational complexity, from fairly easy to many orders of magnitude more difficult than prototypical bimodal and Gaussian spin glasses in three space dimensions. We corroborate this behavior via experiments with different algorithms and discuss generalizations and extensions to different types of graphs.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Revealing Tripartite Quantum Discord with Tripartite Information Diagram. (arXiv:1711.04119v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

A new measure based on the tripartite information diagram is proposed for identifying quantum discord in tripartite systems. The proposed measure generalizes the mutual information underlying discord from bipartite to tripartite systems, and utilizes both one-particle and two-particle projective measurements to reveal the characteristics of the tripartite quantum discord. The feasibility of the proposed measure is demonstrated by evaluating the tripartite quantum discord for systems with states close to Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and biseparable states. In addition, the connections between tripartite quantum discord and two other quantum correlations---namely genuine tripartite entanglement and genuine tripartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering---are briefly discussed. The present study considers the case of quantum discord in tripartite systems. However, the proposed framework can be readily extended to general N-partite systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Singular inverse square potential in coordinate space with a minimal length. (arXiv:1711.04158v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

The problem of a particle of mass m in the field of the inverse square potential is studied in quantum mechanics with a generalized uncertainty principle, characterized by the existence of a minimal length. Using the coordinate representation, for a specific form of the generalized uncertainty relation, we solve the deformed Schr\"odinger equation analytically in terms of confluent Heun functions. We explicitly show the regularizing effect of the minimal length on the singularity of the potential. We discuss the problem of bound states in detail and we derive an expression for the energy spectrum in a natural way from the square integrability condition; the results are in complete agreement with the literature.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Comment on "Cornell potential in generalized uncertainty principle formalism: the case of Schr\"odinger equation". (arXiv:1711.04171v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

In the recent paper, Ref. 1, the l-waves Schr\"odinger equation for the Cornell's potential is solved in quantum mechanics with a generalized uncertainty principle by following Ref. 2. It is showed here that the approach of Ref. 2 can only be used for the s-waves, and then the solution given in Ref. 1 would be true only in the special case l=0. Furthermore, it is highlighted that the abstract and the conclusion of Ref. 1 do not accurately reflect the results of the paper.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Observation of the exceptional point in cavity magnon-polaritons. (arXiv:1711.04176v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

Magnon-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles originating from the strong coupling between magnons and photons. They have emerged as a potential candidate for implementing quantum transducers and memories. Owing to the dampings of both photons and magnons, the polaritons have limited lifetimes. However, stationary magnon-polariton states can be reached by a dynamical balance between pumping and losses, so the intrinsical nonequilibrium system may be described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. Here we design a tunable cavity quantum electrodynamics system with a small ferromagnetic sphere in a microwave cavity and engineer the dissipations of photons and magnons to create cavity magnon-polaritons which have non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies. By tuning the magnon-photon coupling strength, we observe the polaritonic coherent perfect absorption and demonstrate the phase transition at the exceptional point. Our experiment offers a novel macroscopic quantum platform to explore the non-Hermitian physics of the cavity magnon-polaritons.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Deformed Heisenberg Algebra with a minimal length: Application to some molecular potentials. (arXiv:1711.04180v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-11-15 22:45

We review the essentials of the formalism of quantum mechanics based on a deformed Heisenbeg algebra, leading to the existence of a minimal length scale. We compute in this context, the energy spectra of the pseudoharmonic oscillator and Kratzer potentials by using a perturbative approach. We derive the molecular constants, which characterize the vibration--rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules, and investigate the effect of the minimal length on each of these parameters for both potentials. We confront our result to experimental data for the hydrogen molecule to estimate an order of magnitude of this fundamental scale in molecular physics.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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