It is very crucial to know that whether the quantum state generated in the experiment is entangled or not. In the literature, this topic was studied extensively and researchers proposed different approaches for the detection of mixed bipartite entangled state in arbitrary dimension. Proceeding in this line of research, we also propose three different criteria for the detection of mixed bipartite negative partial transpose (NPT) entangled state in arbitrary dimension. Our criteria is based on the method of structural physical approximation (SPA) of partial transposition (PT). We have shown that the proposed criteria for the detection of NPT entangled state can be realized experimentally. Two of the proposed criteria is given in terms of the concurrence of the given state in arbitrary dimension so it is essential to find out the concurrence. Thus, we provide new lower and upper bound of concurrence of the quantum state under investigation in terms of average fidelity of two quantum states and hence these bounds can be realized experimentally. Moreover, we have shown how to perform SPA map on qutrit-qubit system and then explicitly calculated the matrix elements of the density matrix describing the SPA-PT of the qutrit-qubit system. We then illustrate our criteria for the detection of entanglement by considering a class of qubit-qubit system and a class of qutrit-qubit system.

The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) quantum error correcting code attracts much attention in continuous variable (CV) quantum computation and CV quantum communication due to the simplicity of error correcting routines and the high tolerance against Gaussian errors. Since the GKP code state should be regarded as a limit of physically meaningful approximate ones, various approximations have been developed until today, but explicit relations among them are still unclear. In this paper, we rigorously prove the equivalence of these approximate GKP codes with an explicit correspondence of the parameters. We also propose a standard form of the approximate code states in the position representation, which enables us to derive closed-from expressions for the Wigner functions, the inner products, and the average photon numbers in terms of the theta functions. Our results serve as fundamental tools for further analyses of fault-tolerant quantum computation and channel coding using approximate GKP codes.

As it has been demonstrated that trapped ion systems have unmatched long-lived quantum-bit (qubit) coherence and can support high-fidelity quantum manipulations, how to scale up the system size becomes an inevitable task for practical purposes. In this work, we theoretically analyse the physical limitation of scalability with a trapped ion array, and propose a feasible scheme of architecture that in principle allows an arbitrary number of ion qubits, for which the overhead only scales linearly with the system size. This scheme relies on the combined ideas of a trap architecture of tunable size, stabilisation of an ion crystal by optical tweezers, and continuous sympathetic cooling without touching the stored information. We demonstrate that illumination of optical tweezers modifies the motional spectrum by effectively pinning the ions, lifting the frequencies of the motional ground modes. By doing so, we make the structure of the array less vulnerable from thermal excitations, and suppress the the position fluctuations to insure faithful gate operations. Finally, we also explore the local behaviour of cooling when a sub-array is isolated by optical tweezers from other parts of the crystal.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is gradually moving towards network applications. It is important to improve the performance of QKD systems such as photonic integration for compact systems, the stability resistant to environmental disturbances, high key rate, and high efficiency in QKD applications. In the letter, we propose a general quantum decoding model, namely orthogonal-polarizations-exchange reflector Michelson interferometer model, to solve quantum channel disturbance caused by environment. Based on the model, we give a quantum phase decoder scheme, i.e. a Sagnac configuration based orthogonal-polarizations-exchange reflector Michelson interferometer (SRMI). Besides the stability immune to quantum channel disturbance, the SRMI decoder can be fabricated with photonic integrated circuits, and suitable to gigahertz phase encoding QKD systems, and can increase the system efficiency because of the low insertion loss of the decoder.

The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol is of high interest due to its relatively simple practical implementation. This protocol uses trains of coherent pulses and allows the legitimate users to resist individual attacks. In this paper, a new attack on this protocol is proposed which is based on the idea of information extraction from the part of each coherent state and then making decision about blocking the rest part depending on the amount of extracted information.

We study the classical chaos appearing in a diatomic molecules $BeO$, $CO$ and $CN$ due to the interaction with a circularly polarized electric field, and its signature in Quantum Mechanics through the Wigner distribution function and the Boltzmann-Shannon entropy. We found a motion out of the center of the quantum phase space defined by Wigner function when the classical system becomes chaotic, and we found a jumping behavior of the average Boltzmann-Shannon entropy with respect the electric field strength when the classical system becomes chaotic, indicating a sudden increasing in the disorder (or sudden lost of information) in the quantum system.

In this article we analyze the efficiency of operations based on transferring charge from a quantum dot (QD) to two coupled topological superconductors, which can be used for performing nonabelian operations on Majorana bound states (MBSs). We develop a method which allows us to describe the full time-evolution of the system as the QD energy is manipulated. Using a full counting statistics analysis, we set bounds to the operation time scales. The lower bound depends on the superconducting phase difference due to a partial decoupling of the different MBSs parity sectors, while the upper bound is set by the tunneling of quasiparticles to the MBSs. Using realistic parameters, we find the existence of a regime where the operation can be carried out with a fidelity close to unity. Finally, we propose the use of a two operations protocol to quantify the effect of the dephasing and accumulated dynamical phases, demonstrating their absence for certain superconducting phase differences.

In the mid-1990s it was proposed that quantum effects in proteins known as microtubules play a role in the nature of consciousness. The theory was largely dismissed due to the fact that quantum effects were thought unlikely to occur in biological systems, which are warm and wet and subject to decoherence. However, the development of quantum biology now suggests otherwise. Quantum effects have been implicated in photosynthesis, a process fundamental to life on earth. They are also possibly at play in other biological processes such as avian migration and olfaction. The microtubule mechanism of quantum consciousness has been joined by other theories of quantum cognition. It has been proposed that general anaesthetic, which switches off consciousness, does this through quantum means, measured by changes in electron spin. The tunnelling hypothesis developed in the context of olfaction has been applied to the action of neurotransmitters. A recent theory outlines how quantum entanglement between phosphorus nuclei might influence the firing of neurons. These, and other theories, have contributed to a growing field of research that investigates whether quantum effects might contribute to neural processing. This review aims to investigate the current state of this research and how fully the theory is supported by convincing experimental evidence. It also aims to clarify the biological sites of these proposed quantum effects and how progress made in the wider field of quantum biology might be relevant to the specific case of the brain.

We consider the problem of finding the bound-state spectrum of an impurity immersed in a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate supporting a single vortex. We obtain approximate expressions for the energy levels and show that, due to the finite size of the condensate, the impurity can access only a finite number of physical bound states. By virtue of the topological quantization of the vorticity and of the emergence of the Tkachenko lattice, this system is promising as a robust and scalable platform for the realization of qubits. Moreover, it provides a potentially new paradigm for polaron physics in Bose-Einstein condensates and a glimpse towards the study of quantum turbulence in low-dimensionality systems.

An exciton beam splitter is designed and computationally implemented, offering the prospect of excitonic interferometry. Exciton interaction between propagation conduits is modeled using a coupling parameter that varies with position. In practice, this variation can be realized by a change in the distance separating conduits as would occur if they crossed at oblique angles. Two such excitonic beam splitters can be combined to comprise an excitonic analog to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, allowing the relative phase shift between two signals to be used to tailor the output populations on each channel. In contrast to optical splitters, an excitonic signal can be coherently split among more than two channels. These ideas are computationally demonstrated within an idealized setting in which each site is idealized as a two-level system. Physical implementations include molecular and coupled cavity settings as well as combinations of these. This adds to the developing inventory of excitonic analogs to optical elements.

We explore amplification and cross-Kerr nonlinearity by a three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a waveguide and driven by two light beams. The coherent amplification and cross-Kerr nonlinearity were demonstrated in recent experiments, respectively, with a V and a ladder-type 3LE coupled to an open superconducting transmission line carrying two microwave fields. Here, we consider $\Lambda$, V, and ladder-type 3LE, and compare the efficiency of coherent and incoherent amplification as well as the magnitude of the cross-Kerr phase shift in all three emitters. We apply the Heisenberg-Langevin equations approach to investigate the scattering of a probe and a drive beams both initially in a coherent state. We particularly calculate the regime of the probe and drive powers when the 3LE acts most efficiently as a coherent amplifier, and derive the second-order coherence of amplified probe photons. Finally, we apply the Kramers-Kronig relations to correlate the amplitude and phase response of the probe beam, which are used in finding the coherent amplification and the cross-Kerr phase shift in these systems.

In a quantum many-body system that possesses an additive conserved quantity, the entanglement entropy of a subsystem can be resolved into a sum of contributions from different sectors of the subsystem's reduced density matrix, each sector corresponding to a possible value of the conserved quantity. Recent studies have discussed the basic properties of these symmetry-resolved contributions, and calculated them using conformal field theory and numerical methods. In this work we employ the generalized Fisher-Hartwig conjecture to obtain exact results for the characteristic function of the symmetry-resolved entanglement ("flux-resolved entanglement") for certain 1D spin chains, or, equivalently, the 1D fermionic tight binding and the Kitaev chain models. These results are true up to corrections of order $o(L^{-1})$ where $L$ is the subsystem size. We confirm that this calculation is in good agreement with numerical results. For the gapless tight binding chain we report an intriguing periodic structure of the characteristic functions, which nicely extends the structure predicted by conformal field theory. For the Kitaev chain in the topological phase we demonstrate the degeneracy between the even and odd fermion parity sectors of the entanglement spectrum due to virtual Majoranas at the entanglement cut. We also employ the Widom conjecture to obtain the leading behavior of the symmetry-resolved entanglement entropy in higher dimensions for an ungapped free Fermi gas in its ground state.

For a generic set of Markovian noise models, the estimation precision of a parameter associated with the Hamiltonian is limited by the $1/\sqrt{t}$ scaling where $t$ is the total probing time, in which case the maximal possible quantum improvement in the asymptotic limit of large $t$ is restricted to a constant factor. However, situations arise where the constant factor improvement could be significant, yet no effective quantum strategies are known. Here we propose an optimal approximate quantum error correction (AQEC) strategy asymptotically saturating the precision lower bound in the most general adaptive parameter estimation scheme where arbitrary and frequent quantum controls are allowed. We also provide an efficient numerical algorithm finding the optimal code. Finally, we consider highly-biased noise and show that using the optimal AQEC strategy, strong noises are fully corrected, while the estimation precision depends only on the strength of weak noises in the limiting case.

The quantum information and the Bures metric are equivalent to each other, except at points where the rank of the density matrix changes. Here we show that by slightly modifying the definition of the Bures metric, the quantum information will be fully equivalent to the Bures metric without exception.

The motion-induced drag force acting on a particle moving within a planar cavity - a relevant configuration for many experimental investigations - is calculated. This drag force exhibits a markedly non-additive nature and can evaluate to about an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding additive approximation. Particular focus is placed on the nonequilibrium statistics of the interaction and on the interplay of the system's geometry with the different dissipative processes that simultaneously occur in the system.

We simulate four quantum error correcting codes under error models inspired by realistic noise sources in near-term ion trap quantum computers: $T_2$ dephasing, gate overrotation, and crosstalk. We use this data to find preferred codes for given error parameters along with logical error biases and a pseudothreshold which compares the physical and logical gate failure rates for a CNOT gate. Using these results we conclude that Bacon-Shor-13 is the most promising near term candidate as long as the impact of crosstalk can be mitigated through other means.

Recent experiments have measured the signatures of the Kondo effect in the zero-field thermopower of strongly correlated quantum dots [Svilans {\em et al.,} Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 121}, 206801 (2018); Dutta {\em et al.,} Nano Lett. {\bf 19}, 506 (2019)]. They confirm the predicted Kondo-induced sign change in the thermopower, upon increasing the temperature through a gate-voltage dependent value $T_{1}\gtrsim T_{\rm K}$, where $T_{\rm K}$ is the Kondo temperature. Here, we use the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method to investigate the effect of a finite magnetic field $B$ on the thermopower of such quantum dots. We show that, for fields $B$ exceeding a gate-voltage dependent value $B_{0}$, an additional sign change takes place in the Kondo regime at a temperature $T_{0}(B\geq B_{0})>0$ with $T_0<T_1$. The field $B_{0}$ is comparable to, but larger than, the field $B_{c}$ at which the zero-temperature spectral function splits in a magnetic field. The validity of the NRG results for $B_{0}$ are checked by comparison with asymptotically exact higher-order Fermi-liquid calculations [Oguri {\em et al.,} Phys. Rev. B {\bf 97}, 035435 (2018)]. Our calculations clarify the field-dependent signatures of the Kondo effect in the thermopower of Kondo-correlated quantum dots and explain the recently measured trends in the $B$-field dependence of the thermoelectric response of such systems [Svilans {\em et al.,} Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 121}, 206801 (2018)].

A class of centrosymmetric molecules support excitons with a well-defined quasi-angular momentum. Cofacial arrangements of these molecules can be engineered so that quantum cutting produces a pair of excitons with angular momenta that are maximally entangled. The Bell state constituents can subsequently travel in opposite directions down molecular chains as ballistic wave packets. This is a direct excitonic analog to the entangled polarization states produced by the spontaneous parametric downconversion of light. As in optical settings, the ability to produce Bell states should enable foundational experiments and technologies based on non-local excitonic quantum correlation. The idea is elucidated with a combination of quantum electrodynamics theory and numerical simulation.

This work discloses some inconsistencies of quantum mechanics (QM) in two different contexts. On the one hand the equivalence principle in his two formulations is the starting point of all gravitational theories; yet there is no way to make it consistent with the non-relativistic formulation of QM. Moreover, the evaluation of the Schr\"odinger equation for a particle in an accelerated reference frame sheds light on a trajectory-dependent phase term subject to proper time. On the other hand, the Bargmann theorem unmistakably proves that the Schr\"odinger equation does not admit any superposition of different masses if the symmetry chosen for the system is the Galilean one. However, this is incompatible with relativity, since mass and energy are equivalent and one can certainly superimpose different energies. Both inconsistencies support the hypothesis that mass and proper time could be treated as variables. In the third chapter we will describe a theory in which the Galilean symmetry is extended by assuming particle mass and proper time as canonically conjugated classical variables, or conjugated observables in the quantum theory.

The first three chapters discuss subjects illustrated in several articles of the professor Daniel M. Greenberger, which are listed in the bibliography. Whereas in the last chapter the results of a recent theory on QW, say a discrete model for quantum particle evolution, will be examined. In particular, the striking result is that, in the most natural physical interpretation of QW dynamics, it is not possible to have a constant and invariant mass in any manner. The long term aim of this work is indeed to study the reasons and consequences of a theory of particles with variable mass in the context of wider studies still in progress on QW.

We discuss quantum position verification (QPV) protocols in which the verifiers create and send single-qubit states to the prover. QPV protocols using single-qubit states are known to be insecure against adversaries that share a small number of entangled qubits. We introduce QPV protocols that are practically secure: they only require single-qubit states from each of the verifiers, yet their security is broken if the adversaries share an impractically large number of shared entangled qubits. These protocols are a modification of known QPV protocols in which we include a classical random oracle without altering the amount of quantum resources needed by the verifiers. We present a cheating strategy that requires a number of entangled qubits shared among the adversaries that grows exponentially with the size of the classical input of the random oracle.