This paper is concerned with multimode open quantum harmonic oscillators (OQHOs), described by linear quantum stochastic differential equations with multichannel external bosonic fields. We consider the exponentially fast decay in the two-point commutator matrix of the system variables as a manifestation of quantum decoherence. Such dissipative effects are caused by the interaction of the system with its environment and lead to a loss of specific features of the unitary evolution which the system would have in the case of isolated dynamics. These features are exploited as nonclassical resources in quantum computation and quantum information processing technologies. A system-theoretic definition of decoherence time in terms of the commutator matrix decay is discussed, and an upper bound for it is provided using algebraic Lyapunov inequalities. Employing spectrum perturbation techniques, we investigate the asymptotic behaviour of a related Lyapunov exponent for the oscillator when the system-field coupling is specified by a small coupling strength parameter and a given coupling shape matrix. The invariant quantum state of the system, driven by vacuum fields, in the weak-coupling limit is also studied. We illustrate the results for one- and two-mode oscillators with multichannel external fields and outline their application to a decoherence control problem for a feedback interconnection of OQHOs.

Entanglement enhanced quantum metrology has been well investigated for beating the standard quantum limit (SQL). However, the metrological advantage of entangled states becomes much more elusive in the presence of noise. Under strictly Markovian dephasing noise, the uncorrelated and maximally entangled states achieve exactly the same measurement precision. However, it was predicted that in a non-Markovian dephasing channel, the entangled probes can recover their metrological advantage. Here, by using a highly controlled photonic system, we simulate a non-Markovian dephasing channel fulfill the quadratic decay behaviour. Under such a channel, we demonstrate the GHZ states can surpass the SQL in a scaling manner, up to six photons. Since the quadratic decay behavior is quite general for short time expansion in open quantum systems (also known as the quantum Zeno effect), our results suggest a universal and scalable method to beat the SQL in the real-word metrology tasks.

An indefinite causal order, where the causes of events are not necessarily in past events, is predicted by the process matrix framework. A fundamental question is how these non-separable causal structures can be related to the thermodynamic phenomena. Here, we approach this problem by considering the existence of two cooperating local Maxwell's demons which exploit the presence of global correlations and indefinite causal order to optimize the extraction of work. Thus, we prove that it is possible to get an advantage from the indefinite causal order, also from a statistical point of view.

We propose an experimental method to evaluate the adiabatic condition during quantum annealing. The adiabatic condition is composed of the transition matrix element and the energy gap, and our method simultaneously provides information about these without diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. The key idea is to measure a power spectrum of a time domain signal by adding an oscillating field during quantum annealing, and we can estimate the values of transition matrix element and energy gap from the measurement output. Our results provide a powerful experimental tool to analyze the performance of quantum annealing, which will be essential for solving practical combinatorial optimization problems.

We introduce Quantum Register Algebra (QRA) as an efficient tool for quantum computing. We show the direct link between QRA and Dirac formalism. We present GAALOP (Geometric Algebra Algorithms Optimizer) implementation of our approach. Using the QRA basis vectors definitions given in Section 4 and the framework based on the de Witt basis presented in Section 5, we are able to fully describe and compute with QRA in GAALOP using the geometric product. We illustrate the intuitiveness of this computation by presenting the QRA form for the well known SWAP operation on a two qubit register.

We study why in quantum many-body systems the adiabatic fidelity and the overlap between the initial state and instantaneous ground states have nearly the same values in many cases. We elaborate on how the problem may be explained by an interplay between the two intrinsic limits of many-body systems: the limit of small values of evolution parameter and the limit of large system size. In the former case, conventional perturbation theory provides a natural explanation. In the latter case, a crucial observation is that pairs of vectors lying in the complementary Hilbert space of the initial state are almost orthogonal. Our general findings are illustrated with a driven Rice-Mele model, a paradigmatic model of driven many-body systems.

Efficient quantum control is necessary for practical quantum computing implementations with current technologies. Conventional algorithms for determining optimal control parameters are computationally expensive, largely excluding them from use outside of the simulation. Existing hardware solutions structured as lookup tables are imprecise and costly. By designing a machine learning model to approximate the results of traditional tools, a more efficient method can be produced. Such a model can then be synthesized into a hardware accelerator for use in quantum systems. In this study, we demonstrate a machine learning algorithm for predicting optimal pulse parameters. This algorithm is lightweight enough to fit on a low-resource FPGA and perform inference with a latency of 175 ns and pipeline interval of 5 ns with $~>~$0.99 gate fidelity. In the long term, such an accelerator could be used near quantum computing hardware where traditional computers cannot operate, enabling quantum control at a reasonable cost at low latencies without incurring large data bandwidths outside of the cryogenic environment.

In this article we set out to understand the significance of the process matrix formalism and the quantum causal modelling programme for ongoing disputes about the role of causation in fundamental physics. We argue that the process matrix programme has correctly identified a notion of 'causal order' which plays an important role in fundamental physics, but this notion is weaker than the common-sense conception of causation because it does not involve asymmetry. We argue that causal order plays an important role in grounding more familiar causal phenomena. Then we apply these conclusions to the causal modelling programme within quantum foundations, arguing that since no-signalling quantum correlations cannot exhibit causal order, they should not be analysed using classical causal models. This resolves an open question about how to interpret fine-tuning in classical causal models of no-signalling correlations. Finally we observe that a quantum generalization of causal modelling can play a similar functional role to standard causal reasoning, but we emphasize that this functional characterisation does not entail that quantum causal models offer novel explanations of quantum processes.

The emergence of a collective behavior in a many-body system is responsible of the quantum criticality separating different phases of matter. Interacting spin systems in a magnetic field offer a tantalizing opportunity to test different approaches to study quantum phase transitions. In this work, we exploit the new resources offered by quantum algorithms to detect the quantum critical behaviour of fully connected spin$-1/2$ models. We define a suitable Hamiltonian depending on an internal anisotropy parameter $\gamma,$ that allows us to examine three paradigmatic examples of spin models, whose lattice is a fully connected graph. We propose a method based on variational algorithms run on superconducting transmon qubits to detect the critical behavior for systems of finite size. We evaluate the energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state, the magnetization along the easy-axis of the system, and the spin-spin correlations. We finally report a discussion about the feasibility of scaling such approach on a real quantum device for a system having a dimension such that classical simulations start requiring significant resources.

Quantum error correction codes (QECCs) play a central role both in quantum communications and in quantum computation, given how error-prone quantum technologies are. Practical quantum error correction codes, such as stabilizer codes, are generally structured to suit a specific use, and present rigid code lengths and code rates, limiting their adaptability to changing requirements. This paper shows that it is possible to both construct and decode QECCs that can attain the maximum performance of the finite blocklength regime, for any chosen code length and when the code rate is sufficiently high. A recently proposed strategy for decoding classical codes called GRAND (guessing random additive noise decoding) opened doors to decoding classical random linear codes (RLCs) that perform near the capacity of the finite blocklength regime. By making use of the noise statistics, GRAND is a noise-centric efficient universal decoder for classical codes, providing there is a simple code membership test. These conditions are particularly suitable for quantum systems and therefore the paper extends these concepts to quantum random linear codes (QRLCs), which were known to be possible to construct but whose decoding was not yet feasible. By combining QRLCs and a newly proposed quantum GRAND, this paper shows that decoding versatile quantum error correction is possible, allowing for QECCs that are simple to adapt on the fly to changing conditions. The paper starts by assessing the minimum number of gates in the coding circuit needed to reach the QRLCs' asymptotic performance, and subsequently proposes a quantum GRAND algorithm that makes use of quantum noise statistics, not only to build an adaptive code membership test, but also to efficiently implement syndrome decoding.

In this paper, we present a general relation between the mosaic and non-mosaic models, which can be used to obtain the exact solution for the former ones. This relation holds not only for the quasicrystal models, but also the Anderson models. Despite the different localization properties, the relationship between the models shares a unified form. Then we apply our method to the mosaic Anderson models and find that there is a discrete set of extended states. Moreover, we also give the general analytical mobility edge for the mosaic slowly varying potential models and the mosaic Ganeshan-Pixley-Das Sarma models.

Non-hermitian systems have gained a lot of interest in recent years. However, notions of chaos and localization in such systems have not reached the same level of maturity as in the Hermitian systems. Here, we consider non-hermitian interacting disordered Hamiltonians and attempt to analyze their chaotic behavior or lack of it through the lens of the recently introduced non-hermitian analog of the spectral form factor and the complex spacing ratio. We consider three widely relevant non-hermitian models which are unique in their ways and serve as excellent platforms for such investigations. Two of the models considered are short-ranged and have different symmetries. The third model is long-ranged, whose hermitian counterpart has itself become a subject of growing interest. All these models exhibit a deep connection with the non-hermitian Random Matrix Theory of corresponding symmetry classes at relatively weak disorder. At relatively strong disorder, the models show the absence of complex eigenvalue correlation, thereby, corresponding to Poisson statistics. Our thorough analysis is expected to play a crucial role in understanding disordered open quantum systems in general.

We show that finding the classical bound of broad families of Bell inequalities can be naturally framed as the contraction of an associated tensor network, but in tropical algebra, where the sum is replaced by the minimum and the product is replaced by the arithmetic addition. We illustrate our method with paradigmatic examples both in the multipartite scenario and the bipartite scenario with multiple outcomes. We showcase how the method extends into the thermodynamic limit for some translationally invariant systems and establish a connection between the notions of tropical eigenvalue and the classical bound per particle as a fixed point of a tropical renormalization procedure.

In AdS/CFT, the non-uniqueness of the reconstructed bulk from boundary subregions has motivated the notion of code subspaces. We present some closely related structures that arise in flat space. A useful organizing idea is that of an {\em asymptotic} causal diamond (ACD): a causal diamond attached to the conformal boundary of Minkowski space. The space of ACDs is defined by pairs of points, one each on the future and past null boundaries, ${\cal I}^{\pm}$. We observe that for flat space with an IR cut-off, this space (a) encodes a preferred class of boundary ``subregions'', (b) is a plausible way to capture holographic data for local bulk reconstruction, (c) has a natural interpretation as the kinematic space for holography, (d) leads to a holographic entanglement entropy in flat space that matches previous definitions and satisfies strong sub-additivity, and, (e) has a bulk union/intersection structure isomorphic to the one that motivated the introduction of quantum error correction in AdS/CFT. By sliding the cut-off, we also note one substantive way in which flat space holography differs from that in AdS. Even though our discussion is centered around flat space (and AdS), we note that there are notions of ACDs in other spacetimes as well. They could provide a covariant way to abstractly characterize tensor sub-factors of Hilbert spaces of holographic theories.

We provide a noisy intermediate-scale quantum framework for simulating the dynamics of open quantum systems, generalized time evolution, non-linear differential equations and Gibbs state preparation. Our algorithm does not require any classical-quantum feedback loop, bypass the barren plateau problem and does not necessitate any complicated measurements such as the Hadamard test. We introduce the notion of the hybrid density matrix, which allows us to disentangle the different steps of our algorithm and delegate classically demanding tasks to the quantum computer. Our algorithm proceeds in three disjoint steps. First, we select the ansatz, followed by measuring overlap matrices on a quantum computer. The final step involves classical post-processing data from the second step. Our algorithm has potential applications in solving the Navier-Stokes equation, plasma hydrodynamics, quantum Boltzmann training, quantum signal processing and linear systems. Our entire framework is compatible with current experiments and can be implemented immediately.

We conjecture the existence of hidden Onsager algebra symmetries in two interacting quantum integrable lattice models, i.e. spin-1/2 XXZ model and spin-1 Zamolodchikov-Fateev model at arbitrary root of unity values of the anisotropy. The conjectures relate the Onsager generators to the conserved charges obtained from semi-cyclic transfer matrices. The conjectures are motivated by two examples which are spin-1/2 XX model and spin-1 U(1)-invariant clock model. A novel construction of the semi-cyclic transfer matrices of spin-1 Zamolodchikov-Fateev model at arbitrary root of unity value of the anisotropy is carried out via transfer matrix fusion procedure.

Leveraging coherent light-matter interaction in solids is a promising new direction towards control and functionalization of quantum materials, to potentially realize regimes inaccessible in equilibrium and stabilize new or useful states of matter. We show how driving the strongly spin-orbit coupled proximal Kitaev magnet $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ with circularly-polarized light can give rise to a novel ligand-mediated magneto-electric effect that both photo-induces a large dynamical effective magnetic field and dramatically alters the interplay of competing isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions. We propose that tailored light pulses can nudge the material towards the elusive Kitaev quantum spin liquid as well as probe competing magnetic instabilities far from equilibrium, and predict that the transient competition of magnetic exchange processes can be readily observed via pump-probe spectroscopy.

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) is a revolutionary protocol since it is physically immune to all attacks on the detection side. However, the protocol still keeps the strict assumptions on the source side that the four BB84-states must be perfectly prepared to ensure security. Some protocols release part of the assumptions in the encoding system to keep the practical security, but the performance would be dramatically reduced. In this work, we present a MDIQKD protocol that requires less knowledge of encoding system to combat the troublesome modulation errors and fluctuations. We have also experimentally demonstrated the protocol. The result indicates the high-performance and good security for its practical applications. Besides, its robustness and flexibility exhibit a good value for complex scenarios such as the QKD networks.

Error-correcting codes were invented to correct errors on noisy communication channels. Quantum error correction (QEC), however, may have a wider range of uses, including information transmission, quantum simulation/computation, and fault-tolerance. These invite us to rethink QEC, in particular, about the role that quantum physics plays in terms of encoding and decoding. The fact that many quantum algorithms, especially near-term hybrid quantum-classical algorithms, only use limited types of local measurements on quantum states, leads to various new techniques called Quantum Error Mitigation (QEM). This work examines the task of QEM from several perspectives. Using some intuitions built upon classical and quantum communication scenarios, we clarify some fundamental distinctions between QEC and QEM. We then discuss the implications of noise invertibility for QEM, and give an explicit construction called Drazin-inverse for non-invertible noise, which is trace preserving while the commonly-used Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse may not be. Finally, we study the consequences of having an imperfect knowledge about the noise, and derive conditions when noise can be reduced using QEM.

For cyclic heat engines operating in a finite cycle period, thermodynamic quantities have intercycle and intracycle correlations. By tuning the driving protocol appropriately, we can get the negative intercycle correlation to reduce the fluctuation of work through multiple cycles, which leads to the enhanced stability compared to the single-cycle operation. Taking the Otto engine with an overdamped Brownian particle as a working substance, we identify a scenario to get such enhanced stability by the intercycle correlation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the enhancement can be readily realized in the current experiments for a wide range of protocols. By tuning the parameters within the experimentally achievable range, the uncertainty of work can be reduced to below $\sim 50 \%$.