Due to its unique scalability potential, continuous variable quantum optics is a promising platform for large scale quantum computing and quantum simulation. In particular, very large cluster states with a two-dimensional topology that are suitable for universal quantum computing and quantum simulation can be readily generated in a deterministic manner, and routes towards fault-tolerance via bosonic quantum error-correction are known. In this article we propose a complete measurement-based quantum computing architecture for the implementation of a universal set of gates on the recently generated two-dimensional cluster states [1,2]. We analyze the performance of the various quantum gates that are executed in these cluster states as well as in other two-dimensional cluster states (the bilayer-square lattice and quad-rail lattice cluster states [3,4]) by estimating and minimizing the associated stochastic noise addition as well as the resulting gate error probability. We compare the four different states and find that, although they all allow for universal computation, the quad-rail lattice cluster state performs better than the other three states which all exhibit similar performance.

Optimally encoding classical information in a quantum system is one of the oldest and most fundamental challenges of quantum information theory. Holevo's bound places a hard upper limit on such encodings, while the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) theorem addresses the question of how many classical messages can be "packed" into a given quantum system. In this article, we use Sen's recent quantum joint typicality results to prove a one-shot multiparty quantum packing lemma generalizing the HSW theorem. The lemma is designed to be easily applicable in many network communication scenarios. As an illustration, we use it to straightforwardly obtain quantum generalizations of well-known classical coding schemes for the relay channel: multihop, coherent multihop, decode-forward, and partial decode-forward. We provide both finite blocklength and asymptotic results, the latter matching existing classical formulas. Given the key role of the classical packing lemma in network information theory, our packing lemma should help open the field to direct quantum generalization.

We propose that novel superfluid with supersolid-like properties - angular stripe phase - can be realized in a pancake-like spin-1/2 Bose gas with spin-orbital-angular-momentum coupling. We predict a rich ground-state phase diagram, including the vortex-antivortex pair phase, half-skyrmion phase, and two different angular stripe phases. The stripe phases feature modulated angular density-density correlation with sizable contrast and can occupy a relatively large parameter space. The low-lying collective excitations, such as the dipole and breathing modes, show distinct behaviors in different phases. The existence of the novel stripe phase is also clearly indicated in the energetic and dynamic instabilities of collective modes near phase transitions. Our predictions of the angular stripe phase could be readily examined in current cold-atom experiments with $^{87}$Rb and $^{41}$K.

We describe quantum limits to field sensing that relate noise, geometry and measurement duration to fundamental constants, with no reference to particle number. We cast the Tesche and Clarke (TC) bound on dc-SQUID sensitivity as such a limit, and find analogous limits for volumetric spin-precession magnetometers. We describe how randomly-arrayed spins, coupled to an external magnetic field of interest and to each other by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, execute a spin dynamics that depolarizes the spin ensemble even in the absence of coupling to an external reservoir. We show the resulting spin dynamics are scale invariant, with a depolarization rate proportional to spin number density and thus a number-independent quantum limit on the energy resolution per bandwidth $E_R$. Numerically, we find $E_R \ge \alpha \hbar$, $\alpha \sim 1$, in agreement with the TC limit, for paradigmatic spin-based measurements of static and oscillating magnetic fields.

We classify phases of a bosonic lattice model based on the computational complexity of classically simulating the system. We show that the system transitions from being classically simulable to classically hard to simulate as it evolves in time, extending previous results to include on-site number-conserving interactions and long-range hopping. Specifically, we construct a "complexity phase diagram" with "easy" and "hard" phases, and derive analytic bounds on the location of the phase boundary with respect to the evolution time and the degree of locality. We find that the location of the phase transition is intimately related to upper bounds on the spread of quantum correlations and protocols to transfer quantum information. Remarkably, although the location of the transition point is unchanged by on-site interactions, the nature of the transition point changes dramatically. Specifically, we find that there are two kinds of transitions, sharp and coarse, broadly corresponding to interacting and noninteracting bosons, respectively. Our work motivates future studies of complexity in many-body systems and its interplay with the associated physical phenomena.

We demonstrate how to do many computations for non-chiral topological phases with defects. These defects may be 1-dimensional domain walls or 0-dimensional point defects.

Using $\operatorname{Vec}(S_3)$ as a guiding example, we demonstrate how domain wall fusion and associators can be computed using generalized tube algebra techniques. These domain walls can be both between distinct or identical phases. Additionally, we show how to compute all possible point defects, and the fusion and associator data of these. Worked examples, tabulated data and Mathematica code are provided.

We present a numerical study of a MEMS-based design of a fiber cavity integrated with an ion trap system. Each fiber mirror is supported by a microactuator that controls the mirror's position in three dimensions. The mechanical stability is investigated by a feasibility analysis showing that the actuator offers a stable support of the fiber. The actuators move the fibers' positions continuously with a stroke of more than 10 $\mu$m, with mechanical resonance frequencies on the order of kHz. A calculation of the trapping potential shows that a separation between ion and fiber consistent with strong ion-cavity coupling is feasible. Our miniaturized ion-photon interface constitutes a viable approach to integrated hardware for quantum information.

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a quantum state tomography protocol that generalizes the Wallentowitz-Vogel-Banaszek-W\'odkiewicz point-by-point Wigner function reconstruction. The full density operator of an arbitrary quantum state is efficiently reconstructed in the Fock basis, using semidefinite programming, after interference with a small set of calibrated coherent states. This new protocol is resource- and computationally efficient, is robust against noise, does not rely on approximate state displacements, and ensures the physicality of results.

We develop a strategy for tensor network algorithms that allows to deal very efficiently with lattices of high connectivity. The basic idea is to fine-grain the physical degrees of freedom, i.e., decompose them into more fundamental units which, after a suitable coarse-graining, provide the original ones. Thanks to this procedure, the original lattice with high connectivity is transformed by an isometry into a simpler structure, which is easier to simulate via usual tensor network methods. In particular this enables the use of standard schemes to contract infinite 2d tensor networks - such as Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization schemes - which are more involved on complex lattice structures. We prove the validity of our approach by numerically computing the ground-state properties of the ferromagnetic spin-1 transverse-field Ising model on the 2d triangular and 3d stacked triangular lattice, as well as of the hard-core and soft-core Bose-Hubbard models on the triangular lattice. Our results are benchmarked against those obtained with other techniques, such as perturbative continuous unitary transformations and graph projected entangled pair states, showing excellent agreement and also improved performance in several regimes.

Static magnetic field gradients superimposed on the electromagnetic trapping potential of a Penning trap can be used to implement laser-less spin-motion couplings that allow the realization of elementary quantum logic operations in the radio-frequency regime. An important scenario of practical interest is the application to $g$-factor measurements with single (anti-)protons to test the fundamental charge, parity, time reversal (CPT) invariance as pursued in the BASE collaboration [Smorra et al., Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 224, 3055-3108 (2015), Smorra et al., Nature 550, 371-374 (2017), Schneider et al., Science 358, 1081-1084 (2017)]. We discuss the classical and quantum behavior of a charged particle in a Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic field gradient. Using analytic and numerical calculations, we find that it is possible to carry out a SWAP gate between the spin and the motional qubit of a single (anti-)proton with high fidelity, provided the particle has been initialized in the motional ground state. We discuss the implications of our findings for the realization of quantum logic spectroscopy in this system.

The estimation of multiple parameters in quantum metrology is important for a vast array of applications in quantum information processing. However, the unattainability of fundamental precision bounds for incompatible observables has greatly diminished the applicability of estimation theory in many practical implementations. The Holevo Cramer-Rao bound (HCRB) provides the most fundamental, simultaneously attainable bound for multi-parameter estimation problems. A general closed form for the HCRB is not known given that it requires a complex optimisation over multiple variables. In this work, we show that the HCRB can be solved analytically for two parameters. For more parameters, we generate a lower bound to the HCRB. Our work greatly reduces the complexity of determining the HCRB to solving a set of linear equations. We apply our formalism to magnetic field sensing. Our results provide fundamental insight and make significant progress towards the estimation of multiple incompatible observables.

A recent method to certify the classical capacity of quantum communication channels is applied for general damping channels in finite dimension. The method compares the mutual information obtained by coding on the computational and a Fourier basis, which can be obtained by just two local measurement settings and classical optimization. The results for large representative classes of different damping structures are presented.

Quantum annealing (QA) is a quantum computing algorithm that works on the principle of Adiabatic Quantum Computation (AQC), and it has shown significant computational advantages in solving combinatorial optimization problems such as vehicle routing problems (VRP) when compared to classical algorithms. This paper presents a QA approach for solving a variant VRP known as multi-depot capacitated vehicle routing problem (MDCVRP). This is an NP-hard optimization problem with real-world applications in the fields of transportation, logistics, and supply chain management. We consider heterogeneous depots and vehicles with different capacities. Given a set of heterogeneous depots, the number of vehicles in each depot, heterogeneous depot/vehicle capacities, and a set of spatially distributed customer locations, the MDCVRP attempts to identify routes of various vehicles satisfying the capacity constraints such as that all the customers are served. We model MDCVRP as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem, which minimizes the overall distance traveled by all the vehicles across all depots given the capacity constraints. Furthermore, we formulate a QUBO model for dynamic version of MDCVRP known as D-MDCVRP, which involves dynamic rerouting of vehicles to real-time customer requests. We discuss the problem complexity and a solution approach to solving MDCVRP and D-MDCVRP on quantum annealing hardware from D-Wave.

We point out an important difference between continuum relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) and lattice models with dramatic consequences for the theory of multi-partite entanglement. On a lattice given a collection of density matrices $\rho^{(1)},\rho^{(2)}, \cdots, \rho^{(n)}$ there is no guarantee that there exists an $n$-partite pure state $|\Omega\rangle_{12\cdots n}$ that reduces to these marginals. The state $|\Omega\rangle_{12\cdots n}$ exists only if the eigenvalues of the density matrices $\rho^{(i)}$ satisfy certain polygon inequalities. We show that in QFT, as opposed to lattice systems, splitting the space into $n$ non-overlapping regions any collection of local states $\omega^{(1)},\omega^{(2)},\cdots \omega^{(n)}$ come from the restriction of a global pure state. The reason is that rotating any local state $\omega^{(i)}$ by unitary $U_i$ localized in the $i^{th}$ region we come arbitrarily close to any other local state $\psi^{(i)}$. We construct explicit examples of such local unitaries using the cocycle.

In this work, we explicate a new approach for eliminating renormalization scale and scheme (RSS) dependence in physical observables. We develop this approach by matching RSS dependent observables to a theory which is independent of both these forms of dependencies. We term the fundamental basis behind this approach as the Principle of Observable Effective Matching (POEM), which entails matching of a scale and scheme dependent observable with the fully physical and dynamical scale (PS) dependent theory at the tree and at higher loop orders at which RSS independence is guaranteed. This is aimed towards achieving a so-called "effective" RSS independent expressions, as the resulting dynamical dependence is derived from a particular order in RSS dependent perturbation theory and is sensitive to the matching scale. With this matching, we obtain an "Effective Physical Observable (EPO)", a finite-order RSS independent version of the RSS dependent observable. We illustrate our approach with a study of the QCD cross section $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ which is demonstrated to achieve scale and scheme independence utilizing the 3- and 4-loop order $\overline{MS}$ scheme expression in perturbation theory via matching at both one-loop and two-loop orders for obtaining the EPO. At the tree-loop matching, we find physical cutoff $\Lambda_{eff}$ of the physical observable which is RSS independent. With one-loop matching, we obtain an EPO prediction of $\frac{3}{11}R_{e^{+}e^{-}}^{eff}=1.052738_{-0.0006}^{+0.0006}$ and $\frac{3}{11}R_{e^{+}e^{-}}^{eff}=1.052739_{-0.0006}^{+0.0006}$ from 2-loop EPO matching at $Q=31.6 GeV$, which are both in excellent agreement with the experimental value of $\frac{3}{11}R_{e^{+}e^{-}}^{exp}=1.0527_{-0.005}^{+0.005}$.

The strictly classical propagation of an initial Wigner function, referred to as TWA or LSC-IVR, is considered to provide approximate averages, despite not being a true Wigner function: it does not represent a positive operator. We here show that its symplectic Fourier transform, the truncated chord approximation (TCA), coincides with the full semiclassical approximation to the evolved quantum characteristic function (or chord function) in a narrow neighbourhood of the origin of the dual chord phase space. Surprisingly, this small region accounts for purely quantum features, such as blind spots and local wave function correlations, as well as the expectation of observables with a close classical correspondence. Direct numerical comparison of the TCA with exact quantum results verifies the semiclassical predictions for an initial coherent state evolving under the Kerr Hamiltonian. The resulting clear criterion for any further features, which may be estimated by classical propagation, is that, within the chord representation, they are concentrated near the origin.

It is shown that a circular dipole can deflect the focused laser beam that induces it, and will experience a corresponding transverse force. Quantitative expressions are derived for Gaussian and tophat beams, while the effects vanish in the plane-wave limit. The phenomena are analogous to the Magnus effect pushing a spinning ball onto a curved trajectory. The optical case originates in the coupling of spin and orbital angular momentum of the dipole and the light. In optical tweezers the force causes off-axis displacement of the trapping position of an atom by a spin-dependent amount up to $\lambda/2\pi$, set by the direction of a magnetic field. This suggests direct methods to demonstrate and explore these effects, for instance to induce spin-dependent motion.

We propose a new Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) protocol, which recycles used keys according to the error rate. Our QKR protocol can tolerate the noise in the quantum channel. The earlier studies also proposed QKR protocols with noise tolerance. Unfortunately, there is a common security loophole in these protocols. Our QKR protocol is designed to avoid this security loophole, and the key recycling rate of the pre-shared keys is optimized depending on the noise level. The security proof shows the security of the recycled keys is universal composable.

Passive states are special configurations of a quantum system which exhibit no energy decrement at the end of an arbitrary cyclic driving of the model Hamiltonian. When applied to an increasing number of copies of the initial density matrix, the requirement of passivity induces a hierarchical ordering which, in the asymptotic limit of infinitely many elements, pinpoints ground states and thermal Gibbs states. In particular, for large values of N the energy content of a N-passive state which is also structurally stable (i.e. capable to maintain its passivity status under small perturbations of the model Hamiltonian), is expected to be close to the corresponding value of the thermal Gibbs state which has the same entropy. In the present paper we provide a quantitative assessment of this fact, by producing an upper bound for the energy of an arbitrary N-passive, structurally stable state which only depends on the spectral properties of the Hamiltonian of the system. We also show the condition under which our inequality can be saturated. A generalization of the bound is finally presented that, for sufficiently large N, applies to states which are N-passive, but not necessarily structurally stable.

The purpose of this paper is to articulate a coherent and easy-to-understand way of doing quantum mechanics in any finite-dimensional Liouville space, based on the use of Kronecker product and what we have termed the `bra-flipper' operator. One of the greater strengths of the formalism expatiated on here is the striking similarities it bears with Dirac's bra-ket notation. For the purpose of illustrating how the formalism can be effectively employed, we use it to solve a quantum optical master equation for a two-level quantum system and find its Kraus operator sum representation. The paper is addressed to students and researchers with some basic knowledge of linear algebra who wants to acquire a deeper understanding of the Liouville space formalism. The concepts are conveyed so as to make the application of the formalism to more complex problems in quantum physics straightforward and unencumbered.