Physics

Learning quantum systems via out-of-time-order correlators. (arXiv:2208.02254v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Learning the properties of dynamical quantum systems underlies applications ranging from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantum device characterization. A central challenge in this pursuit is the learning of strongly-interacting systems, where conventional observables decay quickly in time and space, limiting the information that can be learned from their measurement. In this work, we introduce a new class of observables into the context of quantum learning -- the out-of-time-order correlator -- which we show can substantially improve the learnability of strongly-interacting systems by virtue of displaying informative physics at large times and distances. We identify two general scenarios in which out-of-time-order correlators provide a significant advantage for learning tasks in locally-interacting systems: (i) when experimental access to the system is spatially-restricted, for example via a single "probe" degree of freedom, and (ii) when one desires to characterize weak interactions whose strength is much less than the typical interaction strength. We numerically characterize these advantages across a variety of learning problems, and find that they are robust to both read-out error and decoherence. Finally, we introduce a binary classification task that can be accomplished in constant time with out-of-time-order measurements. In a companion paper, we prove that this task is exponentially hard with any adaptive learning protocol that only involves time-ordered operations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Information-theoretic Hardness of Out-of-time-order Correlators. (arXiv:2208.02256v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We establish that there are properties of quantum many-body dynamics which are efficiently learnable if we are given access to out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs), but which require exponentially many operations in the system size if we can only measure time-ordered correlators. This implies that any experimental protocol which reconstructs OTOCs solely from time-ordered correlators must be, in certain cases, exponentially inefficient. Our proofs leverage and generalize recent techniques in quantum learning theory. Along the way, we elucidate a general definition of time-ordered versus out-of-time-order experimental measurement protocols, which can be considered as classes of adaptive quantum learning algorithms. Moreover, our results provide a theoretical foundation for novel applications of OTOCs in quantum simulations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Anomalous multicritical phenomena and frustration induced by synthetic magnetic fields. (arXiv:2208.02268v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We consider a one-dimensional Dicke lattice with complex photon hopping amplitudes and investigate the influence of time-reversal symmetry breaking due to synthetic magnetic fields. We show that, by tuning the total flux threading the loop, the universality class of superradiant phase transition (SPT) changes from that of the mean-field fully-connected systems to one that features anomalous critical phenomena. The anomalous SPT exhibits a closing of the energy gap with different critical exponents on both sides of transition and a discontinuity of correlations and fluctuation despite it being a continuous phase transition. In the anomalous normal phase, we find that a non-mean-field critical exponent for the closing energy gap and non-divergent fluctuations and correlations appear, which we attribute to the asymmetric dispersion relation. Moreover, we show that the nearest neighborhood complex hopping induces effective long-range interactions for position quadratures of the cavity fields, whose competition leads to a series of first-order phase transitions among superradiant phases with varying degrees of frustration. The resulting multicritical points also show anomalous features such as two coexisting critical scalings on both sides of the transition. Our work shows that the interplay between the broken time-reversal symmetry and frustration on bosonic lattice systems can give rise to anomalous critical phenomena that have no counterpart in fermionic or spin systems or time-reversal symmetric quantum optical systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Bell-state measurement exceeding 50% success probability with linear optics. (arXiv:2208.02271v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Bell-state projections serve as a fundamental basis for most quantum communication and computing protocols today. However, with current Bell-state measurement schemes based on linear optics, only two of four Bell states can be identified, which means that the maximum success probability of this vital step cannot exceed $50\%$. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a scheme that amends the original measurement with additional modes in the form of ancillary photons, which leads to a more complex measurement pattern, and ultimately a higher success probability of $62.5\%$. Experimentally, we achieve a success probability of $(57.9 \pm 1.4)\%$, a significant improvement over the conventional scheme. With the possibility of extending the protocol to a larger number of ancillary photons, our work paves the way towards more efficient realisations of quantum technologies based on Bell-state measurements.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Period-doubled Floquet Solitons. (arXiv:2208.02279v1 [physics.optics])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a family of Floquet solitons in the bulk of a photonic topological insulator that have double the period of the drive. Our experimental system consists of a periodically-modulated honeycomb lattice of optical waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser writing. We employ a Kerr nonlinearity in which self-focusing gives rise to spatial lattice solitons. Our photonic system constitutes a powerful platform where the interplay of time-periodic driving, topology and nonlinearity can be probed in a highly tunable way.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Exact Markovian evolution of multicomponent quantum systems: phase space representations. (arXiv:2208.02282v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

The exact solution of the Lindblad equation with a quadratic Hamiltonian and linear coupling operators was derived within the chord representation, that is, for the Fourier transform of the Wigner function. It is here generalized for multiple components, so as to provide an explicit expression for the reduced density operator of any component, as well as moments expressed as derivatives of this evolving chord function. The Wigner function is then the convolution of its straightforward classical evolution with a widening multidimensional gaussian window, eventually ensuring its positivity. Futher on, positivity also holds for the Glauber-Sundarshan P-function, which guarantees separability of the components. In the multicomponent context, a full dissipation matrix is defined, whereas its trace, equal to twice the previously derived dissipation coefficient, governs the rate at which the phase space volume of the argument of the Wigner function contracts, while those of the chord function expands. Examples of markovian evolution of a triatomic molecule and of an array of harmonic oscillators are discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Wideband Josephson Parametric Amplifier with Integrated Transmission Line Transformer. (arXiv:2208.02331v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We describe a wide-band Josephson Parametric Amplifier (JPA) that is impedance-matched using an integrated compact superconducting transmission line transformer. The impedance transformer consists of two broadside coupled transmission lines configured in a Ruthroff topology which enables a wide matching bandwidth from 2 to 18 GHz, reducing the input line impedance and the device resonance quality factor by a factor of 4. This enables gain flatness and flexibility in the choice of the amplifier's tuning range. The amplifier has up to 20dB gain, with less than 1 dB of ripple, 2-3 GHz gain-bandwidth product and -126 dBm input 1-dB compression point. Moreover, the device active area fits into a 1mm x 1mm space, thus easing integration into large quantum systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Counting Abelian Squares for a Problem in Quantum Computing. (arXiv:2208.02360v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

In a recent work I developed a formula for efficiently calculating the number of abelian squares of length $t+t$ over an alphabet of size $d$, where $d$ may be very large. Here I show how the expressiveness of a certain class of parameterized quantum circuits can be reduced to the problem of counting abelian squares over a large alphabet, and use the recently developed formula to efficiently calculate this quantity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Encoding and Analysis on Continuous Stochastic Process. (arXiv:2208.02364v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

The continuous time stochastic process is a mainstream mathematical instrument modeling the random world with a wide range of applications involving finance, statistics, physics, and time series analysis, while the simulation and analysis of the continuous time stochastic process is a challenging problem for classical computers. In this work, a general framework is established to prepare the path of a continuous time stochastic process in a quantum computer efficiently. The storage and computation resource is exponentially reduced on the key parameter of holding time, as the qubit number and the circuit depth are both optimized via our compressed state preparation method. The desired information, including the path-dependent and history-sensitive information that is essential for financial problems, can be extracted efficiently from the compressed sampling path, and admits a further quadratic speed-up. Moreover, this extraction method is more sensitive to those discontinuous jumps capturing extreme market events. Two applications of option pricing in Merton jump diffusion model and ruin probability computing in the collective risk model are given.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nonlinear Sideband Cooling to a Schr\"odinger Cat State of Motion. (arXiv:2208.02371v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

The ability to prepare a macroscopic mechanical resonator into a quantum superposition state is an outstanding goal of cavity optomechanics. Here we propose a technique to generate Schr\"odinger cat states of motion using the intrinsic nonlinearity of a dispersive optomechanical interaction. By applying a bichromatic drive to an optomechanical cavity, our protocol enhances the inherent second-order processes of the system, inducing the requisite two-phonon dissipation. We show that this nonlinear sideband cooling technique can dissipatively engineer a mechanical resonator into a Schr\"odinger cat state, which we verify using the full Hamiltonian and an adiabatically reduced model. While the fidelity of the cat state is maximized in the single-photon, strong-coupling regime, we demonstrate that Wigner negativity persists even for weak coupling. Finally, we show that our cat state generation protocol is robust to significant thermal decoherence of the mechanical mode, indicating that such a procedure may be feasible for near-term experimental systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Efficiency of optically pumping a quantum battery and a two-stroke heat engine. (arXiv:2208.02373v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

In this work, we study the efficiency of charging a quantum battery through optical pumping. The battery consists of a qutrit and it is connected to a natural thermal reservoir and an external coherent drive in the limit where its upper energy level can be adiabatically eliminated from the dynamics. In this scenario, the drive plus spontaneous emission optically pumps the intermediate energy level of the qutrit and the battery can be understood as being charged by an effective higher temperature reservoir that takes it out of equilibrium with the natural reservoir and stores useful energy in it. We also analyse the efficiency of using this battery and charging scheme as the work fluid of a two-stroke thermal machine.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum chemistry simulation of ground- and excited-state properties of the sulfonium cation on a superconducting quantum processor. (arXiv:2208.02414v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

The computational description of correlated electronic structure, and particularly of excited states of many-electron systems, is an anticipated application for quantum devices. An important ramification is to determine the dominant molecular fragmentation pathways in photo-dissociation experiments of light-sensitive compounds, like sulfonium-based photo-acid generators used in photolithography. Here we simulate the static and dynamical electronic structure of the H$_3$S$^+$ molecule, taken as a minimal model of a triply-bonded sulfur cation, on a superconducting quantum processor of the IBM Falcon architecture.

To this end, we combine a qubit reduction technique with variational and diagonalization quantum algorithms, and use a sequence of error-mitigation techniques. We compute dipole structure factors and partial atomic charges along ground- and excited-state potential energy curves, revealing the occurrence of homo- and heterolytic fragmentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first simulation of a photo-dissociation reaction on a superconducting quantum device, and an important step towards the computational description of photo-dissociation by quantum computing algorithms.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Decay of multi-point correlation functions in $\mathbb{Z}^d$. (arXiv:2208.02416v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We prove multi-point correlation bounds in $\mathbb{Z}^d$ for arbitrary $d\geq 1$ with symmetrized distances, answering open questions proposed by Sims-Warzel \cite{SW} and Aza-Bru-Siqueira Pedra \cite{ABP}. As applications, we prove multi-point correlation bounds for the Ising model on $\mathbb{Z}^d$, and multi-point dynamical localization in expectation for uniformly localized disordered systems, which provides the first examples of this conjectured phenomenon by Bravyi-K\"onig \cite{BK}.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Timelike correlations and quantum tensor product structure. (arXiv:2208.02471v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

The state space structure for a composite quantum system is postulated among several mathematically consistent possibilities that are compatible with local quantum description. For instance, unentangled Gleason's theorem allows a state space that includes density operators as a proper subset among all possible composite states. However, bipartite correlations obtained in Bell type experiments from this broader state space are in-fact quantum simulable, and hence such spacelike correlations are no good to make distinction among different compositions. In this work we analyze communication utilities of these different composite models and show that they can lead to distinct utilities in a simple communication game involving two players. Our analysis, thus, establishes that beyond quantum composite structure can lead to beyond quantum correlations in timelike scenario and hence welcomes new principles to isolate the quantum correlations from the beyond quantum ones. We also prove a no-go that the classical information carrying capacity of different such compositions cannot be more than the corresponding quantum composite systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Space-time dual quantum Zeno effect: Interferometric engineering of open quantum system dynamics. (arXiv:2208.02472v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Superposition of trajectories, which modify quantum evolutions by superposing paths through interferometry, has been utilized to enhance various quantum communication tasks. However, little is known about its impact from the viewpoint of open quantum systems. Thus, we examine this subject from the perspective of system-environment interactions. We show that the superposition of multiple trajectories can result in quantum state freezing, suggesting a space-time dual to the quantum Zeno effect. Moreover, non-trivial Dicke-like super(sub)radiance can be triggered without utilizing multi-atom correlations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Oscillatory states of quantum Kapitza pendulum. (arXiv:2208.02488v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We study quantum mechanics problem described by the Schr\"{o}dinger equation with Kapitza pendulum potential, that is the asymmetric double-well potential on the circle. For the oscillatory states spatially localise around the two stable saddle positions of the potential, we obtain the perturbative eigenvalues and corresponding piecewise wavefunctions. The spectrum is computed by extending the angle coordinate to the complex plane so that the quantization condition is formulated as contour integral along a contour in the imaginary direction. Quantum tunneling between the wells is computed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Stacking-induced Chern insulator. (arXiv:2208.02491v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Graphene can be turned into a semimetal with broken time-reversal symmetry by adding a valley-dependent pseudo-scalar potential that shifts the Dirac point energies in opposite directions, as in the modified Haldane model. We consider a bilayer obtained by stacking two time-reversed copies of the modified Haldane model, where conduction and valence bands cross to give rise to a nodal line in each valleys. In the AB stacking, the interlayer hopping lifts the degeneracy of the nodal lines and induces a band repulsion, leading surprisingly to a chiral insulator with a Chern number $C=\pm2$. As a consequence a pair of chiral edge states appears at the boundaries of the ribbon bilayer geometry. In contrast, the AA stacking does not show nontrivial topological phases. We discuss possible experimental implementations of our results.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Controlling superfluid flows using dissipative impurities. (arXiv:2208.02499v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

We propose and analyze a protocol to create and control the superfluid flow in a one dimensional, weakly interacting Bose gas by noisy point contacts coupled to the density of the bosons. Considering first a single contact in a static or moving condensate, we identify three different dynamical phases: I. a linear response regime, where the noise induces a coherent flow in proportion to the strength of the noise accompanied by a counterflow of the normal component of the gas, II. a Zeno regime with suppressed currents and negative differential current to noise characteristics, and III. for a non-vanishing relative velocity, a regime of continuous soliton emission. The velocity of the condensate at the dissipative impurity determines the threshold for Zeno suppression of the current through the point contact, and the onset of the non-stationary regime of soliton "shooting" from the defect. Generalizing to two point contacts in a condensate at rest we show that noise tuning can be employed to control, stabilize or eventually shunt the superfluid transport of particles along the segment which connects them, with perspectives for an atomtronic analogue of a superfluid-current source for studying quantum transport phenomena.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Fundamental Limitation on the Detectability of Entanglement. (arXiv:2208.02518v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Entanglement detection is essential in quantum information science and quantum many-body physics. It has been proved that entanglement exists almost surely for a random quantum state, while the realizations of effective entanglement criteria usually consume exponential resources, and efficient criteria often perform poorly without prior knowledge. This fact implies a fundamental limitation might exist in the detectability of entanglement. In this work, we formalize this limitation as a fundamental trade-off between the efficiency and effectiveness of entanglement criteria via a systematic method to theoretically evaluate the detection capability of entanglement criteria. For a system coupled to an environment, we prove that any entanglement criterion needs exponentially many observables to detect the entanglement effectively when restricted to single-copy operations. Otherwise, the detection capability of the criterion will decay double-exponentially. Furthermore, if multi-copy joint measurements are allowed, the effectiveness of entanglement detection can be exponentially improved, which implies a quantum advantage in entanglement detection problems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Novel architectures for noise-resilient superconducting qubits. (arXiv:2208.02520v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2022-08-05 23:45

Great interest revolves around the development of new strategies to efficiently store and manipulate quantum information in a robust and decoherence-free fashion. Several proposals have been put forward to encode information into qubits that are simultaneously insensitive to relaxation and to dephasing processes. Among all, given their versatility and high-degree of control, superconducting qubits have been largely investigated in this direction. Here, we present a survey on the basic concepts and ideas behind the implementation of novel superconducting circuits with intrinsic protection against decoherence at a hardware level. In particular, the main focus is on multi-mode superconducting circuits, the paradigmatic example being the so-called $0-\pi$ circuit. We report on their working principle and possible physical implementations based on conventional Josephson elements, presenting recent experimental realizations, discussing both fabrication methods and characterizations.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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