We define the discrete-time quantum walk on complex networks and utilize it for community detection. We numerically show that the quantum walk with the Fourier coin is localized in a community to which the initial node belongs. Meanwhile, the quantum walk with the Grover coin tends to be localized around the initial node, not over a community. The probability of the classical random walk on the same network converges to the uniform distribution with a relaxation time generally a priori. We thus claim that the time average of the probability of the Fourier-coin quantum walk on complex networks reveals the community structure more explicitly than that of the Grover-coin quantum walk and a snapshot of the classical random walk. We first demonstrate our method of community detection for a prototypical three-community network, producing the correct grouping. We then apply our method to two real-world networks, namely Zachary's karate club and the US Airport network. We successfully reveals the community structure, the two communities of the instructor and the administrator in the former and major airline companies in the latter.

Quantum Optical Coherence Tomography (Q-OCT) is the non-classical counterpart of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) - a high-resolution 3D imaging technique based on white-light interferometry. Because Q-OCT uses a source of frequency-entangled photon pairs, not only is the axial resolution not affected by dispersion mismatch in the interferometer, but is also inherently improved by a factor of square root of two. Unfortunately, practical applications of Q-OCT are hindered by image-scrambling artefacts and slow acquisition times. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of a novel approach that is free of these problems: Q-OCT with joint spectrum detection (JS-Q-OCT). Based on a photon pair coincidence detection as in the standard Q-OCT configuration, it also discerns, each photon pair by their wavelength. We show that all the information about the internal structures of the object is encoded in the joint spectrum and can be easily retrieved through Fourier transformation. No depth scanning is required, making our technique potentially faster than standard Q-OCT. Finally, we show that the data available in the joint spectrum enables artefact removal and discuss prospective algorithms for doing so.

Nearly all modern solid-state quantum processors approach quantum computation with a set of discrete qubit operations (gates) that can achieve universal quantum control with only a handful of primitive gates. In principle, this approach is highly flexible, allowing full control over the qubits' Hilbert space without necessitating the development of specific control protocols for each application. However, current error rates on quantum hardware place harsh limits on the number of primitive gates that can be concatenated together (with compounding error rates) and remain viable. Here, we report our efforts at implementing a software-defined $0\leftrightarrow2$ SWAP gate that does not rely on a primitive gate set and achieves an average gate fidelity of $99.4\%$. Our work represents an alternative, fully generalizable route towards achieving nontrivial quantum control through the use of optimal control techniques. We describe our procedure for computing optimal control solutions, calibrating the quantum and classical hardware chain, and characterizing the fidelity of the optimal control gate.

We investigate the quantum thermodynamics of two quantum systems, a two-level system and a four-level quantum photocell, each driven by photon pulses as a quantum heat engine. We set these systems to be in thermal contact only with a cold reservoir while the heat (energy) source, conventionally given from a hot thermal reservoir, is supplied by a sequence of photon pulses. The dynamics of each system is governed by a coherent interaction due to photon pulses in terms of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian together with the system-bath interaction described by the Lindblad master equation. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities for the two-level system and the quantum photocell including the change in system energy, power delivered by photon pulses, power output to an external load, heat dissipated to a cold bath, and entropy production. We thereby demonstrate how a quantum photocell in the cold bath can operate as a continuum quantum heat engine with the sequence of photon pulses continuously applied. We specifically introduce the power efficiency of the quantum photocell in terms of the ratio of output power delivered to an external load with current and voltage to the input power delivered by the photon pulse. Our study indicates a possibility that a quantum system driven by external fields can act as an efficient quantum heat engine under non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

The interplay among topology, disorder, and non-Hermiticity can induce some exotic topological and localization phenomena. Here we investigate this interplay in a two-dimensional non-Hermitian disordered {\color{black} Chern-insulator model with two typical kinds of non-Hermiticities}, the nonreciprocal hopping and on-site gain-and-loss effects, respectively. The topological phase diagrams are obtained by numerically calculating two topological invariants in the real space, which are the disorder-averaged open-bulk Chern number and the generalized Bott index, respectively. We reveal that the nonreciprocal hopping (the gain-and-loss effect) can enlarge (reduce) the topological regions and the topological Anderson insulators induced by disorders can exist under both kinds of non-Hermiticities. Furthermore, we study the localization properties of the system in the topologically nontrivial and trivial regions by using the inverse participation ratio and the expansion of single particle density distribution.

The possibility of using Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamonds to measure nanoscale magnetic fields with unprecedented sensitivity is one of the most significant achievements of quantum sensing. Here we present an innovative experimental set-up, showing an achieved sensitivity comparable to the state of the art ODMR protocols if the sensing volume is taken into account. The apparatus allows magnetic sensing in biological samples such as individual cells, as it is characterized by a small sensing volume and full bio-compatibility. The sensitivity at different optical powers is studied to extend this technique to the intercellular scale.

In this contribution we consider an advantageous building block with potential for various quantum applications: a device based on coupled spins capable of generating and sharing out an entangled pair of qubits. Our model device is a dimerised spin chain with three weakly coupled embedded sites (defects). Three different entangling protocols were proposed for this chain in [1] and [2], one producing a Cluster state and two generating a Bell state, depending on the initial state injection. Here we compare the robustness of such protocols as quantum entangling gates against different types of fabrication (static energy fluctuations) and operation (timing injection delays) errors.

With the potential of quantum algorithms to solve intractable classical problems, quantum computing is rapidly evolving and more algorithms are being developed and optimized. Expressing these quantum algorithms using a high-level language and making them executable on a quantum processor while abstracting away hardware details is a challenging task. Firstly, a quantum programming language should provide an intuitive programming interface to describe those algorithms. Then a compiler has to transform the program into a quantum circuit, optimize it and map it to the target quantum processor respecting the hardware constraints such as the supported quantum operations, the qubit connectivity, and the control electronics limitations. In this paper, we propose a quantum programming framework named OpenQL, which includes a high-level quantum programming language and its associated quantum compiler. We present the programming interface of OpenQL, we describe the different layers of the compiler and how we can provide portability over different qubit technologies. Our experiments show that OpenQL allows the execution of the same high-level algorithm on two different qubit technologies, namely superconducting qubits and Si-Spin qubits. Besides the executable code, OpenQL also produces an intermediate quantum assembly code (cQASM), which is technology-independent and can be simulated using the QX simulator.

Thermoelectric effect generating electricity from thermal gradient and vice versa appears in numerous generic applications. Recently, an original prospect of thermoelectricity arising from the nonlocal Cooper pair splitting (CPS) and the elastic co-tunneling (EC) in hybrid normal metal-superconductor-normal metal (NSN) structures was foreseen. Here we demonstrate experimentally the existence of non-local Seebeck effect in a graphene-based CPS device comprising two quantum dots connected to an aluminum superconductor and theoretically validate the observations. This non-local Seebeck effect offers an efficient tool for producing entangled electrons.

The paper reports on experimental diagnostics of quantum repeaters with an embedded entanglement swapping protocol by means of a collective entanglement witness. We show that this procedure allows to verify functioning of a quantum repeater and the underlying quantum channel with smaller number of measurements than reported previously in the literature. Moreover, our technique allows to identify the type of errors in the entanglement distribution channel which can aid in faster resolution of quality-of-transmission-related problems.

The assertion by Yu and Nikolic that the delayed choice quantum eraser experiment of Kim et al. empirically falsifies the consciousness-causes-collapse hypothesis of quantum mechanics is based on the unfounded and false assumption that the failure of a quantum wave function to collapse implies the appearance of a visible interference pattern.

We investigate the quantum transport of anyons in one space dimension. After establishing some universal features of non-equilibrium systems in contact with two heat reservoirs in a generalised Gibbs state, we focus on the abelian anyon solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model possessing axial-vector duality. In this context a non-equilibrium representation of the physical observables is constructed, which is the basic tool for a systematic study of the anyon particle and heat transport. We determine the associated Lorentz number and describe explicitly the deviation from the standard Wiedemann-Franz law induced by the interaction and the anyon statistics. The quantum fluctuations generated by the electric and helical currents are investigated and the dependence of the relative noise power on the statistical parameter is established.

Fractals are fascinating structures, not only for their aesthetic appeal, but also because they allow for the investigation of physical properties in non-integer dimensions. In these unconventional systems, a myriad of intrinsic features might come into play, such as the fractal dimension, the spectral dimension, or the fractal geometry. Despite abundant theoretical and numerical studies, experiments in fractal networks remain elusive. Here, we experimentally investigate quantum transport in fractal networks by performing continuous-time quantum walks in fractal photonic lattices with incremental propagation lengths. Photons act as the walkers and evolve in the lattices after being injected into one initial site. We unveil the transport properties through the photon evolution pattern at different propagation lengths and the analysis of the variance and the P'olya number, which are calculated based on the probability distribution of the patterns. Contrarily to classical fractals, we observe anomalous transport governed solely by the fractal dimension. In addition, the critical point at which there is a transition from normal to anomalous transport is highly dependent on the fractal geometry. Our experiment allows the verification of physical laws in a quantitative manner and reveals the transport dynamics with unprecedented detail, thus opening a path to the understanding of more complex quantum phenomena governed by fractality.

This is an investigation of the limits of quantum circuit simulation with Schrodinger's formulation and low precision arithmetic. The goal is to estimate how much memory can be saved in simulations that involve random, maximally entangled quantum states. An arithmetic polar representation of $B$ bits is defined for each quantum amplitude and a normalization procedure is developed to minimize rounding errors. Then a model is developed to quantify the cumulative errors on a circuit of $Q$ qubits and $G$ gates. Depending on which regime the circuit operates, the model yields explicit expressions for the maximum number of effective gates that can be simulated before rounding errors dominate the computation. The results are illustrated with random circuits and the quantum Fourier transform.

Information-theoretic uncertainty relations formulate the joint immeasurability of two non-commuting observables in terms of information entropies. The trade-off of the accuracy in the outcome of two successive measurements manifests in entropic noise-disturbance uncertainty relations. Recent theoretical analysis predicts that projective measurements are not optimal, with respect to the noise-disturbance trade-offs. Therefore the results in our previous letter [PRL 115, 030401 (2015)] are outperformed by general quantum measurements. Here, we experimentally test a tight information-theoretic measurement uncertainty relation for three-outcome positive-operator valued measures (POVM), using neutron spin-1/2 qubits. The obtained results violate the lower bound for projective measurements as theoretically predicted.

In order to reject the local hidden variables hypothesis, the usefulness of a Bell inequality can be quantified by how small a p-value it will give for a physical experiment. Here we show that the expected p-value is minimized when we maximize the difference between the local and Tsirelson bounds of the Bell inequality, when it is formulated as a nonlocal game. We develop an algorithm for transforming an arbitrary Bell inequality into such an optimal nonlocal game, and show its results for the CGLMP and $I_{nn22}$ inequalities.

We present explicit examples of Bell inequalities such that the gap between their local and Tsirelson bounds is arbitrarily close to one, and show that this makes it possible to reject local hidden variables with arbitrarily small p-value in a single shot, without needing to collect statistics. We also develop a new algorithm for calculating local bounds which is significantly faster than the methods currently available, which may be of independent interest.

There is widespread interest in calculating the energy spectrum of a Hamiltonian, for example to analyze optical spectra and energy deposition by ions in materials. In this study, we propose a quantum algorithm that samples the set of energies within a target energy-interval without requiring good approximations of the target energy-eigenstates. We discuss the implementation of direct and iterative amplification protocols and give resource and runtime estimates. We illustrate initial applications by amplifying excited states on molecular Hydrogen.

Solid state atom-like systems have great promise for building quantum networks at scale but are burdened by phonon sidebands and broadening due to surface charges. Nevertheless, coupling to a small mode volume cavity would allow high rates of extraction from even highly dephased emitters. We consider the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, a system understood to have a poor quantum optics interface with highly distinguishable photons, and design a silicon nitride cavity that allows 99 % efficient extraction of photons at 200 K with an indistinguishability of > 50 %, improvable by external filtering. We analyse our design using FDTD simulations, and treat optical emission using a cavity QED master equation valid at and beyond strong coupling and which includes both ZPL broadening and sideband emission. The simulated design is compact (< 10 um), and owing to its planar geometry, can be fabricated using standard silicon processes. Our work therefore points towards scalable fabrication of non-cryogenic atom-like efficient sources of indistinguishable photons.

We discuss the use of a region of uniform and constant magnetic field in order to implement a two-state atomic polarizer for an H(2S) beam. We have observed that a device with such field configuration is capable of achieving an efficient polarization for a wide range of magnetic field intensities and atomic velocities. In addition, we establish a criterion that must be met to confirm a successful polarization. That is possible due to a specific beating pattern for the Lyman-$\alpha$ radiation expected for the outgoing two-state atomic beam.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a method to distribute secret key among sender and receiver by the transmission of quantum particles (e.g. photons). Device-independent quantum key distribution (DIQKD) is a version of quantum key distribution with a stronger security demand in that sender and receiver do not need to rely on the inner workings of their device, which consequently can come from an untrusted vendor. We study the rate at which DIQKD can be carried out for a given quantum channel connecting sender and receiver and provide a technique to upper bound the achievable rate. As a result, we show that the rate of device independent secure key can for some channels be much smaller (even arbitrarily so) than that of QKD. We do so, by first providing definition of device independent secure key rate, which is of independent interest. For bipartite states we formulate a sufficient condition for a gap between QKD and DIQKD key rates and examples of 8-qubit bipartite state exhibiting the gap between device dependent and device independent key.