Photonic interference is a key quantum resource for optical quantum computation, and in particular for so-called boson sampling machines. In interferometers with certain symmetries, genuine multiphoton quantum interference effectively suppresses certain sets of events, as in the original Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Recently, it was shown that some classical and semi-classical models could be ruled out by identifying such suppressions in Fourier interferometers. Here we propose a suppression law suitable for random-input experiments in multimode Sylvester interferometers, and verify it experimentally using 4- and 8-mode integrated interferometers. The observed suppression is stronger than what is observed in Fourier interferometers of the same size, and could be relevant to certification of boson sampling machines and other experiments relying on bosonic interference.

Established x-ray diffraction methods allow for high-resolution structure determination of crystals, crystallized protein structures or even single molecules. While these techniques rely on coherent scattering, incoherent processes like Compton scattering or fluorescence emission -- often the predominant scattering mechanisms -- are generally considered detrimental for imaging applications. Here we show that intensity correlations of incoherently scattered x-ray radiation can be used to image the full 3D structure of the scattering atoms with significantly higher resolution compared to conventional coherent diffraction imaging and crystallography, including additional three-dimensional information in Fourier space for a single sample orientation. We present a number of properties of incoherent diffractive imaging that are conceptually superior to those of coherent methods.

In the ultra-strong coupling regime of a light-matter system, the ground state exhibits non-trivial entanglement between the atom and photons. For the purposes of exploring the measurement and control of this ground state, here we analyze the dynamics of such an ultra-strongly-coupled system interacting with a driven nonlinear resonator acting as a measurement apparatus. Interestingly, although the coupling between the atom and the nonlinear resonator is much smaller than the typical energy scales of the ultra-strongly-coupled system, we show that we can generate a strong correlation between the nonlinear resonator and the light-matter system. A subsequent coarse- grained measurement on the nonlinear resonator significantly affects the light-matter system, and the phase of the light changes depending on the measurement results. Also, we investigate the conditions for when the nonlinear resonator can be entangled with the ultra-strongly coupled system, which is the mechanism that allows us to project the ground state of the ultra-strongly coupled system into a non-energy eigenstate.

We report the experimental demonstration of polarization squeezed beam at 795 nm by combing a quadrature squeezed beam with a coherent beam. The quadrature squeezed beam is generated by a degenerate optical parameter amplifier based on a periodically poled KTP (PPKTP) crystal. Stokes parameter squeezing of -3.8 dB and anti squeezing of +5.0 dB is observed. This polarization squeezed beam resonant to rubidium D1 line has potential applications in quantum information networks and ultra-precise measurement

In [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)], a clear and comprehensive analysis of the paradoxical results of experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] was carried out on the basis of the classical wave theory of light, which presupposes the continuity of possible of light paths. It was shown that the paradoxical results of the experiment are due not to the discontinuity of the trajectories of light, as claimed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)], but to the used way of detecting the path of photons. The experiment modification proposed in [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] allows us to eliminate the seeming discontinuity of the light trajectories. In Comment [arXiv:1705.02137 (2017)] to the article such modification is declared unreasonable. This Response to the Comment shows that this statement is not based on clear and logical arguments. Instead, it is only asserted that the proposed modification "violates the faithfulness indication of the trace" of photons. Therefore, the Comment's criticism can not be considered as well-founded. Consequently, the conclusion of [JETP Lett. 105(3), 152 (2017)] that a new concept of disconnected trajectories proposed by the authors of work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] is unnecessary, remains valid.

Characterization and certification of nonlocal correlations is one of the the central topics in quantum information theory. In this work, we develop the detection methods of entanglement and steering based on the universal uncertainty relations and fine-grained uncertainty relations. In the course of our study, the uncertainty relations are formulated in majorization form, and the uncertainty quantifier can be chosen as any convex Schur concave functions, this leads to a large set of inequalities, including all existing criteria based on entropies. We address the question that if all steerable states (or entangled states) can be witnessed by some uncertainty-based inequality, we find that for pure states and many important families of states, this is the case.

We explain the properties and clarify the meaning of quantum weak values using only the basic notions of elementary quantum mechanics.

Holonomic quantum computation is a quantum computation strategy that promises some built-in noise-resilience features. Here, we propose a scheme for nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation with nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins, which are characterized by the fast quantum gates and long coherence times of the qubits. By varying the detuning, amplitudes and phase difference of the lasers applied to a nitrogen-vacancy center, one can directly realize arbitrary single-qubit holonomic quantum gate on the spin. Meanwhile, with the help of an optical whispering gallery cavity, nontrivial two-qubit holonomic quantum gate can also be induced. The distinct merit of the present scheme is that all the geometric quantum gates are obtained with all-optical manipulation of the solid-state spins. Therefore, our scheme opens the possibility for robust quantum computation on solid-state spins in an all-optical way.

We show that Clifford operations on qubit stabilizer states are non-contextual and can be represented by non-negative quasi-probability distributions associated with a Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism. This is accomplished by generalizing the Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism to three generators instead of two---producing an exterior, or Grassmann, algebra---which results in Clifford group gates for qubits that act as a permutation on the finite Weyl phase space points naturally associated with stabilizer states. As a result, a non-negative probability distribution can be associated with each stabilizer state's three-generator Wigner function, and these distributions evolve deterministically to one other under Clifford gates. This corresponds to a hidden variable theory that is non-contextual and local for qubit Clifford operations. Equivalently, we show that qubit Clifford gates can be expressed as propagators within the three-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism whose semiclassical expansion is truncated at order $\hbar^0$ with a finite number of terms. The $T$-gate, which extends the Clifford gate set to one capable of universal quantum computation, requires a semiclassical expansion of its propagator to order $\hbar^1$. We compare this approach to previous quasi-probability descriptions of qubits that relied on the two-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism and find that the two-generator Weyl symbols of stabilizer states result in a description of evolution under Clifford gates that is state-dependent. We show that this two-generator description of stabilizer evolution is thus a non-local and contextual hidden variable theory---it is a contextual description of a non-contextual process. We have thus extended the established result that Clifford stabilizer operations are non-contextual and have non-negative quasi-probability distributions in the odd $d$-dimensional case to $d=2$ qubits.

Communication over a noisy channel is often conducted in a setting in which different input symbols to the channel incur a certain cost. For example, for the additive white Gaussian noise channel, the cost associated with a real number input symbol is the square of its magnitude. In such a setting, it is often useful to know the maximum amount of information that can be reliably transmitted per cost incurred. This is known as the capacity per unit cost. In this paper, we generalize the capacity per unit cost to various communication tasks involving a quantum channel; in particular, we consider classical communication, entanglement-assisted classical communication, private communication, and quantum communication. For each task, we define the corresponding capacity per unit cost and derive a formula for it via the expression for the capacity per channel use. Furthermore, for the special case in which there is a zero-cost quantum state, we obtain expressions for the various capacities per unit cost in terms of an optimized relative entropy involving the zero-cost state. For each communication task, we construct an explicit pulse-position-modulation coding scheme that achieves the capacity per unit cost. Finally, we compute capacities per unit cost for various quantum Gaussian channels.

We demonstrate a synchronized readout (SR) technique for spectrally selective detection of oscillating magnetic fields with sub-millihertz resolution, using coherent manipulation of solid state spins. The SR technique is implemented in a sensitive magnetometer (~50 picotesla/Hz^(1/2)) based on nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, and used to detect nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from liquid-state samples. We obtain NMR spectral resolution ~3 Hz, which is nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than previously demonstrated with NV based techniques, using a sample volume of ~1 picoliter. This is the first application of NV-detected NMR to sense Boltzmann-polarized nuclear spin magnetization, and the first to observe chemical shifts and J-couplings.

This paper presents a new measure of entanglement which can be employed for multipartite entangled systems. The classification of multipartite entangled systems based on this measure is considered. Two approaches to applying this measure to mixed quantum states are discussed.

Relativistic quantum metrology provides an optimal strategy for the estimation of parameters encoded in quantum fields in flat and curved spacetime. These parameters usually correspond to physical quantities of interest such as proper times, accelerations, gravitational field strengths, among other spacetime parameters. The precise estimation of these parameters can lead to novel applications in gravimeters, spacetime probes and gravitational wave detectors. Previous work in this direction only considered pure probe states. In realistic situations, however, probe states are mixed. In this paper, we provide a framework for the computation of optimal precision bounds for mixed single- and two-mode Gaussian states within quantum field theory. This enables the estimation of spacetime parameters in case the field states are initially at finite temperature.

We consider the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices, used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. We consider an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. We show that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot's bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices, and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e. chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.

In recent years, the study of heat to work conversion has been re-invigorated by nanotechnology. Steady-state devices do this conversion without any macroscopic moving parts, through steady-state flows of microscopic particles such as electrons, photons, phonons, etc. This review aims to introduce some of the theories used to describe these steady-state flows in a variety of mesoscopic or nanoscale systems. These theories are introduced in the context of idealized machines which convert heat into electrical power (heat-engines) or convert electrical power into a heat flow (refrigerators). In this sense, the machines could be categorized as thermoelectrics, although this should be understood to include photovoltaics when the heat source is the sun. As quantum mechanics is important for most such machines, they fall into the field of quantum thermodynamics. In many cases, the machines we consider have few degrees of freedom, however the reservoirs of heat and work that they interact with are assumed to be macroscopic. This review discusses different theories which can take into account different aspects of mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, such as coherent quantum transport, magnetic-field induced effects (including topological ones such as the quantum Hall effect), and single electron charging effects. It discusses the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion, and the thermoelectric figure of merit. More specifically, the theories presented are (i) linear response theory with or without magnetic fields, (ii) Landauer scattering theory in the linear response regime and far from equilibrium, (iii) Green-Kubo formula for strongly interacting systems within the linear response regime, (iv) master equation analysis for small quantum machines with or without ..... (SEE THE PDF FOR THE REST OF THIS ABSTRACT)

The notions of error and disturbance appearing in quantum uncertainty relations are often quantified by the discrepancy of a physical quantity from its ideal value. However, these real and ideal values are not the outcomes of simultaneous measurements, and comparing the values of unmeasured observables is not necessarily meaningful according to quantum theory. To overcome these conceptual difficulties, we take a different approach and define error and disturbance in an operational manner. In particular, we formulate both in terms of the probability that one can successfully distinguish the actual measurement device from the relevant hypothetical ideal by any experimental test whatsoever. This definition itself does not rely on the formalism of quantum theory, avoiding many of the conceptual difficulties of usual definitions. We then derive new Heisenberg-type uncertainty relations for both joint measurability and the error-disturbance tradeoff for arbitrary observables of finite-dimensional systems, as well as for the case of position and momentum. Our relations may be directly applied in information processing settings, for example to infer that devices which can faithfully transmit information regarding one observable do not leak any information about conjugate observables to the environment. We also show that Englert's wave-particle duality relation [PRL 77, 2154 (1996)] can be viewed as an error-disturbance uncertainty relation.

Non-equilibrium time evolution in isolated many-body quantum systems generally results in thermalization. However, the relaxation process can be very slow, and quasi-stationary non-thermal plateaux are often observed at intermediate times. The paradigmatic example is a quantum quench in an integrable model with weak integrability breaking; for a long time, the state can not escape the constraints imposed by the approximate integrability. We unveil a new mechanism of prethermalization, based on the presence of a symmetry of the pre-quench Hamiltonian, which is spontaneously broken at zero temperature and is explicitly broken by the post-quench Hamiltonian. The typical time scale of the phenomenon is proportional to the thermal correlation length of the initial state, which diverges as the temperature is lowered. We show that the prethermal quasi-stationary state can be approximated by a mixed state that violates cluster decomposition property. We consider two examples: the transverse-field Ising chain, where the full time evolution is computed analytically, and the (non integrable) ANNNI model, which is investigated numerically.

We extend the notion of anticoherent spin states to anticoherent subspaces. An anticoherent subspace of order t, is a subspace whose unit vectors are all anticoherent states of order t. We use Klein's description of algebras of polynomials which are invariant under finite subgroups of SU(2) to provide constructions of anticoherent subspaces. Furthermore, we show a connection between the existence of these subspaces and the properties of the higher-rank numerical range for a set of spin observables. We also note that these constructions give us subspaces of spin states all of whose unit vectors have Majorana representations which are spherical designs of order at least t.

We consider two qubit teleportation via quantum channel affected by amplitude damping noise. Addressing the same problem, X. Hu, Y. Gu, Q. Gong and G. Guo [Phys. Rev. A 81, 054302, (2010)] recently showed that in presence of noise, subjecting more qubits in quantum channel to amplitude damping can increase the fidelity of teleportation protocol. However, in this paper, by making some adjustments on quantum channel, we obtain teleportation fidelity which is even higher than one in the case of X. Hu et al. Moreover, our strategy is simpler than quantum distillation and compared to using weak measurement, it is deterministic. Furthermore, explicit analysis of fidelity is provided, we show that in general, choosing appropriate quantum channel enhances the ability of teleportation better and negates the fact that more amplitude damping noise more quality.

We explore multi-round quantum automata communication protocols. It is restricted version of multi-round quantum communication protocols. "Automata" term means that players forget history from previous rounds, and its behavior is obtained only by input and message from the opposite player. This model is interesting because it allows to get lower bounds for models like automata, Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams and streaming algorithms. In the same time, we can prove stronger results with this restriction. We present a lower bound for that automata protocol. Additionally, we show lower bound for Disjointness function for this model. As an application of communication complexity results, we consider a quantum Ordered Read-$k$-times Branching Programs ($k$-QOBDD). Our communication complexity result allows us to get lower bound for $k$-QOBDD and hierarchies for sublinear width bounded error $k$-QOBDDs, for $k=o(\sqrt{n})$. Also we prove a hierarchy for polynomial size bounded error $k$-QOBDDs for constant $k$, and it differs from the situation with unbounded error where it is known that increasing of $k$ does not give any advantage.