We consider conditional photonic non-Gaussian state preparation using multimode Gaussian states and photon-number-resolving detectors in the presence of photon loss. While simulation of such state preparation is often computationally challenging, we show that obtaining the required multimode Gaussian state Fock matrix elements can be reduced to the computation of matrix functions known as loop hafnians, and develop a tailored algorithm for their calculation that is faster than previously known methods. As an example of its utility, we use our algorithm to explore the loss parameter space for three specific non-Gaussian state preparation schemes: Fock state heralding, cat state heralding, and weak cubic-phase state heralding. We confirm that these schemes are fragile with respect to photon loss, yet find that there are regions in the loss parameter space that are potentially accessible in an experimental setting which correspond to heralded states with non-zero non-Gaussianity.

We consider some classical and quantum approximate optimization algorithms with bounded depth. First, we define a class of "local" classical optimization algorithms and show that a single step version of these algorithms can achieve the same performance as the single step QAOA on MAX-3-LIN-2. Second, we show that this class of classical algorithms generalizes a class previously considered in the literature, and also that a single step of the classical algorithm will outperform the single-step QAOA on all triangle-free MAX-CUT instances. In fact, for all but $4$ choices of degree, existing single-step classical algorithms already outperform the QAOA on these graphs, while for the remaining $4$ choices we show that the generalization here outperforms it. Finally, we consider the QAOA and provide strong evidence that, for any fixed number of steps, its performance on MAX-3-LIN-2 on bounded degree graphs cannot achieve the same scaling as can be done by a class of "global" classical algorithms. These results suggest that such local classical algorithms are likely to be at least as promising as the QAOA for approximate optimization.

On-chip scalable integration represents a major challenge for practical quantum devices. One particular challenge is to implement on-chip optical readout of spins in diamond. This readout requires simultaneous application of optical and microwave fields along with an efficient collection of fluorescence. The readout is typically accomplished via bulk optics and macroscopic microwave transmission structures. We experimentally demonstrate an on-chip integrated structure for nitrogen vacancy (NV) spin-based applications, implemented in a single material layer with one patterning step. A nanodiamond with multiple NV centres is positioned at the end of the groove waveguide milled in a thick gold film. The gold film carries the microwave control signal while the groove waveguide acts as a fluorescence collector, partially filtering out the pump excitation. As a result, the device dimensions and fabrication complexity are substantially reduced. Our approach will foster further development of ultra-compact nanoscale quantum sensors and quantum information processing devices on a monolithic platform. NV centre-based nanoscale sensors are the most promising application of the developed interface.

We study the formation of band gap bound states induced by a non-Hermitian impurity embedded in a Hermitian system. We show that a pair of bound states emerges inside the band gap when a parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) imaginary potential is added in a strongly coupled bilayer lattices and the bound states become strongly localized when the system approaches to the exceptional point (EP). As a direct consequence of such $\mathcal{PT}$ impurity-induced bound states, an impurity array can be constructed and protected by energy gap. The effective Hamiltonian of the impurity array is non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) type and hosts Dirac probability-preserving dynamics. We demonstrate the conclusion by numerical simulations for the quantum transport of wave packet in right-angle bends waveguide and $Y$-beam splitter. Our finding provides alternative way to fabricate quantum device by non-Hermitian impurity.

The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond has rapidly emerged as an important solid-state system for quantum information processing. While individual spin registers have been used to implement small-scale diamond quantum computing, the realization of a large-scale device requires development of an on-chip quantum bus for transporting information between distant qubits. Here we propose a method for coherent quantum transport of an electron and its spin state between distant NV centers. Transport is achieved by the implementation of spatial stimulated adiabatic Raman passage through the optical control of the NV center charge states and the confined conduction states of a diamond nanostructure. Our models show that for two NV centers in a diamond nanowire, high fidelity transport can be achieved over distances of order hundreds of nanometres in timescales of order hundreds of nanoseconds. Spatial adiabatic passage is therefore a promising option for realizing an on-chip spin quantum bus.

Multipartite entanglement has been shown to be of particular relevance for a better understanding and exploitation of the dynamics and flow of entanglement in multiparty systems. This calls for analysis aimed at identifying the appropriate processes that guarantee the emergence of multipartite entanglement in a wide range of scenarios. Here we carry on such analysis considering a system of two initially entangled qubits, one of which is let to interact with a third qubit according to an arbitrary unitary evolution. We establish necessary and sufficient conditions on the corresponding Kraus operators, to discern whether the evolved state pertains to either one of the classes of 3-qubit pure states that exhibit some kind of entanglement, namely biseparable, W-, and GHZ- genuine entangled classes. Our results provide a classification of the Kraus operators according to their capacity of producing multipartite correlations, and pave the way for determining the particular interactions that must be implemented in order to create, enhance and distribute entanglement in a specific manner.

The discovery of novel topological phase advances our knowledge of nature and stimulates the development of applications. In non-Hermitian topological systems, the topology of band touching exceptional points is very important. Here we propose a real-energy topological gapless phase arising from exceptional points in one dimension, which has identical topological invariants as the topological gapless phase arising from degeneracy points. We develop a graphic approach to characterize the topological phases, where the eigenstates of energy bands are mapped to the graphs on a torus. The topologies of different phases are visualized and distinguishable; and the topological gapless edge state with amplification appropriate for topological lasing exists in the nontrivial phase. These results are elucidated through a non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger ladder. Our findings open new way for identifying topology phase of matter from visualizing the eigenstates.

I suggest that the "B" in QBism should stand for Bohr. The paper begins by explaining why Bohr seems obscure to most physicists. Having identified the contextuality of physical quantities as Bohr's essential contribution to Kant's theory of science, I outline the latter, its proper contextuality, and its decontextualization. After emphasizing the important difference between three kinds of realism (one good, one bad, one ugly), I discuss an important change in Bohr's vocabulary: in order to preserve the decontextualization of Kant's theory, he moved from talking about "our forms of perception" (Kant's pure forms of intuition) to talking about experimental arrangements, and he substituted phenomena for objects as the principal referents of atomic physics, all the while keeping the universal context of human experience at the center of his philosophy. QBism, through its emphasis on the individual experiencing subject, brings home the intersubjective constitution of objectivity more forcefully than Bohr did. If measurements are irreversible and outcomes definite, it is because the experiences of each subject are irreversible and definite. Bohr, on the other hand, gave us all the arguments we need to extend to the objective world the irreversibility of measurements and the definiteness of outcomes.

Orbital angular momentum (OAM) light possesses in addition to its usual helicity ($s=\pm \hbar$, depending on its circular polarization) an orbital angular momentum $l$. This means that in principle one can transfer more than a single quantum of $\hbar$ during an optical transition from light to a quantum system. However, quantum objects are usually so small (typically in the nm range) that they only locally probe the dipolar character of the local electric field. In order to sense the complete macroscopic electric field, we utilize Rydberg excitons in the semiconductor cuprite ($\text{Cu}_2\text{O}$), which are single quantum objects of up to $\mu m$ size. Their interaction with focused OAM light, allows for matching the focal spot size and the wavefunction diameter. Here, the common dipole selection rules ($\Delta j=\pm 1$) should be broken, and transitions of higher $\Delta j$ with higher order OAM states should become more probable. Based on group theory, we analyze in detail the optical selection rules governing this process.

We prepare qudits based on angular multimode biphoton states by modulating the pump angular spectrum. The modes are prepared in the Schmidt basis and their intensity distributions do not overlap in space. This allows one to get rid of filtering losses while addressing single modes and to realize a single-shot qudit readout.

We propose a protocol for solving systems of linear algebraic equations via quantum mechanical methods using the minimal number of qubits. We show that $(M+1)$-qubit system is enough to solve a system of $M$ equations for one of the variables leaving other variables unknown provided that the matrix of a linear system satisfies certain conditions. In this case, the vector of input data (the rhs of a linear system) is encoded into the initial state of the quantum system. This protocol is realized on the 5-qubit superconducting quantum processor of IBM Quantum Experience for particular linear systems of three equations. We also show that the solution of a linear algebraic system can be obtained as the result of a natural evolution of an inhomogeneous spin-1/2 chain in an inhomogeneous external magnetic field with the input data encoded into the initial state of this chain. For instance, using such evolution in a 4-spin chain we solve a system of three equations.

Measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN), a quantum correlation measure for the bipartite system, is an indicator of global effects due to locally invariant von Neumann projective measurements. It is well known fact that the correlation measures based on Hilbert-Schmidt norm are not credible measure in capturing nonlocal attributes of a quantum state. In this article, to remedy the local ancilla problem of Hilbert-Schmidt norm based MIN, we propose a new form of MIN-based on affinity. This quantity satisfies all criteria of a bonafide measure of quantum correlation measure. For an arbitrary pure state, it is shown that affinity based MIN equals to other forms of geometric versions of correlation measure. We obtain an upper bound of this measure for m \times n-dimensional arbitrary mixed state. We obtain a closed formula of the proposed version of MIN for 2 \times n dimensional (qubit qudit) mixed state. We apply these results on two-qubit mixed states such as Werner, isotropic and Bell diagonal state. To illustrate the robustness of affinity-based measure against noise, we study the dynamics of MIN under generalized amplitude damping channel.

We employ the interaction distance to characterise the physics of a one-dimensional extended XXZ spin model, whose phase diagram consists of both integrable and non-integrable regimes, with various types of ordering, e.g., a gapless Luttinger liquid and gapped crystalline phases. We numerically demonstrate that the interaction distance successfully reveals the known behaviour of the model in its integrable regime. As an additional diagnostic tool, we introduce the notion of "integrability distance" and particularise it to the XXZ model in order to quantity how far the ground state of the extended XXZ model is from being integrable. This distance provides insight into the properties of the gapless Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of next-nearest neighbour spin interactions which break integrability.

Quantum computers, if fully realized, promise to be a revolutionary technology. As a result, quantum computing has become one of the hottest areas of research in the last few years. Much effort is being applied at all levels of the system stack, from the creation of quantum algorithms to the development of hardware devices. The quantum age appears to be arriving sooner rather than later as commercially useful small-to-medium sized machines have already been built. However, full-scale quantum computers, and the full-scale algorithms they would perform, remain out of reach for now. It is currently uncertain how the first such computer will be built. Many different technologies are competing to be the first scalable quantum computer.

An entangled photon experiment has been performed with a large variation of the temperature of the non-linear crystal generating the entangled pair by spontaneous downconversion. The photon pairs are separated by a nonpolarizing beamsplitter, and the polarization modes are mixed by half wave plates. The correlation function of the coincidences is studied as a function of the temperature. In the presence of a narrow interference filter we observe that the correlation changes between -1 and +1 about seven times within a temperature interval of about 30 degrees C. We show that the common simplified single-mode pair representation of entangled photons is insufficient to describe the results, but that the biphoton description that includes frequency and phase details gives close to perfect fit with experimental data for two different choices of interference filters. We explain the main ideas of the underlying physics, and give an interpretation of the two-photon amplitude which provides an intuitive understanding of the effect of changing the temperature and inserting interference filters.

All the information about a quantum system is contained in eigenstate wave functions. A general problem in quantum mechanics is the reconstruction of eigenstate wave functions from measured data. In the case of molecular aggregates, information about excitonic eigenstates is vitally important to understand their optical and transport properties. Recently, it was suggested to use the near-field of a metallic tip to obtain spatially resolved spectra by scanning the tip along the aggregates. One open question is if these spectra can be used to reconstruct the excitonic wave functions belonging to the different eigenstates. In the present work we show that this is indeed possible using a convolutional neural network. The performance of the trained architecture is robust to various types of disorder.

The method for preparation of a two-qubit state on two spins-1/2 that mutually interact through an auxiliary spin is proposed. The essence of the method is that, initially, the three spins evolve under the action of an external magnetic field during a predefined period of time. Then, the auxiliary spin is measured by a monochromatic electromagnetic radiation that allows obtaining a certain state of the remaining spins. We study the entanglement of this state and obtain the condition for achieving the maximally entangled state. The implementation of the method on the physical system of nuclear spins of xenon difluoride is described. As a results, the conditions which allow preparing the maximally entangled state on this system are obtained.

An important result in classical stochastic thermodynamics is the work fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR), which states that the dissipated work done along a slow process is proportional to the resulting work fluctuations. Here we show that slowly driven quantum systems violate this FDR whenever quantum coherence is generated along the protocol, and derive a quantum generalisation of the work FDR. The additional quantum terms on the FDR are shown to uniquely imply a non-Gaussian work distribution, in contrast to the Gaussian shape found in classical slow processes. Fundamentally, our result shows that quantum fluctuations prohibit finding slow protocols that minimise both dissipation and fluctuations simultaneously. Instead, we develop a quantum geometric framework to find processes with an optimal trade-off between the two quantities.

We demonstrate an optical method to engineer optical Schrodinger cat states (SCSs) of large amplitude in the range from 2 to 3 with high fidelity close to 0.99. The approach uses the {\alpha}-representation of the SCSs in infinite Hilbert with base displaced number states characterized by the displacement amplitude {\alpha}. An arbitrary {\alpha}-representation of SCSs enables to manipulate the amplitudes in wider range of parameters that which greatly expands the possibilities for generation of the states. We consider a general optical scheme for implementation of the conditioned states close to SCSs with linear optics methods and detectors projecting unitarily transformed initial state onto target. Different input states (number and coherent states, Schr\"odinger kitten states) are selected as input.

We find a new effect for the behaviour of Von Neumann entropy. For this we derive the framework for describing Von Neumann entropy in non-Hermitian quantum systems and then apply it to a simple interacting PT symmetric bosonic system. We show that our model is well defined even in the PT broken regime with the introduction of a time-dependent metric and that it displays three distinct behaviours relating to the PT symmetry of the original time-independent Hamiltonian. When the symmetry is unbroken, the entropy undergoes rapid decay to zero (so-called "sudden death") with a subsequent revival. At the exceptional point it decays asymptotically to zero and when the symmetry is spontaneously broken it decays asymptotically to a finite constant value ("eternal life").