We consider the problem of fault-tolerant quantum computation in the presence of slow error diagnostics, either caused by slow measurement readouts or slow decoding algorithms. Our scheme offers a few improvements over previously existing solutions, for instance it does not require active error correction and results in a reduced error-correction overhead when error diagnostics is much slower than the gate time. In addition, we adapt our protocol to cases where the underlying error correction strategy chooses the optimal correction amongst all Clifford gates instead of the usual Pauli gates. The resulting Clifford frame protocol is of independent interest as it can increase error thresholds and could find applications in other areas of quantum computation.

Quantum information has been drawing a wealth of research in recent years, shedding light on questions at the heart of quantum mechanics, as well as advancing fields such as complexity theory, cryptography, key distribution, and chemistry. These fundamental and applied aspects of quantum information rely on a crucial issue: the ability to characterize a quantum state from measurements, through a process called Quantum State Tomography (QST). However, QST requires a large number of measurements, each derived from a different physical observable corresponding to a different experimental setup. Unfortunately, changing the setup results in unwanted changes to the data, prolongs the measurement and impairs the assumptions that are always made about the stationarity of the noise. Here, we propose to overcome these drawbacks by performing QST with a single observable. A single observable can often be realized by a single setup, thus considerably reducing the experimental effort. In general, measurements of a single observable do not hold enough information to recover the quantum state. We overcome this lack of information by relying on concepts inspired by Compressed Sensing (CS), exploiting the fact that the sought state - in many applications of quantum information - is close to a pure state (and thus has low rank). Additionally, we increase the system dimension by adding an ancilla that couples to information evolving in the system, thereby providing more measurements, enabling the recovery of the original quantum state from a single-observable measurements. We demonstrate our approach on multi-photon states by recovering structured quantum states from a single observable, in a single experimental setup. We further show how this approach can be used to recover quantum states without number-resolving detectors.

In most communication scenarios, sending a symbol encoded in a quantum state requires spending resources such as energy, which can be quantified by a cost of communication. A standard approach in this context is to quantify the performance of communication protocol by classical capacity, quantifying the maximal amount of information that can be transmitted through a quantum channel per single use of the channel. However, different figures of merit are also possible, and a particularly well-suited one is the classical capacity per unit cost, which quantifies the maximal amount of information that can be transmitted per unit cost. I generalize this concept to account for the quantum nature of the information carriers and communication channels and show that if there exist a symbol with cost equal to zero, e.g. a vacuum state, the capacity per unit cost can be expressed by a simple formula containing maximization of the relative entropy between two quantum states. This enables me to analyze the behavior of photon information efficiency for general communication tasks and show simple bounds on the capacity per unit cost in terms of quantities familiar from quantum estimation theory. I calculate also the capacity per unit cost for general Gaussian quantum channels.

Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time by implementing specific protocols for the time-dependent control parameters. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption are possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and recovered by perfect regenerative braking.

A simple model to study boson stars is to consider these stellar objects as quantum systems of $N$ identical self-gravitating particles within a non-relativistic framework. Some results obtained with point-like particles are recalled as well as the validity limits of this model. Approximate analytical calculations are performed using envelope theory for a truncated Coulomb-like potential simulating a particle size. If the boson mass is sufficiently small, the description of small mass boson stars is possible within non-relativistic formalism. The mass and radius of these stellar objects are strongly dependent on the value of the truncation parameter.

We study quantum algorithms on search trees of unknown structure, in a model where the tree can be discovered by local exploration. That is, we are given the root of the tree and access to a black box which, given a vertex $v$, outputs the children of $v$.

We construct a quantum algorithm which, given such access to a search tree of depth at most $n$, estimates the size of the tree $T$ within a factor of $1\pm \delta$ in $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{nT})$ steps. More generally, the same algorithm can be used to estimate size of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) in a similar model.

We then show two applications of this result:

a) We show how to transform a classical backtracking search algorithm which examines $T$ nodes of a search tree into an $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{T}n^{3/2})$ time quantum algorithm, improving over an earlier quantum backtracking algorithm of Montanaro (arXiv:1509.02374).

b) We give a quantum algorithm for evaluating AND-OR formulas in a model where the formula can be discovered by local exploration (modeling position trees in 2-player games). We show that, in this setting, formulas of size $T$ and depth $T^{o(1)}$ can be evaluated in quantum time $O(T^{1/2+o(1)})$. Thus, the quantum speedup is essentially the same as in the case when the formula is known in advance.

Solutions of quaternionic quantum mechanics (QQM) are difficult to grasp, even in simple physical situations. In this article, we provide simple and understandable free particle quaternionic solutions, that can be easily compared to complex quantum mechanics (CQM). As an application, we study the scattering of quaternionic particles through a scalar step potential. We also provide a general solution method for the quaternionic Schr\"odinger equation, which can be applied to more sophisticated and physically interesting models.

Quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as promising bright single photon sources. In this letter we investigate in details their optical properties at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, we perform temperature resolved photoluminescence studies and measure photon coherence times from the hBN emitters. The obtained value of 81(1) ps translates to a width of $\sim$12 GHz which is higher than the Fourier transform limited value of $\sim$32 MHz. To account for the photodynamic of the emitter, we perform ultrafast spectral diffusion measurements that partially account for the coherence times. Our results provide important insight into the relaxation processes in quantum emitters in hBN which is mandatory to evaluate their applicability for quantum information processing.

Following the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle, transient dynamics of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron with diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling in an external electric field is studied by employing the multi-D$_2$ {\it Ansatz}, also known as a superposition of the usual Davydov D$_2$ trial states. Resultant polaron dynamics has significantly enhanced accuracy, and is in perfect agreement with that derived from the hierarchy equations of motion method. Starting from an initial broad wave packet, the exciton undergoes typical Bloch oscillations. Adding weak exciton-phonon coupling leads to a broadened exciton wave packet and a reduced current amplitude. Using a narrow wave packet as the initial state, the bare exciton oscillates in a symmetric breathing mode, but the symmetry is easily broken by weak coupling to phonons, resulting in a non-zero exciton current. For both scenarios, temporal periodicity is unchanged by exciton-phonon coupling. In particular, at variance with the case of an infinite linear chain, no steady state is found in a finite-sized ring within the anti-adiabatic regime. For strong diagonal coupling, the multi-$\rm D_2$ {\it Anstaz} is found to be highly accurate, and the phonon confinement gives rise to exciton localization and decay of the Bloch oscillations.

Measuring quantum states provides means to generate genuine random numbers. It has been shown that genuine randomness can be obtained even with an uncharacterized quantum source. In this work, we propose a framework that formalizes the idea of realizing source-independent quantum random number generation via measuring coherence. Without full state tomography, the coherence of the source can be estimated by coherence witnesses. The existing uncertainty-relation-based schemes can be treated as special cases under the coherence framework, as we design a nonlinear coherence witness that can essentially yield the same results. Meanwhile, we propose a source-independent random number generation scheme, which can achieve a higher randomness generation rate than the uncertainty-relation-based ones.

Finding the optimal encoding strategies can be challenging for communication using quantum channels, as classical and quantum capacities may be superadditive. Entanglement assistance can often simplify this task, as the entanglement-assisted classical capacity for any channel is additive, making entanglement across channel uses unnecessary. If the entanglement assistance is limited, the picture is much more unclear. Suppose the classical capacity is superadditive, then the classical capacity with limited entanglement assistance could retain superadditivity by continuity arguments. If the classical capacity is additive, it is unknown if superadditivity can still be developed with limited entanglement assistance. We show this is possible, by providing an example. We construct a channel for which, the classical capacity is additive, but that with limited entanglement assistance can be superadditive. This shows entanglement plays a weird role in communication and we still understand very little about it.

There is considerable interest in collective effects in hybrid systems formed by molecular or atomic ensembles strongly coupled by an electromagnetic resonance. For analyzing such collective effects, we develop an efficient and general theoretical formalism based on the natural modes of the resonator. The main strength of our approach is its generality and the high level of analyticity enabled by modal analysis, which allows one to model complex hybrid systems without any restriction on the resonator shapes or material properties, and to perform statistical computations to predict general properties that are robust to spatial and polarization disorders. Most notably, we establish that superradiant modes remain even after ensemble averaging and act as an invisibility cloak with a spectral bandwidth that scales with the number of oscillators and the spatially-averaged Purcell factor.

This paper presents a new formal method for verification of quantum communication protocols. By extending the symbolic system of Petri nets, we can define quantum pure states in Petri-net settings. Therefore, it is possible to emerge a framework from formalizing basic quantum phenomena, which are utilized to achieve communication tasks. We also present an example of applying this framework to the modeling and analyzing quantum communication protocols to show how it works.

Interaction with a thermal environment decoheres the quantum state of a mechanical oscillator. When the interaction is sufficiently strong, such that more than one thermal phonon is introduced within a period of oscillation, quantum coherent oscillations are prevented. This is generally thought to preclude a wide range of quantum protocols. Here, we introduce a pulsed optomechanical protocol that allows ground state cooling, general linear quantum non-demolition measurements, optomechanical state swaps, and quantum state preparation and tomography without requiring quantum coherent oscillations. Finally we show how the protocol can break the usual thermal limit for sensing of impulse forces.

This paper presents a symmetric monoidal and compact closed bicategory that categorifies the zx-calculus developed by Coecke and Duncan. The $1$-cells in this bicategory are certain graph morphisms that correspond to the string diagrams of the zx-calculus, while the $2$-cells are rewrite rules.

Encoding schemes and error-correcting codes are widely used in information technology to improve the reliability of data transmission over real-world communication channels. Quantum information protocols can further enhance the performance in data transmission by encoding a message in quantum states, however, most proposals to date have focused on the regime of a large number of uses of the noisy channel, which is unfeasible with current quantum technology. We experimentally demonstrate quantum enhanced communication over an amplitude damping noisy channel with only two uses of the channel per bit and a single entangling gate at the decoder. By simulating the channel using a photonic interferometric setup, we experimentally increase the reliability of transmitting a data bit by greater than 20% for a certain damping range over classically sending the message twice. We show how our methodology can be extended to larger systems by simulating the transmission of a single bit with up to eight uses of the channel and a two-bit message with three uses of the channel, predicting a quantum enhancement in all cases.

We study the superradiant evolution of a set of $N$ two-level systems spontaneously radiating under the effect of phase-breaking mechanisms. We investigate the dynamics generated by non-radiative losses and pure dephasing, and their interplay with spontaneous emission. Our results show that in the parameter region relevant to many solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments, even with a dephasing rate much faster than the radiative lifetime of a single two-level system, a sub-optimal collective superfluorescent burst is still observable. We also apply our theory to the dilute excitation regime, often used to describe optical excitations in solid-state systems. In this regime, excitations can be described in terms of bright and dark bosonic quasiparticles. We show how the effect of dephasing and losses in this regime translates into inter-mode scattering rates and quasiparticle lifetimes.

We consider radiative corrections to false vacuum decay within the framework of quantum mechanics for the general potential of the form 1/2 M q^2 (q-A)(q-B), where M , A and B are arbitrary parameters. For this type of potential we provide analytical results for Green function in the background of corresponding bounce solution together with one loop expression for false vacuum decay rate. Next, we discuss the computation of higher order corrections for false vacuum decay rate and provide numerical expressions for two and three loop contributions.

Probabilities enter quantum mechanics via Born's rule, the uniqueness of which was proven by Gleason. Busch subsequently relaxed the assumptions of this proof, expanding its domain of applicability in the process. Extending this work to sequential measurement processes is the aim of this paper. Given only a simple set of postulates, a probability measure is derived utilising the concept of Liouville space and the most general permissible quantum channel arises in the same manner. Super-Liouville space is constructed and a Bayesian interpretation of this object is provided. An important application of the new method is demonstrated, providing an axiomatic derivation of important results of the BB84 protocol in quantum cryptography.

We present a scattering theory for the efficient transmission of an excitation across a finite network with designed disorder. We show that the presence of randomly positioned networks sites allows to significantly accelerate the excitation transfer processes as compared to a dimer structure, if only the disordered Hamiltonians are constrained to be centrosymmetric, and to exhibit a dominant doublet in their spectrum. We identify the cause of this efficiency enhancement in the constructive interplay between disorder-induced fluctuations of the dominant doublet's splitting and the coupling strength between the input and output sites to the scattering channels. We find that the characteristic strength of these fluctuations together with the channel coupling fully control the transfer efficiency.