Differentiable programming is a fresh programming paradigm which composes parameterized algorithmic components and trains them using automatic differentiation (AD). The concept emerges from deep learning but is not only limited to training neural networks. We present theory and practice of programming tensor network algorithms in a fully differentiable way. By formulating the tensor network algorithm as a computation graph, one can compute higher order derivatives of the program accurately and efficiently using AD. We present essential techniques to differentiate through the tensor networks contractions, including stable AD for tensor decomposition and efficient backpropagation through fixed point iterations. As a demonstration, we compute the specific heat of the Ising model directly by taking the second order derivative of the free energy obtained in the tensor renormalization group calculation. Next, we perform gradient based variational optimization of infinite projected entangled pair states for quantum antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and obtain start-of-the-art variational energy and magnetization with moderate efforts. Differentiable programming removes laborious human efforts in deriving and implementing analytical gradients for tensor network programs, which opens the door to more innovations in tensor network algorithms and applications.

Distributed quantum information processing is a promising platform for scaling up quantum information processing, where small- and intermediate-scale quantum devices are connected by a network of quantum channels for communicating quantum information, so as to cooperate in achieving larger-scale information processing. In such distributed settings, entangled states shared among the multiple devices serve as a resource for achieving nonlocal information processing tasks by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), where transformations of multipartite entangled states play central roles. This thesis analyzes properties of quantum entanglement in these small- and intermediate-scale settings and multipartite settings. The first part of this thesis investigates a communication task, quantum state merging, on the small and intermediate scales. The second part of this thesis analyzes multipartite entanglement in distributed quantum information processing. These analyses clarify fundamental limitations and potential applications of distributed quantum information processing to characterize properties of quantum entanglement in the small- and intermediate-scale settings and multipartite settings, providing a paradigm for investigating multipartite entanglement in distributed quantum information processing over networks beyond the state convertibility under LOCC.

We quantum-simulated particle-antiparticle pair production with a bosonic quantum gas in an optical lattice by emulating the requisite 1d Dirac equation and uniform electric field. We emulated field strengths far in excess of Sauter-Schwinger's limit for pair production in quantum electrodynamics, and therefore readily produced particles from "the Dirac vacuum" in quantitative agreement with theory. The observed process is equivalently described by Landau-Zener tunneling familiar in the atomic physics context.

We propose and demonstrate first steps towards schemes where the librational mode of a levitating ferromagnet is strongly coupled to the electronic spin of Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Experimentally, we levitate ferromagnets in a Paul trap and attain oscillation frequencies in the hundreds of kHz range using homogeneous magnetic fields. These values are two orders of magnitude larger than the Paul trap librational frequencies and exceed the decoherence rate of NV centers in CVD grown diamonds. We also prepare and levitate composite diamond-ferromagnet particles and demonstrate both coherent spin control of the NV centers and read-out of the particle libration using the NV spin. Our results will find applications in ultra-sensitive gyroscopy and bring levitating objects a step closer to spin-mechanical experiments at the quantum level.

Rydberg atoms have been used for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric (E)-fields due to their strong dipole moments over the frequency range of 500 MHz-1 THz. For this, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) within the Autler-Townes (AT) regime is used such that the detected E-field is proportional to AT splitting. However, for weak E-fields AT peak separation becomes unresolvable thus limiting the minimum detectable E-field. Here, we demonstrate using the Rydberg atoms as an RF mixer for weak E-field detection well below the AT regime with frequency discrimination better than 1 Hz resolution. Two E-fields incident on a vapor cell filled with cesium atoms are used. One E-field at 19.626000 GHz drives the 34D_(5/2)->5P_(3/2) Rydberg transition and acts as a local oscillator (LO) and a second signal E-field (Sig) of interest is at 19.626090 GHz. In the presence of the LO, the Rydberg atoms naturally down convert the Sig field to a 90 kHz intermediate frequency (IF) signal. This IF signal manifests as an oscillation in the probe laser intensity through the Rydberg vapor and is easily detected with a photodiode and lock-in amplifier. In the configuration used here, E-field strength down to ? 46 mV/m +/-2 mV/m were detected. Furthermore, neighboring fields 0.1 Hz away and equal in strength to Sig could be discriminated without any leakage into the lock-in signal. For signals 1 Hz away and as high as +60 dB above Sig, leakage into the lock-in signal could be kept below -3 dB.

We report the fabrication and characterization of photonic structures using tapered optical nanofibers. Thanks to the extension of the evanescent electromagnetic field outside of the nanofiber two types of devices can be built: a ring interferometer and a knot resonator. We propose a general approach to predict the properties of these structures using the linear coupling theory. In addition, we describe a new source of birefringence due to the ovalization of a nanofiber under strong bending, known in mechanical engineering as the Brazier effect.

More than forty years ago, Barash published a calculation of the full retarded Casimir-Lifshitz torque for planar media with arbitrary degrees of anisotropy. An independent theoretical confirmation has been lacking since. We report a systematic and transparent derivation of the torque between two media with both electric and magnetic birefringence. Our approach, based on an eigenmode decomposition of Maxwell's equations, generalizes Barash's result for electrically birefringent materials. This formalism can be generalized to a wide range of anisotropic materials and finite thickness effects.

Quantum communication brings radically new capabilities that are provably impossible to attain in any classical network. Here, we take the first step from a physics experiment to a fully fledged quantum internet system. We propose a functional allocation of a quantum network stack and construct the first physical and link layer protocols that turn ad-hoc physics experiments producing heralded entanglement between quantum processors into a well-defined and robust service. This lays the groundwork for designing and implementing scalable control and application protocols in platform-independent software. To design our protocol, we identify use cases, as well as fundamental and technological design considerations of quantum network hardware, illustrated by considering the state-of-the-art quantum processor platform available to us (Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond). Using a purpose built discrete-event simulator for quantum networks, we examine the robustness and performance of our protocol using extensive simulations on a super-computing cluster. We perform a full implementation of our protocol, where we successfully validate the physical simulation model against data gathered from the NV hardware. We first observe that our protocol is robust even in a regime of exaggerated losses of classical control messages with only little impact on the performance of the system.We proceed to study the performance of our protocols for 169 distinct simulation scenarios, including tradeoffs between traditional performance metrics such as throughput and the quality of entanglement. Finally, we initiate the study of quantum network scheduling strategies to optimize protocol performance for different use cases.

We report on a versatile method to compensate the linear attenuation in a medium, independently of its microscopic origin. The method exploits diffraction-limited Bessel beams and tailored on-axis intensity profiles which are generated using a phase-only spatial light modulator. This technique for compensating one of the most fundamental limiting processes in linear optics is shown to be efficient for a wide range of experimental conditions (modifying the refractive index and the attenuation coefficient). Finally, we explain how this method can be advantageously exploited in applications ranging from bio-imaging light sheet microscopy to quantum memories for future quantum communication networks.

Constants of motion of a closed system, such as its energy or charge, are determined by symmetries of the system. They offer global insights into the system dynamics and were instrumental to advances such as the prediction of neutrinos. In contrast, little is known about time invariants in open systems. Recently, a special class of open systems with parity-time (PT) symmetry has been intensely explored for their remarkable properties. However, a complete characterization and experimental observation of time invariants therein are both still lacking. Here we present an analytical solution for all time invariants of a broad class of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians. Using a single-photon interferometry setup, we confirm our results by simulating the quantum dynamics of a PT-symmetric qudit across a fourth-order exceptional point. We further observe the information flow in the system via the dynamics of qudit entropies. Our results demonstrate conserved quantities in a non-unitary time evolution, and point towards the rich dynamics and enhanced sensitivity of systems with higher-order exceptional points.

The understanding of the behaviour of systems of identical composite bosons has progressed significantly in connection with the analysis of the entanglement between constituents and the development of coboson theory. The basis of these treatments is a coboson ansatz for the ground state of a system of N pairs, stating that in appropriate limits this state is well approximated by the account of Pauli exclusion in what would otherwise be the product state of N independent pairs, each described by the single-pair ground state. In this work we study the validity of this ansatz for particularly simple problems, and show that short-ranged attractive interactions in very dilute limits and a single-pair ground state with very large entanglement are not enough to render the ansatz valid. On the contrary, we find that the dimensionality of the problem plays a crucial role in the behaviour of the many-body ground state.

The existence of contextuality in quantum mechanics is a fundamental departure from the classical description of the world. Currently, the quest to identify scenarios which cannot be more contextual than quantum theory is at the forefront of research in quantum contextuality. In this work, we experimentally test two inequalities, which are capable of revealing fully contextual quantum correlations, on a Hilbert space of dimension 8 and 4 respectively, on an NMR quantum information processor. The projectors associated with the contextuality inequalities are first reformulated in terms of Pauli operators, which can be determined in an NMR experiment. We also analyze the behavior of each inequality under rotation of the underlying quantum state, which unitarily transforms it to another pure state.

Entanglement of formation quantifies the entanglement of a state in terms of the entropy of entanglement of the least entangled pure state needed to prepare it. An analytical expression for this measure exists only for special cases, and finding a closed formula for an arbitrary state still remains an open problem. In this work we focus on two-mode Gaussian states, and we derive narrow upper and lower bounds for the measure that get tight for several special cases. Further, we show that the problem of calculating the actual value of the entanglement of formation for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states reduces to a trivial single parameter optimization process, and we provide an efficient algorithm for the numerical calculation of the measure.

We identify and investigate two classes of non-Hermitian systems, i.e., one resulting from Lorentz-symmetry violation (LSV) and the other from a complex mass (CM) with Lorentz invariance, from the perspective of quantum field theory. The mechanisms to break, and approaches to restore, the bulk-boundary correspondence in these two types of non-Hermitian systems are clarified. The non-Hermitian system with LSV shows a non-Hermitian skin effect, and its topological phase can be characterized by mapping it to the Hermitian system via a non-compact $U(1)$ gauge transformation. In contrast, there exists no non-Hermitian skin effect for the non-Hermitian system with CM. Moreover, the conventional bulk-boundary correspondence holds in this (CM) system. We also consider a general non-Hermitian system in the presence of both LSV and CM, and we generalize its bulk-boundary correspondence.

Continuous-wave (cw) squeezed vacuum states of light have applications in sensing, metrology and secure communication. In recent decades their efficient generation has been based on parametric down-conversion, which requires pumping by externally generated pump light of twice the optical frequency. Currently, there is immense effort in miniaturizing squeezed-light sources for chip-integration. Designs that require just a single input wavelength are favored since they offer an easier realization. Here we report on the first direct observation of cw squeezed vacuum states generated by self-phase modulation. The wavelengths of input light and of balanced homodyne detection are identical, and 1550 nm in our case. At sideband frequencies around 1.075 GHz, a nonclassical noise reduction of (2.4 +/- 0.1) dB is observed. The setup uses a second-order nonlinear crystal, but no externally generated light of twice the frequency. Our experiment is not miniaturized, but might open a route towards simplified chip-integrated realizations.

Quantum error-correcting codes are used to protect quantum information from decoherence. A raw state is mapped, by an encoding circuit, to a codeword, where the most likely quantum errors can be removed by a decoding procedure.

A good encoding circuit should have some features such as low depth, few gates, and so on. In this paper, we show how to practically implement an encoding circuit of gate complexity $O(n(n-k+c)/\log n)$ for an $[[n,k;c]]$ quantum stabilizer code with the help of $c$ pairs of maximally-entangled state. For the special case of an $[[n,k]]$ stabilizer code with $c=0$, the encoding complexity is $O(n(n-k)/\log n)$, which improves the previous known result of $O(n^2/\log n)$.

On the other hand, we discuss the decoding procedure of an entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer code and show that the general decoding problem is NP-hard, which strengthens the foundation of the quantum McEliece cryptosystem.

We study the local group velocity defined as the weak value of the velocity operator in the (1+1) dimensional Klein-Gordon as well as Dirac theory. It was shown by Berry [ J. Phys. A 45, 185308 (2012)] that when the pre- and post-selected states for evaluating the weak value are chosen at random from an ensemble of available states, the local group velocity has a universal probability distribution which can have both subluminal and superluminal components. In this work, we numerically explore the role of Lorentz boost and its impact on the superluminal fraction of the total probability distribution. We show that the dependence (enhancement) of the superluminal fraction on Lorentz boost of the total probability distribution differs both qualitatively and quantitatively for the Klein-Gordon waves and Dirac waves. For the Klein-Gordan waves, the asymmetry in the distribution of group velocities around the zero velocity point in the laboratory frame is entirely responsible for the observation of relative enhancement in the boosted frame. On the other hand, for the Dirac waves, we observe an enhancement irrespective of whether the laboratory frame velocity distribution is symmetric or not.

Suppose we would like to approximate all local properties of a quantum many-body state to accuracy $\delta$. In one dimension, we prove that an area law for the Renyi entanglement entropy $R_\alpha$ with index $\alpha<1$ implies a matrix product state representation with bond dimension $\mathrm{poly}(1/\delta)$. For (at most constant-fold degenerate) ground states of one-dimensional gapped Hamiltonians, it suffices that the bond dimension is almost linear in $1/\delta$. In two dimensions, an area law for $R_\alpha(\alpha<1)$ implies a projected entangled pair state representation with bond dimension $e^{O(1/\delta)}$. In the presence of logarithmic corrections to the area law, similar results are obtained in both one and two dimensions.

We show that arrays of $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear waveguides in the second harmonic generation regime are a promising source of continuous-variable entanglement. We indeed demonstrate analytically that optical arrays with odd number of waveguides injected with the zero-eigenvalue fundamental supermode entangle this fundamental supermode with a collective harmonic field. Moreover the fundamental individual modes are multipartite entangled and their entanglement grows with propagation length. The device is scalable, robust to losses, does not rely on specific values of nonlinearity and coupling and is easily realized with current technology. It thus stands as an unprecedented candidate for generation of multipartite continuous-variable entanglement for optical quantum information processing.

We show that applying feedback and weak measurements to a quantum system induces phase transitions beyond the dissipative ones. Feedback enables controlling essentially quantum properties of the transition, i.e., its critical exponent, as it is driven by the fundamental quantum fluctuations due to measurement. Feedback provides the non-Markovianity and nonlinearity to the hybrid quantum-classical system, and enables simulating effects similar to spin-bath problems and Floquet time crystals with tunable long-range (long-memory) interactions.