Author(s): Borja Peropadre, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, and Juan José García-Ripoll

A map between the problems of boson sampling and simulating the evolution of interacting spins is established. By enabling the use of physical systems other than traditional optical circuits as quantum simulators, this work increases the odds of proving quantum supremacy.

[Phys. Rev. A 95, 032327] Published Fri Mar 24, 2017

We study 't Hooft anomalies of discrete groups in the framework of (1+1)-dimensional multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz states on the lattice. Using matrix product operators, general topological restrictions on conformal data are derived. An ansatz class allowing for optimization of MERA with an anomalous symmetry is introduced. We utilize this class to numerically study a family of Hamiltonians with a symmetric critical line. Conformal data is obtained for all irreducible projective representations of each anomalous symmetry twist, corresponding to definite topological sectors. It is numerically demonstrated that this line is a protected gapless phase. Finally, we implement a duality transformation between a pair of critical lines using our subclass of MERA.

Interferometers with single particles are susceptible for dephasing perturbations from the environment, such as electromagnetic oscillations or mechanical vibrations. On the one hand, this limits sensitive quantum phase measurements as it reduces the interference contrast. On the other hand, it enables single-particle interferometers to be used as sensitive sensors for electromagnetic and mechanical perturbations. Recently, it was demonstrated experimentally, that a second-order correlation analysis can decrease the shielding and damping requirements significantly. Thereby, the relevant matter-wave characteristics and perturbation parameters could be extracted from the correlation analysis of a "washed-out" interference pattern and the undisturbed interferogram could be reconstructed. This method can be applied to all interferometers, that produce a spatial fringe pattern on a detector with high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution. In this article, we present and discuss in detail the used two-dimensional second-order correlation theory for multifrequency perturbations. The derivations of an explicit and approximate solution of the correlation function and corresponding amplitude spectra are provided. It is explained, how the numerical correlation function is extracted from the measurement data. Thereby, the influence of the temporal and spatial discretization step size on the extracted parameters is analyzed. The influence of noise on the correlation function and amplitude spectrum is calculated and numerically cross-checked by a comparison of our theory with numerical single-particle simulations. Our method can also be applied for the analysis of broad-band frequency noise, dephasing the interference pattern. Using Gaussian distributed noise in the simulations, we demonstrate that the relevant matter-wave parameters and the applied perturbation spectrum can be revealed.

We present an infinite family of protocols to distill magic states for $T$-gates that has a low space overhead and uses an asymptotic number of input magic states to achieve a given target error that is conjectured to be optimal. The space overhead, defined as the ratio between the physical qubits to the number of output magic states, is asymptotically constant, while both the number of input magic states used per output state and the $T$-gate depth of the circuit scale linearly in the logarithm of the target error $\delta$ (up to $\log \log 1/\delta$). Unlike other distillation protocols, this protocol achieves this performance without concatenation and the input magic states are injected at various steps in the circuit rather than all at the start of the circuit. The protocol can be modified to distill magic states for other gates at the third level of the Clifford hierarchy, with the same asymptotic performance. The protocol relies on the construction of weakly self-dual CSS codes with many logical qubits and large distance, allowing us to implement control-SWAPs on multiple qubits. We call this code the "inner code". The control-SWAPs are then used to measure properties of the magic state and detect errors, using another code that we call the "outer code". Alternatively, we use weakly-self dual CSS codes which implement controlled Hadamards for the inner code, reducing circuit depth. We present several specific small examples of this protocol.

We consider quantum, nondterministic and probabilistic versions of known computational model Ordered Read-$k$-times Branching Programs or Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams with repeated test ($k$-QOBDD, $k$-NOBDD and $k$-POBDD). We show width hierarchy for complexity classes of Boolean function computed by these models and discuss relation between different variants of $k$-OBDD.

Recent years have seen significant advances in the study of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) quantum measurements, also known as maximal sets of complex equiangular lines. Previously, the published record contained solutions up to dimension 67, and was with high confidence complete up through dimension 50. Computer calculations have now furnished solutions in all dimensions up to 151, and in several cases beyond that, as large as dimension 323. These new solutions exhibit an additional type of symmetry beyond the basic definition of a SIC, and so verify a conjecture of Zauner in many new cases. The solutions in dimensions 68 through 121 were obtained by Andrew Scott, and his catalogue of distinct solutions is, with high confidence, complete up to dimension 90. Additional results in dimensions 122 through 151 were calculated by the authors using Scott's code. We recap the history of the problem, outline how the numerical searches were done, and pose some conjectures on how the search technique could be improved. In order to facilitate communication across disciplinary boundaries, we also present a comprehensive bibliography of SIC research.

Speeding up adiabatic method has attracted much attention with the wide applications in quantum information processing. In this paper, two kinds of methods, Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant-based inverse engineering and transitionless quantum driving are applied to implement speeding up adiabatic state conversion in optomechanical system. The perfect population transfer can be achieved within a short time. At last, the energetic cost is analysed for the transitionless quantum driving.

We analyze a similar scheme for producing light-mediated entanglement between atomic ensembles, as first realized by Julsgaard, Kozhekin and Polzik [Nature {\bf 413}, 400 (2001)]. In the standard approach to modeling the scheme, a Holstein-Primakoff approximation is made, where the atomic ensembles are treated as bosonic modes, and is only valid for short interaction times. In this paper, we solve the time evolution without this approximation, which extends the region of validity of the interaction time. For short entangling times, we find this produces a state with similar characteristics as a two-mode squeezed state, in agreement with standard predictions. For long entangling times, the state evolves into a non-Gaussian form, and the two-mode squeezed state characteristics start to diminish. This is attributed to more exotic types of entangled states being generated. We characterize the states by examining the Fock state probability distributions, Husimi $Q$ distributions, and non-local entanglement between the ensembles. We compare and connect several quantities obtained using the Holstein-Primakoff approach and our exact time evolution methods.

We revisit the properties of qubits under Lorentz transformations and, by considering Lorentz invariant quantum states in the Heisenberg formulation, clarify some misleading notation that has appeared in the literature on relativistic quantum information theory. We then use this formulation to consider the transformation properties of qubits and density matrices under space-time and gauge transformations. Finally we use our results to understand the behaviour of entanglement between different partitions of quantum systems. Our approach not only clarifies the notation, but provides a more intuitive and simple way of gaining insight into the behaviour of relativistic qubits. In particular, it allows us to greatly generalize the results in the current literature as well as substantially simplifying the calculations that are needed.

In the case of the discrete time coined quantum walk the reduced dynamics of the coin shows non-Markovian recurrence features due to information back-flow from the position degree of freedom. Here we study how this non-Markovian behavior is modified in the presence of open system dynamics. In the process, we obtain useful insights into the nature of non-Markovian physics. In particular, we show that in the case of (non-Markovian) random telegraph noise (RTN), a further discernbile recurrence feature is present in the dynamics. Moreover, this feature is correlated with the localization of the walker. On the other hand, no additional recurruence feature appears for other non-Markovian types of noise (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and Power Law noise). We propose a power spectral method for comparing the relative strengths of the non-Markovian component due to the external noise and that due to the internal position degree of freedom.

The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach with Davydov Ans\"atze is a sophisticated, yet efficient technique to obtain an acuurate solution to many-body Schr\"odinger equations for energy and charge transfer dy- namics in molecular aggregates and light-harvesting complexes. We extend this variational approach to finite temperatures dynamics of the spin-boson model by adopting a Monte Carlo importance sampling method. In or- der to demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we compare real-time quantum dynamics of the spin-boson model calculated with that from numerically exact iterative quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) technique. The comparison shows that our variational approach with the single Davydov Ans\"atze is in excellent agreement with the QUAPI method at high temperatures, while the two differ at low temperatures. Accuracy in dynamics calculations employing a multitude of Davydov trial states is found to improve substantially over the single Davydov Ansatz, especially at low temperatures. At a moderate computational cost, our variational approach with the multiple Davydov Ansatz is shown to provide accurate spin-boson dynamics over a wide range of temperatures and bath spectral densities.

Quantum coherence defined by the superposition behavior of a particle beyond the classical realm, serves as one of the most fundamental features in quantum mechanics. Meanwhile, the wave-particle duality phenomenon, which shares the same origin, therefore has a strong relationship with the quantum coherence. Recently an elegant relation between the quantum coherence and the path information has been theoretically derived [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 160406 (2016)]. Here, we demonstrate an experimental test of such new duality by l1-norm measure and the minimum-error state discrimination. We prepare three classes of two-photon state encoded in polarization degree of freedom, with one photon served as the target and another photon as the detector. We observe clear wave-particle like complementarity by varying detector states in different region of inherently embodied quantity of quantum coherence. Our results may shed new light on original nature of wave-particle duality and applications of quantum coherence as a fundamental resource in quantum technologies.

Models of quantum systems on curved space-times lack sufficient experimental verification. Some speculative theories suggest that quantum properties, such as entanglement, may exhibit entirely different behavior to purely classical systems. By measuring this effect or lack thereof, we can test the hypotheses behind several such models. For instance, as predicted by Ralph and coworkers [T C Ralph, G J Milburn, and T Downes, Phys. Rev. A, 79(2):22121, 2009; T C Ralph and J Pienaar, New Journal of Physics, 16(8):85008, 2014], a bipartite entangled system could decohere if each particle traversed through a different gravitational field gradient. We propose to study this effect in a ground to space uplink scenario. We extend the above theoretical predictions of Ralph and coworkers and discuss the scientific consequences of detecting/failing to detect the predicted gravitational decoherence. We present a detailed mission design of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Space QUEST (Space - Quantum Entanglement Space Test) mission, and study the feasibility of the mission schema.

Photon anti-bunching, measured via the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss experiment, is one of the key signatures of quantum light and is tied to sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. Recently, it has been reported that photon anti-bunching or conditional sub-Poissonian photon number statistics can be obtained via second-order interference of mutually incoherent weak lasers and heralding based on photon counting. Here, we report theoretical analysis on the limits of manipulating conditional photon statistics via interference of weak lasers. It is shown that conditional photon number statistics can become super-Poissonian in such a scheme. We, however, demonstrate explicitly that it cannot become sub-Poissonian, i.e., photon anti-bunching cannot be obtained in such a scheme. We point out that incorrect results can be obtained if one does not properly account for seemingly negligible higher-order photon number expansions of the coherent state.

It has been found that a model of extended electrons is more suited to describe theoretical simulations and experimental results obtained via scanning tunnelling microscopes, but while the dynamic properties are easily incorporated, magnetic properties, and in particular electron spin properties pose a problem due to their conceived isotropy in the absence of measurement. The spin of an electron reacts with a magnetic field and thus has the properties of a vector. However, electron spin is also isotropic, suggesting that it does not have the properties of a vector. This central conflict in the description of an electron's spin, we believe, is the root of many of the paradoxical properties measured and postulated for quantum spin particles. Exploiting a model in which the electron spin is described consistently in real three-dimensional space - an extended electron model - we demonstrate that spin may be described by a vector and still maintain its isotropy. In this framework, we re-evaluate the Stern-Gerlach experiments, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments, and the effect of consecutive measurements and find in all cases a fairly intuitive explanation.

New classical modalities of atomic force microscopy continue to emerge to achieve higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution for nanometrology of materials. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum mechanical modality that capitalizes on squeezed states of probe displacement. We show that such squeezing is enabled nanomechanically when the probe enters the van der Waals regime of interaction with a sample. The effect is studied in the non-contact mode, where we consider the parameter domains characterizing the attractive regime of the probe-sample interaction force.

A dynamical estimate is given for the Boltzmann entropy of the Universe, under the simplifying assumptions provided by Newtonian cosmology. We first model the cosmological fluid as the probability fluid of a quantum-mechanical system. Next, following current ideas about the emergence of spacetime, we regard gravitational equipotentials as isoentropic surfaces. Therefore gravitational entropy is proportional to the vacuum expectation value of the gravitational potential in a certain quantum state describing the matter contents of the Universe. The entropy of the matter sector can also be computed. While providing values of the entropy that turn out to be somewhat higher than existing estimates, our results are in perfect compliance with the upper bound set by the holographic principle.

Scrambling is a process by which the state of a quantum system is effectively randomized. Scrambling exhibits different complexities depending on the degree of randomness it produces. For example, the complete randomization of a pure quantum state (Haar scrambling) implies the inability to retrieve information of the initial state by measuring only parts of the system (Page/information scrambling), but the converse is not necessarily the case. Here, we formally relate scrambling complexities to the degree of randomness, by studying the behaviors of generalized entanglement entropies -- in particular R\'enyi entropies -- and their relationship to designs, ensembles of states or unitaries that match the completely random states or unitaries (drawn from the Haar measure) up to certain moments. The main result is that the R\'enyi-$\alpha$ entanglement entropies, averaged over $\alpha$-designs, are almost maximal. The result generalizes Page's theorem for the von Neumann entropies of small subsystems of random states. For designs of low orders, the average R\'enyi entanglement entropies can be non-maximal: we exhibit a projective 2-design such that all higher order R\'enyi entanglement entropies are bounded away from the maximum. However, we show that the R\'enyi entanglement entropies of all orders are almost maximal for state or unitary designs of order logarithmic in the dimension of the system. That is, such designs are indistinguishable from Haar-random by the entanglement spectrum. Our results establish a formal correspondence between generalized entropies and designs of the same order.

We demonstrated the first-order interference between coherent light at 1580 nm and 795 nm by using frequency-domain Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The MZI is implemented by two frequency-domain BSs based on a second-order nonlinear optical effect in a periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide with a strong pump light. We achieved the visibility of over 0.99 at 50% conversion efficiencies of the BSs. Toward photonic quantum information processing, sufficiently small background photon rate is necessary. From the measurement results with a superconducting single photon detector, we discuss the feasibility of the frequency-domain MZI in a quantum regime. Our estimation shows that single photon interference with the visibility above 0.9 is feasible with practical settings.

System of a two-flavor mixture of ultra-cold fermions confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap is studied in the frame of the center of mass. We present a numerical method of obtaining energetic spectra in this frame for an arbitrary mass ratio of fermionic species. We identify a specific invariant encoded in many-body correlations which enable one to determine an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian and to label excitations of the center of mass. The tool presented may be particularly useful in experimental analysis of the interparticle interactions which do not affect the center of mass excitations in a harmonic potential.