Author(s): Hugo Ribeiro and Aashish A. Clerk

We develop protocols for high-fidelity single-qubit gates that exploit and extend theoretical ideas for accelerated adiabatic evolution. Our protocols are compatible with qubit architectures where direct transitions between logical states are either vanishingly small or nonexistent; in such systems ...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 032323] Published Tue Sep 17, 2019

Many-body techniques based on the double unitary coupled cluster ansatz (DUCC) can be used to downfold electronic Hamiltonians into low-dimensional active spaces. It can be shown that the resulting dimensionality reduced Hamiltonians are amenable for quantum computing. Recent studies performed for several benchmark systems using quantum phase estimation (QPE) algorithms demonstrated that these formulations can recover a significant portion of ground-state dynamical correlation effects that stem from the electron excitations outside of the active space. These results have also been confirmed in studies of ground-state potential energy surfaces using quantum simulators. In this letter, we study the effectiveness of the DUCC formalism in describing excited states. We also emphasize the role of the QPE formalism and its stochastic nature in discovering/identifying excited states or excited-state processes in situations when the knowledge about the true configurational structure of a sought after excited state is limited or postulated (due to the specific physics driving excited-state processes of interest). In this context, we can view the QPE algorithm as an engine for verifying various hypotheses for excited-state processes and providing statistically meaningful results that correspond to the electronic state(s) with the largest overlap with a postulated configurational structure. We illustrate these ideas on examples of strongly correlated molecular systems, characterized by small energy gaps and high density of quasi-degenerate states around the Fermi level.

Extraction of quantum coherence plays an important role in the theory of quantum information and thermodynamics. We introduce a new type of extraction protocol based on the sub-swap operation between the extracted system and the system which acts as a source of coherence. By implementing it for a source in the Glauber state of a harmonic oscillator we investigate the conditions under which catalysis of coherence, i.e., repeatable extraction, is possible and discuss the limits of repeatability in the general case. By comparing the protocol with others in the literature we demonstrate that although by construction no extra amount of coherence in the combined system is created, it manages to extract more coherence in a qubit than previously possible.

One of the most accurate methods for solving the time-dependent Schr\"{o}dinger equation uses a combination of the dynamic Fourier method with the split-operator algorithm on a tensor-product grid. To reduce the number of required grid points, we let the grid move together with the wavepacket, but find that the na\"ive algorithm based on an alternate evolution of the wavefunction and grid destroys the time reversibility of the exact evolution. Yet, we show that the time reversibility is recovered if the wavefunction and grid are evolved simultaneously during each kinetic or potential step; this is achieved by using the Ehrenfest theorem together with the splitting method. The proposed algorithm is conditionally stable, symmetric, time-reversible, and conserves the norm of the wavefunction. The preservation of these geometric properties is shown analytically and demonstrated numerically on a three-dimensional harmonic model and collinear model of He-H$_{2}$ scattering. We also show that the proposed algorithm can be symmetrically composed to obtain time-reversible integrators of an arbitrary even order. We observed $10000$-fold speedup by using the tenth- instead of the second- order method to obtain a solution with a time discretization error below $10^{-10}$. Moreover, using the adaptive grid instead of the fixed grid resulted in a 64-fold reduction in the required number of grid points in the harmonic system and made it possible to simulate the He-H$_{2}$ scattering for six times longer, while maintaining reasonable accuracy.

Using a qubit to probe non-Gaussian noise environments is theoretically studied in the context of classical random telegraph processes. Protocols for control pulses are developed to effectively scan higher noise correlations, offering valuable information on the charge environment of the qubit. Specifically, the noise power spectrum and trispectrum are reconstructed simultaneously for a wide range of qubit-fluctuator coupling strengths, demonstrating the method's robustness. These protocols are readily testable in various qubit systems with well-developed quantum control, including quantum dot spins, superconducting qubits and NV centers in diamond.

We investigate the dynamics of a particle in a confined periodic system --- a time-dependent oscillator confined by infinitely high and moving walls --- and focus on the evolution of the phase of the wavefunction. It is shown that for some specific initial states in this potential, the phase evolves nonlocally. We further elaborate a thought experiment devised to detect this form of single-particle nonlocality. We point out that within the non-relativistic formalism based on the Schr\"odinger equation (SE), detecting this form of nonlocality can give rise to signaling. We believe this effect is an artifact, but the standard relativistic corrections to the SE do not appear to fix it. Specific illustrations are given, with analytical results in the adiabatic approximation, and numerical computations to show that contributions from high-energy states (corresponding to superluminal velocities) are negligible.

The coupling between a superconducting qubit and a control line inevitably results in radiative decay of the qubit into the line. We propose a Josephson quantum filter (JQF), which protects the data qubit (DQ) from radiative decay through the control line without reducing the gate speed on DQ. JQF consists of a qubit strongly coupled to the control line to DQ, and its working principle is a subradiance effect characteristic to waveguide quantum electrodynamics setups. JQF is a passive circuit element and is therefore suitable for integration in a scalable superconducting qubit system.

We derive the expansion of the irregular physical solution over the spherical solutions at negative energies, which is necessary for obtaining the $S$ matrix of the process. The relation of this expansion to the theory developed by Giannakees et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 013419 (2016), is analyzed. In particular, we show that the expansion of the irregular solution missing in Giannakees et al.'s theory can be derived from one of their main postulates. The expansion thus obtained turns out to be numerically equivalent to our expansion up to high angular momenta. Analytical expressions for the key matrix of both expansions are derived.

Counterfactual definiteness is shown from analysis of Bell's Theorem to be the factor separating classical from quantum theories. From this, it is shown that, by replacing it with 'counterfactual semi-definiteness', the definiteness of possible options available after a measurement event, some apt analysis of possible states can be kept. While not as solid as that forbidden by the EPR paradox and Bell's Theorem, it allows us to start investigating the physical implementation of possible states in a way that has rarely been done. Working from this, the idea of counterfactuality, and interaction between counterfactual possibilities, is developed further.

We discuss three proposed schemes of initializing circular-state Rydberg atoms via optical couplings provided by the ponderomotive effect in contrast to the current circularization methods that utilize electric-dipole interactions. In our first proposed method, a radial optical trap consisting of two Laguerre-Gaussian beams of opposite winding numbers transfers orbital angular momentum to the Rydberg atom, providing a first-order coherent coupling between an F-state and a circular state. Additionally, we propose a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice modulated at rf frequencies, providing quadrupole-like couplings in the hydrogenic manifold for rapid adiabatic passage through a series of intermediate Rydberg states into the circular state. For the third proposed scheme, a two-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice with a time-orbiting trap center induces effectively the same coupling as a $\sigma^{+}$ or $\sigma^{-}$-polarized rf field of tunable purity for all-optical rapid adiabatic passage into the circular state.

In this work we study the encoding of smooth, differentiable multivariate functions distributions in quantum registers, using quantum computers or tensor-network representations. We show that a large family of distributions can be encoded as low-entanglement states of the quantum register. These states can be efficiently created in a quantum computer, but they are also efficiently stored, manipulated and probed using Matrix-Product States techniques. Inspired by this idea, we present eight quantum-inspired numerical analysis algorithms, that include Fourier sampling, interpolation, differentiation and integration of partial derivative equations. These algorithms combine classical ideas---finite-differences, spectral methods---with the efficient encoding of quantum registers, and well known algorithms, such as the Quantum Fourier Transform. {When these heuristic methods work}, they provide an exponential speed-up over other classical algorithms, such as Monte Carlo integration, finite-difference and fast Fourier transforms (FFT). But even when they don't, some of these algorithms can be translated back to a quantum computer to implement a similar task.

The confluent second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics, in which the factorization energies tend to a common value, is used to generate Hamiltonians with known spectra departing from the hyperbolic Rosen-Morse and Eckart potentials. The possible spectral modifications, as to create a new level or to delete a given one, as well as the isospectral transformations, are discussed.

In recent works we have used quantum tools in the analysis of the time evolution of several macroscopic systems. The main ingredient in our approach is the self-adjoint Hamiltonian $H$ of the system $\Sc$. This Hamiltonian quite often, and in particular for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, gives rise to reversible and oscillatory dynamics. Sometimes this is not what physical reasons suggest. We discuss here how to use non self-adjoint Hamiltonians to overcome this difficulty: the time evolution we obtain out of them show a preferable arrow of time, and it is not reversible. Several applications are constructed, in particular in connection to information dynamics.

Color-center-hosting semiconductors are emerging as promising source materials for low-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at or near room temperature, but hyperfine broadening, susceptibility to magnetic field heterogeneity, and nuclear spin relaxation induced by other paramagnetic defects set practical constraints difficult to circumvent. Here, we explore an alternate route to color-center-assisted DNP using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond coupled to substitutional nitrogen impurities, the so-called P1 centers. Working near the level anti-crossing condition - where the P1 Zeeman splitting matches one of the NV spin transitions - we demonstrate efficient microwave-free 13C DNP through the use of consecutive magnetic field sweeps and continuous optical excitation. The amplitude and sign of the polarization can be controlled by adjusting the low-to-high and high-to-low magnetic field sweep rates in each cycle so that one is much faster than the other. By comparing the 13C DNP response for different crystal orientations, we show that the process is robust to magnetic field/NV misalignment, a feature that makes the present technique suitable to diamond powders and settings where the field is heterogeneous. Applications to shallow NVs could capitalize on the greater physical proximity between surface paramagnetic defects and outer nuclei to efficiently polarize target samples in contact with the diamond crystal.

Correlations disguised in various forms underlie a host of important phenomena in classical and quantum systems, such as information and energy exchanges. The quantum mutual information and the norm of the correlation matrix are both considered as proper measures of total correlations. We demonstrate that, when applied to the same system, these two measures can actually show significantly different behavior except at least in two limiting cases: when there are no correlations and when there is maximal quantum entanglement. We further quantify the discrepancy by providing analytic formulas for time derivatives of the measures for an interacting bipartite system evolving unitarily. We argue that to properly account for correlations, one should consider the full information provided by the correlation matrix (and reduced states of the subsystems). Scalar quantities such as the norm of the correlation matrix or the quantum mutual information can only capture a part of the complex features of correlations. As a concrete example, we show that in describing heat exchange associated with correlations, neither of these quantities can fully capture the underlying physics.

The nonclassical feature of photons in the open finite-size Dicke model is investigated via the two-photon correlation function. The quantum dressed master equation combined with the extended coherent photonic states is applied to analyze the dissipative dynamics of both the photons and qubits. The anti-bunching to bunching transition of photons is clearly observed by tuning the qubit-photon coupling strength. The optimal qubits number is unraveled to enhance the two-photon correlation function. Moreover, the temperature bias of thermal baths induces significant two-photon bunching signature with deep strong qubit-photon interaction.

Error probability distribution associated with a given Clifford measurement circuit is described exactly in terms of the circuit subsystem code previously introduced by Bacon, Flammia, Harrow, and Shi. In particular, this gives a prescription for maximum-likelihood decoding with a given measurement circuit.

The quantum Pusey--Barrett--Rudolph (PBR) theorem addresses the question of whether the quantum state corresponds to a $\psi$-ontic model (system's physical state) or to a $\psi$-epistemic model (observer's knowledge about the system). We reformulate the PBR theorem as a Monty Hall game, and show that winning probabilities, for switching doors in the game, depend whether it is a $\psi$-ontic or $\psi$-epistemic game. For certain cases of the latter, switching doors provides no advantage. We also apply the concepts involved to quantum teleportation, in particular for improving reliability.

We derive dynamics of the entanglement wedge cross section from the reflected entropy for local operator quench states in the holographic CFT. By comparing between the reflected entropy and the mutual information in this dynamical setup, we argue that (1) the reflected entropy can diagnose a new perspective of the chaotic nature for given mixed states and (2) it can also characterize classical correlations in the subregion/subregion duality. Moreover, we point out that we must improve the bulk interpretation of a heavy state even in the case of well-studied entanglement entropy. Finally, we show that we can derive the same results from the odd entanglement entropy. The present paper is an extended version of our earlier report arXiv:1907.06646 and includes many new results: non-perturbative quantum correction to the reflected/odd entropy, detailed analysis in both CFT and bulk sides, many technical aspects of replica trick for reflected entropy which turn out to be important for general setup, and explicit forms of multi-point semi-classical conformal blocks under consideration.

The idea that the search efficiency can be increased with the help of a number of autonomous agents is often relevant in many situations, which is known among biologists and roboticists as a stigmergy. This is due to the fact that, in any probability-based search problem, adding information provides values for conditional prpbabilities. We report new findings of speed-up and suppression effects occuring in the quantum search problem through the study of quantum walk on a graph with floating vertices. This effect is a completely counterintuitive phenomenon in comparison to the classical counterpert, and may faciliate new insight in the future information search mechanisms that were never been perceived in classical picture. In order to understand the first passage probability, we also propose a method via ancillary model to bridge the measurement of the time dependence of the total probability of the complementary part and the first passage probability of the original model. This is expected to provide new ideas for quantum simulation by means of qubit chips.