We investigate the optical properties of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to a linear series of $N$ other TLS with dipole-dipole coupling between the first neighbours. The first TLS is probed by weak field and we assume that it has a decay rate much stronger than the decay rates of the other TLS's. For N=1 and in the limit of a probe field much weaker than the dipole-dipole coupling, the optical response of the first TLS, i.e., its absorption and dispersion, are equivalent to those of a three-level atomic system in the configuration which allow one to observe the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon. Thus, here we are investigating a new kind of induced transparency where the dipole-dipole coupling plays the same role of the control field in EIT in three-level atoms. We describe this physical phenomenon, here named as Dipole-Dipole Induced Transparency (DDIT), and investigate how it scales with the number of coupled TLS. Finally, we propose a feasible application of DDIT in the context of cavity/circuit QED.

Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present the first implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally-expanded-core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.

We have studied the dynamics of one and two laser-cooled trapped $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions by applying electric fields of different nature along the axial direction of the trap, namely, driving the motion with a harmonic dipolar field, or with white noise. These two types of driving induce distinct motional states of the axial modes; a coherent oscillation with the dipolar field, or an enhanced Brownian motion due to an additional contribution to the heating rate from the electric noise. In both scenarios, the sensitivity of an isolated ion and a laser-cooled two-ion crystal has been evaluated and compared. The analysis and understanding of this dynamics is important towards the implementation of a novel Penning-trap mass-spectroscopy technique based on optical detection, aiming at improving precision and sensitivity.

Lithium Niobate on insulator (LNOI) photonics promises to combine the excellent nonlinear properties of Lithium Niobate with the high complexity achievable by high contrast waveguides. However, to date, fabrication challenges have resulted in high-loss and sidewall-angled waveguides, limiting its applicability. We report LNOI single mode waveguides with ultra low propagation loss of 0.4 dB/cm and sidewall angle of 75{\deg}. Our results open the route to a highly efficient photonic platform with applications ranging from high-speed telecommunication to quantum technology.

Fermi's golden rule applies to a situation in which a single quantum state $|\psi\rangle$ is coupled to a near-continuum. This "quasi-continuum coupling" structure results in a rate equation for the population of $|\psi\rangle$. Here we show that the coupling of a quantum system to the standard model of a thermal environment, a bath of harmonic oscillators, can be decomposed into a "cascade" made up of the quasi-continuum coupling structures of Fermi's golden rule. This clarifies the connection between the physics of the golden rule and that of a thermal bath, and provides a non-rigorous but physically intuitive derivation of the Markovian master equation directly from the former. The exact solution to the Hamiltonian of the golden rule, known as the Bixon-Jortner model, generalized for an asymmetric spectrum, provides a window on how the evolution induced by the bath deviates from the master equation as one moves outside the Markovian regime. Our analysis also reveals the relationship between the oscillator bath and the "random matrix model" (RMT) of a thermal bath. We show that the cascade structure is the one essential difference between the two models, and the lack of it prevents the RMT from generating transition rates that are independent of the initial state of the system. We suggest that the cascade structure is one of the generic elements of thermalizing many-body systems.

We study the relation between quantum computational complexity and general relativity. The quantum computational complexity is proposed to be quantified by the shortest length of geodesic quantum curves. We examine the complexity/volume duality in a geodesic causal ball in the framework of Fermi normal coordinates and derive the full non-linear Einstein equation. Using insights from the complexity/action duality, we argue that the accelerated expansion of the universe could be driven by the quantum complexity and free from coincidence and fine-tunning problems.

English translation of a Russian article from 1928. Translator's abstract: The article presents general considerations on the validity of the superposition principle for light in vacuo from out a quantum theoretic point of view. It contains a report on an optical experiment designed to detect the phenomenon of photon-photon scattering. To understand the negative result of the performed experiment, a consideration of the solar corona is undertaken in order to derive an empirical upper limit on the photon-photon scattering rate. Source details: S. I. Vavilov: Zamechaniya ob empiricheskoi tochnosti opticheskogo printsipa superpozitsii. Zhurnal Russkogo Fiziko-Khimicheskogo Obshchestva pri Leningradskom Universitete, Chast' Fizicheskaya [Journal of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society at Leningrad University, Physical Part], Vol. LX (1928) No. 6, pp. 555-563.

When dressed particles (polarons) exchange phonons, the resulting interactions are generally attractive. If the particles have hard-core statistics (such as that of excitations or spinless fermions) and the coupling to phonons is through the kinetic energy terms, phonon-mediated interactions are repulsive. Here, we show that such repulsive phonon-mediated interactions may bind dressed particles, producing bipolarons with unique properties. These bipolaron states appear in the gap between phonon excitations, above the two-polaron continuum. While thermodynamically unstable, the bipolaron is protected by energy and momentum conservation and represents a novel quasiparticle with a large dispersion and a negative effective mass near zero momentum. We discuss possible experimental implementation of the conditions for the formation of repulsively bound bipolarons.

High fidelity and robustness in population inversion is very desirable for many quantum control applications. We expand composite pulse schemes developed for two-level dynamics, and present an analytic solution for the coherent evolution of an N-level quantum system with SU(2) symmetry, for achieving high fidelity and robust population inversion, which outperforms common solutions in N-level dynamics. Our approach offers a platform for accurate steering of the population transfer in physical multi-level systems, which is crucial for fidelity in quantum computation and achieving fundamental excitations in nuclear magnetic resonances and atomic physics. We also introduce and discuss the geometrical trajectories of these dynamics on the Majorana sphere as an interpretation, allowing to gain physical insight on the dynamics of many-body or high-dimensional quantum systems.

We formulate and discuss explicit computation of dynamic correlation functions in open quadradic fermionic systems which are driven and dissipated by the Lindblad jump processes that are linear in canonical fermionic operators. Dynamic correlators are interpreted in terms of local quantum quench where the pre-quench state is the non-equilibrium steady state, i.e. a fixed point of the Liouvillian. As an example we study the XY spin 1/2 chain and the Kitaev Majorana chains with boundary Lindblad driving, whose dynamics exhibits asymmetric (skewed) light cone behaviour. We also numerically treat the two dimensional XY model and the XY spin chain with additional Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. The latter exhibits a new non-equilibrium phase transition which can be understood in terms of bifurcations of the quasi-particle dispersion relation. Finally, considering in some detail the periodic Kitaev chain (fermionic ring) with dissipation at a single (arbitrary) site, we present analytical expressions for the first order corrections (in the strength of dissipation) to the spectrum and the non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) correlation functions.

Generalised quantum measurements with two outcomes are fully characterised by two real parameters, dubbed as sharpness parameter and biasedness parameter and they can be linked with different aspects of the experimental set up. It is known that precision of measurements, characterised by the sharpness parameter of the measurements, reduces the possibility of probing quantum features like violation of localrealism (LR) or macrorealism (MR). Here we investigate the effect of biasedness together with sharpness of measurement and find a trade-off between those two parameters in the context of probing violation of LR and MR. Interestingly we also find the above mentioned trade-off is more robust in the later case.

Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of ~20 {\mu}m for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate and up to 63% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode is achieved, indicating significant mode confinement. Finally, we demonstrate routing of single plasmons with DLSPPW-based directional cou-plers, revealing the potential of our approach for on-chip realization of quantum-optical networks.

The nonequilibrium ultracold bosonic quantum dynamics in finite optical lattices of unit filling following a linear interaction quench from a superfluid to a Mott insulator state and vice versa is investigated. The resulting dynamical response consists of various inter and intraband tunneling modes. We find that the competition between the quench rate and the interparticle repulsion leads to a resonant dynamical response, at moderate ramp times, being related to avoided crossings in the many-body eigenspectrum with varying interaction strength. Crossing the regime of weak to strong interactions several transport pathways are excited. The higher-band excitation dynamics is shown to obey an exponential decay possessing two distinct time scales with varying ramp time. Studying the crossover from shallow to deep lattices we find that for a diabatic quench the excited band fraction decreases, while approaching the adiabatic limit it exhibits a non-linear behavior for increasing height of the potential barrier. The inverse ramping process from strong to weak interactions leads to a melting of the Mott insulator and possesses negligible higher-band excitations which follow an exponential decay for decreasing quench rate. Finally, independently of the direction that the phase boundary is crossed, we observe a significant enhancement of the excited to higher-band fraction for increasing system size.

Recently, the much-used trace distance of coherence was shown to not be a proper measure of coherence, so a modification of it was proposed. We derive an explicit formula for this modified trace distance of coherence on pure states. Our formula shows that, despite satisfying the axioms of proper coherence measures, it is likely not a good measure to use, since it is maximal (equal to 1) on all except for an exponentially-small (in the dimension of the space) fraction of pure states.

We introduce a general scheme to detect various multiparticle entanglement structures from global non-permutationally invariant observables. In particular, we derive bounds on the variance of non-permutationally invariant and collective operators for the verification of $k$-party entanglement. For a family of observables related to the spin structure factor, we give quantitative bounds on entanglement that are independent of the total number of particles. We introduce highly non-symmetric states with genuine multipartite entanglement that is verifiable with the presented technique and discuss how they can be prepared with trapped ions exploiting the high degree of control in these systems. As a special case, our framework provides an alternative approach to obtain a tight relaxation of the entanglement criterion by S{\o} rensen and M{\o} lmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4431 (2001)] that is free from technical assumptions and allows to calculate the bounds with an improved scaling in the detectable depth.

A subset of the concepts of circuit quantum electrodynamics are reviewed as a reference to the Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) community as part of the proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Microwave Cavities and Detectors for Axion Research. The classical Lagrangians and Hamiltonians for an LC circuit are discussed along with black box circuit quantization methods for a weakly anharmonic qubit coupled to a resonator or cavity.

We investigate the behavior of entanglement in the ground state of a doped one-dimensional lattice, where the particles interact via the quantum t-J model, which can be obtained from the Hubbard Hamiltonian with large onsite interactions. For different values of the electron concentration, the rich phase diagram exhibits both polynomial and exponential decay of bipartite quantum entanglement, with increasing lattice distance. This respectively characterizes the properties of the Luttinger liquid and the electron-hole phase separation regions of the phase diagram. Interestingly, at low electron concentration, where the spin-gap opens, the ground state turns out to be a long-ranged resonating valence bond gas. We observe that the phase diagram remains qualitatively unchanged even when additional next-nearest-neighbor spin couplings are introduced, though the phase boundaries are dependent on the relative strength between the nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions, which the decay patterns of entanglement can capture. A key finding of the study relates to the genuine multipartite entanglement of the ground state of the model at low electron densities. We observe that for fixed values of the electron density, multipartite entanglement remains immutable under perturbative or sudden changes of system parameters, a phenomenon termed as adiabatic freezing. The phenomenon is absent in the anisotropic undoped limit of the system. It is to be noted that multipartite entanglement, in general, is sensitive to external perturbation, as observed in several systems, and hitherto, no freezing behavior has been reported.

Coupling nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to optical cavities is a promising way to enhance the efficiency of diamond based quantum networks. An essential aspect of the full toolbox required for the operation of these networks is the ability to achieve microwave control of the electron spin associated with this defect within the cavity framework. Here, we report on the fabrication of an integrated platform for microwave control of an NV center electron spin in an open, tunable Fabry-Perot microcavity. A critical aspect of the measurements of the cavity's finesse reveals that the presented fabrication process does not compromise its optical properties. We provide a method to incorporate a thin diamond slab into the cavity architecture and demonstrate control of the NV center spin. These results show the promise of this design for future cavity-enhanced NV center spin-photon entanglement experiments.

Calculation of the entropy of an ideal Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) in a three dimensional trap reveals unusual, previously unrecognized, features of the Canonical Ensemble. It is found that, for any temperature, the entropy of the Bose gas is equal to the entropy of the excited particles although the entropy of the particles in the ground state is nonzero. We explain this by considering the correlations between the ground state particles and particles in the excited states. These correlations lead to a correlation entropy which is exactly equal to the contribution from the ground state. The correlations themselves arise from the fact that we have a fixed number of particles obeying quantum statistics. We present results for correlation functions between the ground and excited states in Bose gas, so to clarify the role of fluctuations in the system. We also report the sub-Poissonian nature of the ground state fluctuations.

The function of nano-scale devices critically depends on the choice of materials. For electron transport junctions it is natural to characterize the materials by their conductance length dependence, $\beta$. Theoretical estimations of $\beta$ are made employing two primary theories: complex band structure and DFT-NEGF Landauer transport. Both reveal information on $\beta$ of individual states; i.e. complex Bloch waves and transmission eigenchannels, respectively. However, it is unclear how the $\beta$-values of the two approaches compare. Here, we present calculations of decay constants for the two most conductive states as determined by complex band structure and standard DFT-NEGF transport calculations for two molecular and one semi-conductor junctions. Despite the different nature of the two methods, we find strong agreement of the calculated decay constants for the molecular junctions while the semi-conductor junction shows some discrepancies. The results presented here provide a template for studying the intrinsic, channel resolved length dependence of the junction through complex band structure of the central material in the heterogeneous nano-scale junction.