We propose an optimization procedure for Euclidean path-integrals that evaluate CFT wave functionals in arbitrary dimensions. The optimization is performed by minimizing certain functional, which can be interpreted as a measure of computational complexity, with respect to background metrics for the path-integrals. In two dimensional CFTs, this functional is given by the Liouville action. We also formulate the optimization for higher dimensional CFTs and, in various examples, find that the optimized hyperbolic metrics coincide with the time slices of expected gravity duals. Moreover, if we optimize a reduced density matrix, the geometry becomes two copies of the entanglement wedge and reproduces the holographic entanglement entropy. Our approach resembles a continuous tensor network renormalization and provides a concrete realization of the proposed interpretation of AdS/CFT as tensor networks. The present paper is an extended version of our earlier report arXiv:1703.00456 and includes many new results such as evaluations of complexity functionals, energy stress tensor, higher dimensional extensions and time evolutions of thermofield double states.

We investigate the suppression of spontaneous emission from a driven three-level system embedded in an optical cavity via a manifestation of the quantum Zeno effect. Strong resonant coupling of the lower two levels to an external optical field results in a decrease of the exponential decay rate of the third upper level. We show that this effect has observable consequences in the form of emission spectra with subnatural linewidths, which should be measurable using, for example, quantum dot--cavity systems in currently obtainable parameter regimes. These results constitute a novel method to control an inherently irreversible and dissipative process, and may be useful in applications requiring the control of single photon arrival times and wavepacket extent.

We introduce both an exactly solvable model and a coupled-layer construction for an exotic, three-dimensional phase of matter with immobile topological excitations that carry a protected internal degeneracy. Unitary transformations on this degenerate Hilbert space may be implemented by braiding certain point-like excitations. This provides a new way of extending non-Abelian statistics to three-dimensions.

Suppose that particle detectors are placed along a Cauchy surface $\Sigma$ in Minkowski space-time, and consider a quantum theory with fixed or variable number of particles (i.e., using Fock space or a subspace thereof). It is straightforward to guess what Born's rule should look like for this setting: The probability distribution of the detected configuration on $\Sigma$ has density $|\psi_\Sigma|^2$, where $\psi_\Sigma$ is a suitable wave function on $\Sigma$, and the operation $|\cdot|^2$ is suitably interpreted. We call this statement the "curved Born rule." Since in any one Lorentz frame, the appropriate measurement postulates referring to constant-$t$ hyperplanes should determine the probabilities of the outcomes of any conceivable experiment, they should also imply the curved Born rule. This is what we are concerned with here: deriving Born's rule for $\Sigma$ from Born's rule in one Lorentz frame (along with a collapse rule). We describe two ways of defining an idealized detection process, and prove for one of them that the probability distribution coincides with $|\psi_\Sigma|^2$. For this result, we need two hypotheses on the time evolution: that there is no interaction faster than light, and that there is no creation of particles from the Fock vacuum. The wave function $\psi_\Sigma$ can be obtained from the Tomonaga--Schwinger equation, or from a multi-time wave function by inserting configurations on $\Sigma$. Thus, our result establishes in particular how multi-time wave functions are related to detection probabilities.

We review the concepts and the present state of theoretical studies of spin-imbalanced superfluidity, in particular the elusive Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, in the context of ultracold quantum gases. The comprehensive presentation of the theoretical basis for the FFLO state that we provide is useful also for research on the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in other physical systems. We focus on settings that have been predicted to be favourable for the FFLO state, such as optical lattices in various dimensions and spin-orbit coupled systems. These are also the most likely systems for near-future experimental observation of the FFLO state. Theoretical bounds, such as Bloch's and Luttinger's theorems, and experimentally important limitations, such as finite-size effects and trapping potentials, are considered. In addition, we provide a comprehensive review of the various ideas presented for the observation of the FFLO state. We conclude our review with an analysis of the open questions related to the FFLO state, such as its stability, superfluid density, collective modes and extending the FFLO superfluid concept to new types of lattice systems.

Cat-state qubits (qubits encoded with cat states) have recently drawn intensive attention due to their long lifetimes. We here propose a method to implement a universal controlled-phase gate of two cat-state qubits, via two microwave resonators coupled to a superconducting transmon qutrit. During the gate operation, the qutrit remains in the ground state; thus decoherence from the qutrit is greatly suppressed. This proposal requires only two basic operations and neither classical pulse nor measurement is needed; therefore the gate realization is simple. Numerical simulations show that high-fidelity implementation of this gate is feasible with current circuit QED technology. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to implement the proposed gate with two microwave resonators or two optical cavities coupled to a single three-level natural or artificial atom.

The violation of certain Bell inequalities allows for device-independent information processing secure against non-signalling eavesdroppers. However, this only holds for the Bell network, in which two or more agents perform local measurements on a single shared source of entanglement. To overcome the practical constraint that entangled systems can only be transmitted over relatively short distances, large-scale multi-source networks---in which entanglement is swapped between intermediate nodes---have been employed. Yet, to use Bell inequality violation to establish secure device-independent protocols between distant agents in such multi-source networks, the outcomes of intermediate entanglement swapping measurements must be post-selected---impeding the rate at which security can be established. Moreover, having multiple intermediate nodes in the network opens the door for generalised eavesdropping attacks not seen in the Bell network. Do there exist analogues of Bell inequalities for such multi-source networks whose violation is a resource for device-independent information processing without the need for post-selection? Recently, polynomial inequalities on the correlations classically achievable in multi-source networks have been derived. In this paper, the violation of these polynomial inequalities will be shown to allow for device-independent information processing without the need to condition on intermediate agents' outcomes. Moreover, their violation can prevent generalised eavesdropper attacks.

We study the entanglement entropy, the R\'enyi entropy, and the mutual (R\'enyi) information of Dirac fermions on a 2 dimensional torus in the presence of constant gauge fields. We derive their general formulas using the equivalence between twisted boundary conditions and the background gauge fields. Novel and interesting physical consequences have been presented in arXiv:1705.01859. Here we provide detailed computations of the entropies and mutual information in a low temperature limit, a large radius limit, and a high temperature limit. The high temperature limit reveals rather different physical properties compared to those of the low temperature one: there exist two non-trivial limits that depend on a modulus parameter and are not smoothly connected.

We demonstrate that dissociation of one-dimensional cold-atom breathers, created by a quench from a fundamental soliton, is a quantum many-body effect, as all mean-field (MF) contributions to the dissociation vanish due to the integrability of the underlying nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation. The analysis predicts a possibility to observe quantum many-body effects without leaving the MF range of experimental parameters. In particular, the dissociation time on the order of a few seconds is expected for a typical atomic-soliton setting.

Quantum computing is no longer a nascent field. Programmable quantum annealing devices with more that 1000 qubits are commercially available. How does one know that a putative quantum annealing device is indeed quantum? How should one go about benchmarking its performance and compare it to classical algorithms? How can its performance be improved by error correction? In this contribution to the focus collection on "What would you do with 1000 qubits?", we review the work we and others have done in this area, since the first D-Wave quantum annealer with 108 qubits was made available to us. Some of the lessons we have learned will be useful when other quantum computing platforms reach a similar scale, and practitioners will attempt to demonstrate quantum speedup.

Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been used as ultrasensitive magnetometers to perform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of statistically polarized samples at 1 - 100 nm length scales. However, the spectral linewidth is typically limited to the kHz level, both by the NV sensor coherence time and by rapid molecular diffusion of the nuclei through the detection volume which in turn is critical for achieving long nuclear coherence times. Here we provide a blueprint for a set-up that combines a sensitivity sufficient for detecting NMR signals from nano- to micron-scale samples with a spectral resolution that is limited only by the nuclear spin coherence, i.e. comparable to conventional NMR. Our protocol detects the nuclear polarization induced along the direction of an external magnetic field with near surface NV centers using lock-in detection techniques to enable phase coherent signal averaging. Using NV centers in a dual role of NMR detector and optical hyperpolarization source to increase signal to noise, and in combination with Bayesian interference models for signal processing, nano/microscale NMR spectroscopy can be performed on sub-millimolar sample concentrations, several orders of magnitude better than the current state of the art.

We propose a scheme to measure the quantum state of photons in a cavity. The proposal is based on the concept of quantum weak values and applies equally well to both the solid-state circuit and atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems. The proposed scheme allows us to access directly the superposition components in Fock state basis, rather than the Wigner function as usual in phase space. Moreover, the separate access feature held in the direct scheme does not require a global reconstruction for the quantum state, which provides a particular advantage beyond the conventional method of quantum state tomography.

We focus on a recently experimentally realized scenario of normal-metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions coupled to a superconducting resonator. We develop a first-principles theory to describe the effect of photon-assisted electron tunneling on the quantum state of the resonator. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with the previous experiments on refrigeration and heating of the resonator using the photon-assisted tunneling, thus providing a stringent verification of the developed theory. Importantly, our results provide simple analytical estimates of the voltage-tunable coupling strength and temperature of the thermal reservoir formed by the photon-assisted tunneling. Consequently, they are used to introduce optimization principles for initialization of quantum devices using such a quantum-circuit refrigerator. Thanks to the first-principles nature of our approach, extension of the theory to the full spectrum of quantum electric devices seems plausible.

Long-range interacting systems such as nitrogen vacancy(NV)-centers in diamond serve as useful experimental setups to probe a range of nonequilibrium many-body phenomena. In particular, via driving, various effective Hamiltonians with physics potentially quite distinct from short-range systems, can be realized. In this Letter, we derive general bounds on the linear response energy absorption rates of periodically driven systems of spins or fermions in $d$ spatial dimensions with long-range interactions that are sign-changing and fall off as $1/r^\alpha$ with $\alpha > d/2$. We show that the disordered averaged energy absorption rate at high temperature decays exponentially as a function of the driving frequency. These results are relevant for understanding heating timescales and hence timescales of validity of effective Hamiltonians as well as new dynamical regimes in such long-range systems.

In this article, we employ multimode radiation of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) to build a cluster state through a conversion on the base of quantum memory cell. We demonstrate that by choosing an appropriate driving field we can ensure the effective writing of the only one supermode from the entire set of the SPOPO squeezed supermodes. Further, by changing the driving field profile at the readout, we convert the time profile of the retrieved signal while maintaining its quantum state. We demonstrate the possibilities of using the presented scheme by the example of creating a four-mode linear cluster state of light.

Most leading proposals for linear-optical quantum computing (LOQC) use cluster states, which act as a universal resource for measurement-based (one-way) quantum computation (MBQC). In ballistic approaches to LOQC, cluster states are generated passively from small entangled resource states using so-called fusion operations. Results from percolation theory have previously been used to argue that universal cluster states can be generated in the ballistic approach using schemes which exceed the critical threshold for percolation, but these results consider cluster states with unbounded size. Here we consider how successful percolation can be maintained using a physical architecture with fixed physical depth, assuming that the cluster state is continuously generated and measured, and therefore that only a finite portion of it is visible at any one point in time. We show that universal LOQC can be implemented using a constant-size device with modest physical depth, and that percolation can be exploited using simple pathfinding strategies without the need for high-complexity algorithms.

We introduce a family of tensor network states that we term quasi-injective Projected Entangled-Pair States (PEPS). They extend the class of injective PEPS and include other states, like the ground states of the AKLT and the CZX models in square lattices. We construct parent Hamiltonians for which quasi-injective PEPS are unique ground states. We also determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for two tensors to generate the same family of such states in two spatial dimensions. Using this result, we show that the third cohomology labeling of Symmetry Protected Topological phases extends to quasi-injective PEPS.

Random number generation is crucial in many aspects of everyday life, as online security and privacy depend ultimately on the quality of random numbers. Many current implementations are based on pseudo-random number generators, but information security requires true random numbers for sensitive applications like key generation in banking, defence or even social media. True random number generators are systems whose outputs cannot be determined, even if their internal structure and response history are known. Sources of quantum noise are thus ideal for this application due to their intrinsic uncertainty. In this work, we propose using resonant tunnelling diodes as practical true random number generators based on a quantum mechanical effect. The output of the proposed devices can be directly used as a random stream of bits or can be further distilled using randomness extraction algorithms, depending on the application.

The driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model can be experimentally realized in superconducting circuits with either negative or positive onsite detunings, inter-site hopping energies, and onsite interaction energies. Here we use one dimensional tensor networks to perform a fully quantum investigation of the dependence of the non-equilibrium steady states of this model on the signs of these parameters. Due to a symmetry in the Lindblad master equation, we find that simultaneously changing the sign of the interaction energies, hopping energies, and chemical potentials leaves the local boson number distribution and inter-site number correlations invariant, and the steady-state complex conjugated. This shows that all driven-dissipative phenomena of interacting bosons described by the Lindblad master equation, such as "fermionization" and "superbunching", can equivalently occur with attractive or repulsive interactions.

The beyond mean-field dynamics of a bent dark soliton embedded in a two-dimensional repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensate is explored. We examine the case of a single bent dark soliton comparing the mean-field dynamics to a correlated approach, the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree Method for bosons. The dynamical manifestation of the "snaking" instability is observed, signaling the onset of fragmentation which becomes significant during the vortex nucleation. In contrast to the mean-field approximation "filling" of the vortex core is observed, leading in turn to the formation of filled-core vortices, instead of the mean-field vortex-antivortex pairs. The resulting smearing effect in the density is a rather generic feature, occurring when solitonic structures are exposed to quantum fluctuations. Here, we show that this filling owes its existence to the dynamical building of an antidark structure developed in the next-to-leading order orbital. Additionally, a variety of excitations including vortices, oblique dark solitons, and open ring dark soliton-like structures building upon higher-lying orbitals is observed. We demonstrate that signatures of the higher-lying orbital excitations emerge in the total density, and can be clearly captured by inspecting the one-body coherence. In the latter context, the localization of one-body correlations exposes the existence of the multi-orbital vortex-antidark structure.