Physics

Decipher the nonlocal entanglement entropy of fracton topological orders. (arXiv:1705.09300v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

The ground states of topological orders condense extended objects and support topological excitations. This nontrivial property leads to nonzero topological entanglement entropy $S_{topo}$ for conventional topological orders. Fracton topological order is an exotic class of topological order which is beyond the description of TQFT. With some assumptions about the condensates and the topological excitations, we derive a lower bound of the nonlocal entanglement entropy $S_{nonlocal}$ (a generalization of $S_{topo}$). The lower bound applies to Abelian stabilizer models including conventional topological orders as well as type I and type II fracton models. For fracton models, the lower bound shows that $S_{nonlocal}$ could obtain geometry-dependent values, and $S_{nonlocal}$ is extensive for certain choices of subsystems. The stability of the lower bound under local perturbations is discussed. A variant of our method for non-Abelian models will be presented in an upcoming work.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Minimum quantum resources for strong non-locality. (arXiv:1705.09312v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We analyse the minimum quantum resources needed to realise strong non-locality, as exemplified e.g. by the classical GHZ construction. It was already known that no two-qubit system, with any finite number of local measurements, can realise strong non-locality. For three-qubit systems, we show that strong non-locality can only be realised in the GHZ SLOCC class, and with equatorial measurements. However, we show that in this class there is an infinite family of states which are pairwise non-LU-equivalent that realise strong non-locality with finitely many measurements. These states have decreasing entanglement between one qubit and the other two, necessitating an increasing number of local measurements on the latter.

Categories: Journals, Physics

A note on Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation in (1+1) space-time dimensions. (arXiv:1705.09330v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

In this note we show that the massive Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation restricted to (1+1) space-time dimensions has only one irreducible representation, which corresponds to a (pseudo)scalar field, a result which is at odds with some claims in the recent literature.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Deep Neural Network Probabilistic Decoder for Stabilizer Codes. (arXiv:1705.09334v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

Neural networks can efficiently encode the probability distribution of errors in an error correcting code. Moreover, these distributions can be conditioned on the syndromes of the corresponding errors. This paves a path forward for a decoder that employs a neural network to calculate the conditional distribution, then sample from the distribution - the sample will be the predicted error for the given syndrome. We present an implementation of such an algorithm that can be applied to any stabilizer code. Testing it on the toric code, it has higher threshold than a number of known decoders thanks to naturally finding the most probable error and accounting for correlations between errors.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Simple digital quantum algorithm for some first order linear hyperbolic systems. (arXiv:1705.09361v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

This paper is devoted to the derivation of a digital quantum algorithm for first order linear hyperbolic systems, thanks to the reservoir technique. The latter is a method designed to avoid artificial diffusion generated by first order finite volume methods approximating hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. For some class of hyperbolic systems, namely those with constant matrices in many dimensions, we show that the combination of i) the reservoir method, ii) Trotter-like approximation, as well as iii) quantum walks allows for the derivation of algorithms only based on simple unitary transformations, thus perfectly suitable for quantum computing. The same approach can also be adapted to scalar one-dimensional systems with non-constant velocity by combining with a non-uniform mesh. Resource requirements and explicit gate decompositions are determined using the functional quantum programming language Quipper. It is demonstrated that the quantum implementation has an exponential speedup over the classical implementation.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tensor rank is not multiplicative under the tensor product. (arXiv:1705.09379v1 [math.AC])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

The tensor rank of a tensor is the smallest number r such that the tensor can be decomposed as a sum of r simple tensors. Let s be a k-tensor and let t be an l-tensor. The tensor product of s and t is a (k + l)-tensor (not to be confused with the "tensor Kronecker product" used in algebraic complexity theory, which multiplies two k-tensors to get a k-tensor). Tensor rank is sub-multiplicative under the tensor product. We revisit the connection between restrictions and degenerations. It is well-known that tensor rank is not in general multiplicative under the tensor Kronecker product. A result of our study is that tensor rank is also not in general multiplicative under the tensor product. This answers a question of Draisma and Saptharishi. It remains an open question whether border rank and asymptotic rank are multiplicative under the tensor product. Interestingly, all lower bounds on border rank obtained from Young flattenings are multiplicative under the tensor product.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Solitons and their stability in the nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation with PT-symmetric potentials. (arXiv:1705.09401v1 [nlin.PS])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We report localized nonlinear modes of the self-focusing and defocusing nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the generalized PT-symmetric Scarf-II, Rosen-Morse, and periodic potentials. Parameter regions are presented for broken and unbroken PT-symmetric phases of linear bounded states and the linear stability of the obtained solitons. Moreover, we numerically explore the dynamical behaviors of solitons and find stable solitons for some given parameters.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum entropy and complexity. (arXiv:1705.09449v1 [cs.IT])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We study the relations between the recently proposed machine-independent quantum complexity of P. Gacs~\cite{Gacs} and the entropy of classical and quantum systems. On one hand, by restricting Gacs complexity to ergodic classical dynamical systems, we retrieve the equality between the Kolmogorov complexity rate and the Shannon entropy rate derived by A.A. Brudno~\cite{Brudno}. On the other hand, using the quantum Shannon-Mc Millan theorem~\cite{BSM}, we show that such an equality holds densely in the case of ergodic quantum spin chains.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Divide and conquer method for proving gaps of frustration free Hamiltonians. (arXiv:1705.09491v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

Providing system-size independent lower bounds on the spectral gap of local Hamiltonian is in general a hard problem. For the case of finite-range, frustration free Hamiltonians on a spin lattice of arbitrary dimension, we show that a property of the ground state space is sufficient to obtain such a bound. We furthermore show that such a condition is necessary and equivalent to a constant spectral gap. Thanks to this equivalence, we can prove that for gapless models in any dimension, the spectral gap on regions of diameter $n$ is at most $o\left(\frac{\log(n)^{2+\epsilon}}{n}\right)$ for any positive $\epsilon$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Fundamental precision limit of a Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensor when one of the inputs is the vacuum. (arXiv:1705.09506v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

In the lore of quantum metrology, one often hears (or reads) the following no-go theorem: If you put vacuum into one input port of a balanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, then no matter what you put into the other input port, and no matter what your detection scheme, the sensitivity can never be better than the shot noise limit (SNL). Often the proof of this theorem is cited to be in Ref. [C. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981)], but upon further inspection, no such claim is made there. A quantum-Fisher-information-based argument suggestive of this no-go theorem appears in Ref. [M. Lang and C. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 173601 (2013)], but is not stated in its full generality. Here we thoroughly explore this no-go theorem and give the rigorous statement: the no-go theorem holds whenever the unknown phase shift is split between both arms of the interferometer, but remarkably does not hold when only one arm has the unknown phase shift. In the latter scenario, we provide an explicit measurement strategy that beats the SNL. We also point out that these two scenarios are physically different and correspond to different types of sensing applications.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Extended Hamiltonians and shift, ladder functions and operators. (arXiv:1705.09519v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

In recent years, many natural Hamiltonian systems, classical and quantum, with constants of motion of high degree, or symmetry operators of high order, have been found and studied. Most of these Hamiltonians, in the classical case, can be included in the family of extended Hamiltonians, geometrically characterized by the structure of warped manifold of their configuration manifold. For the extended manifolds, the characteristic constants of motion of high degree are polynomial in the momenta of determined form. We consider here a different form of the constants of motion, based on the factorization procedure developed by S. Kuru, J. Negro and others. We show that an important subclass of the extended Hamiltonians admits factorized constants of motion and we determine their expression. The classical constants may be non-polynomial in the momenta, but the factorization procedure allows, in a type of extended Hamiltonians, their quantization via shift and ladder operators, for systems of any finite dimension.

Categories: Journals, Physics

The phonon assisted absorption of excitons in Cu$_2$O. (arXiv:1705.09521v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

The basic theoretical foundation for the modelling of phonon assisted absorption spectra in direct bandgap semiconductors, introduced by Elliott 60 years ago using second order perturbation theory, results in a square root shaped dependency close to the absorption edge. A careful analysis of the experiments reveals that for the yellow S excitons in Cu$_2$O the lineshape does not follow that square root dependence. The reexamination of the theory shows that the basic assumptions of constant matrix elements and constant energy denominators is invalid for semiconductors with dominant exciton effects like Cu$_2$O, where the phonon assisted absorption proceeds via intermediate exciton states. The overlap between these and the final exciton states strongly determines the dependence of the absorption on the photon energy. To describe the experimental observed line shape of the indirect absorption of the yellow S exciton states we find it necessary to assume a momentum dependent deformation potential for the optical phonons. Furthermore, we are able to clarify the role of the green excitons in the indirect absorption and find evidence for a light hole exciton state.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Breaking Lorentz reciprocity with frequency conversion and delay. (arXiv:1705.09548v1 [physics.class-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We introduce a method for breaking Lorentz reciprocity based upon the non-commutation of frequency conversion and delay. The method requires no magnetic materials or resonant physics, allowing for the design of scalable and broadband non-reciprocal circuits. With this approach, two types of gyrators --- universal building blocks for linear, non-reciprocal circuits --- are constructed. Using one of these gyrators, we create a circulator with > 15 dB of isolation across the 5 -- 9 GHz band. Our designs may be readily extended to any platform with suitable frequency conversion elements, including semiconducting devices for telecommunication or an on-chip superconducting implementation for quantum information processing.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Exotic looped trajectories via quantum marking. (arXiv:1705.09592v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We provide an analytical and theoretical study of exotic looped trajectories (ELTs) in a double-slit interferometer with quantum marking. We use an excited Rydberg-like atom and which-way detectors such as superconducting cavities, just as in the Scully-Englert-Walther interferometer. We indicate appropriate conditions on the atomic beam or superconducting cavities so that we determine an interference pattern and fringe visibility exclusive from the ELTs. We quantitatively describe our results for Rubidium atoms and propose this framework as an alternative scheme to the double-slit experiment modified to interfere only these exotic trajectories.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum dark solitons in Bose gas confined in a hard wall box. (arXiv:1705.09607v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

Schr\"odinger equation for Bose gas with repulsive contact interactions in one-dimensional space may be solved analytically with the help of the Bethe ansatz if we impose periodic boundary conditions. It was shown that in such a system there exist many-body eigenstates directly corresponding to dark soliton solutions of the mean-field equation. The system is still integrable if one switches from the periodic boundary conditions to an infinite square well potential. The corresponding eigenstates were constructed by M. Gaudin. We analyze weak interaction limit of Gaudin's solutions and identify parametrization of eigenstates strictly connected with single and multiple dark solitons. Numerical simulations of detection of particle's positions reveal dark solitons in the weak interaction regime and their quantum nature in the presence of strong interactions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Partial Transposition in a Finite-Dimensional Hilbert Space: Physical Interpretation, Measurement of Observables and Entanglement. (arXiv:1705.09613v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We show that partial transposition for pure and mixed two-particle states in a discrete $N$-dimensional Hilbert space is equivalent to a change in sign of a "momentum-like" variable of one of the particles in the Wigner function for the state. This generalizes a result obtained for continuous-variable systems to the discrete-variable system case. We show that, in principle, quantum mechanics allows measuring the expectation value of an observable in a partially transposed state, in spite of the fact that the latter may not be a physical state. We illustrate this result with the example of an "isotropic state", which is dependent on a parameter $r$, and an operator whose variance becomes negative for the partially transposed state for certain values of $r$; for such $r$, the original states are entangled.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Creation and detection of photonic molecules in Rydberg gases. (arXiv:1705.09635v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We consider the propagation of photons in a gas of Rydberg atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency, where they form strongly interacting massive particles, termed Rydberg polaritons. Depending on the strength of the van der Waals-type interactions of the atoms either bunching or anti-bunching of photons can be observed when driving the atoms off-resonantly. The bunching is associated with the formation of bound states. We employ a Green's function approach and numerical wave-function simulations to analyze the conditions for the creation and the dynamics of these photonic molecules and their interplay with the scattering continuum which can also show photon bunching. Analytic solutions of the pair-propagation problem obtained from a pseudopotential approximation and verified numerically provide a detailed understanding of bound and scattering states. We find that the scattering contributions acquire asymptotically a robust relative phase which can be employed to separate bound-state and scattering contributions by a homodyne detection scheme.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Semiclassics in a system without classical limit: the few-body spectrum of two interacting bosons in one dimension. (arXiv:1705.09637v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We present a semiclassical study of the spectrum of a few-body system consisting of two short-range interacting bosonic particles in one dimension, a particular case of a general class of integrable many-body systems where the energy spectrum is given by the solution of algebraic transcendental equations. By an exact mapping between $\delta$-potentials and boundary conditions on the few-body wavefunctions, we are able to extend previous semiclassical results for single-particle systems with mixed boundary conditions to the two-body problem. The semiclassical approach allows us to derive explicit analytical results for the smooth part of the two-body density of states that are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations. It further enables us to include the effect of bound states in the attractive case. Remarkably, for the particular case of two particles in one dimension, the discrete energy levels obtained through a requantization condition of the smooth density of states are essentially in perfect agreement with the exact ones.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Photodetector figures of merit in terms of POVMs. (arXiv:1705.09640v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

A photodetector may be characterized by various figures of merit such as response time, bandwidth, dark count rate, efficiency, wavelength resolution, and photon-number resolution. On the other hand, quantum theory says that any measurement device is fully described by its POVM, which stands for Positive-Operator-Valued Measure, and which generalizes the textbook notion of the eigenstates of the appropriate hermitian operator (the "observable") as measurement outcomes. Here we show how to define a multitude of photodetector figures of merit in terms of a given POVM. We distinguish classical and quantum figures of merit and issue a conjecture regarding trade-off relations between them. We discuss the relationship between POVM elements and photodetector clicks, and how models of photodetectors may be tested by measuring either POVM elements or figures of merit. Finally, the POVM is advertised as an excellent platform-independent way of comparing different types of photodetectors, since any such POVM refers to the Hilbert space of the incoming light, and not to any Hilbert space internal to the detector.

Categories: Journals, Physics

The border support rank of two-by-two matrix multiplication is seven. (arXiv:1705.09652v1 [cs.CC])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 11 hours 3 min ago

We show that the border support rank of the tensor corresponding to two-by-two matrix multiplication is seven over the complex numbers. We do this by constructing two polynomials that vanish on all complex tensors with format four-by-four-by-four and border rank at most six, but that do not vanish simultaneously on any tensor with the same support as the two-by-two matrix multiplication tensor. This extends the work of Hauenstein, Ikenmeyer, and Landsberg. We also give two proofs that the support rank of the two-by-two matrix multiplication tensor is seven over any field: one proof using a result of De Groote saying that the decomposition of this tensor is unique up to sandwiching, and another proof via the substitution method. These results answer a question asked by Cohn and Umans. Studying the border support rank of the matrix multiplication tensor is relevant for the design of matrix multiplication algorithms, because upper bounds on the border support rank of the matrix multiplication tensor lead to upper bounds on the computational complexity of matrix multiplication, via a construction of Cohn and Umans. Moreover, support rank has applications in quantum communication complexity.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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