In this paper, we study dynamical quantum networks which evolve according to Schr\"odinger equations but subject to sequential local or global quantum measurements. A network of qubits forms a composite quantum system whose state undergoes unitary evolution in between periodic measurements, leading to hybrid quantum dynamics with random jumps at discrete time instances along a continuous orbit. The measurements either act on the entire network of qubits, or only a subset of qubits. First of all, we reveal that this type of hybrid quantum dynamics induces probabilistic Boolean recursions representing the measurement outcomes. With global measurements, it is shown that such resulting Boolean recursions define Markov chains whose state-transitions are fully determined by the network Hamiltonian and the measurement observables. Particularly, we establish an explicit and algebraic representation of the underlying recursive random mapping driving such induced Markov chains. Next, with local measurements, the resulting probabilistic Boolean dynamics is shown to be no longer Markovian. The state transition probability at any given time becomes dependent on the entire history of the sample path, for which we establish a recursive way of computing such non-Markovian probability transitions. Finally, we adopt the classical bilinear control model for the continuous Schr\"odinger evolution, and show how the measurements affect the controllability of the quantum networks.

One of the most important tasks in modern quantum science is to coherently control and entangle many-body systems, and to subsequently use these systems to realize powerful quantum technologies such as quantum-enhanced sensors. However, many-body entangled states are difficult to prepare and preserve since internal dynamics and external noise rapidly degrade any useful entanglement. Here, we introduce a protocol that counterintuitively exploits inhomogeneities, a typical source of dephasing in a many-body system, in combination with interactions to generate metrologically useful and robust many-body entangled states. Motivated by current limitations in state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice clocks (OLCs) operating at quantum degeneracy, we use local interactions in a Hubbard model with spin-orbit coupling to achieve a spin-locking effect. In addition to prolonging inter-particle spin coherence, spin-locking transforms the dephasing effect of spin-orbit coupling into a collective spin-squeezing process that can be further enhanced by applying a modulated drive. Our protocol is fully compatible with state-of-the-art 3D OLC interrogation schemes and may be used to improve their sensitivity, which is currently limited by the intrinsic quantum noise of independent atoms. We demonstrate that even with realistic experimental imperfections, our protocol may generate $\sim10$--$14$ dB of spin squeezing in $\sim1$ second with $\sim10^2$--$10^4$ atoms. This capability allows OLCs to enter a new era of quantum enhanced sensing using correlated quantum states of driven non-equilibrium systems.

We demonstrate a frequency multiplexed photon pair generation based on a quadratic nonlinear optical waveguide inside a cavity which confines only signal photons without confining idler photons and the pump light. We monolithically constructed the photon pair generator by a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide with a high reflective coating for the signal photons around 1600 nm and with anti-refrective coatings for the idler photons around 1520 nm and the pump light at 780 nm at the end faces of the PPLN waveguide. We observed a comb-like photon pair generation with a mode spacing of the free spectral range of the cavity. Unlike the conventional multiple resonant photon pair generation experiments, the photon pair generation were incessant within a range of 80 nm without missing teeth due to a mismatch of the energy conservation and the cavity resonance condition of the photons, resulting in over 1000-mode frequency multiplexed photon pairs in this range.

We generalize alternating optimization algorithms of Blahut-Arimoto type to the quantum setting. In particular, we give iterative algorithms to compute the mutual information of quantum channels, the Holevo quantity of classical-quantum channels, the coherent information of less noisy quantum channels, and the thermodynamic capacity of quantum channels. Our convergence analysis is based on quantum entropy inequalities and leads to a priori additive $\varepsilon$-approximations after $\mathcal{O}\left(\varepsilon^{-1}\log N\right)$ iterations, where $N$ denotes the input dimension of the channel. We complement our analysis with an a posteriori stopping criterion which allows us to terminate the algorithm after significantly fewer iterations compared to the a priori criterion in numerical examples. Finally, we discuss heuristics to accelerate the convergence.

We investigate the competition of coherent and dissipative dynamics in many-body systems at continuous quantum transitions. We consider dissipative mechanisms that can be effectively described by Lindblad equations for the density matrix of the system. The interplay between the critical coherent dynamics and dissipation is addressed within a dynamic finite-size scaling framework, which allows us to identify the regime where they develop a nontrivial competition. We analyze protocols that start from critical many-body ground states and put forward general dynamic scaling behaviors involving the Hamiltonian parameters and the coupling associated with the dissipation. This scaling scenario is supported by a numerical study of the dynamic behavior of a one-dimensional lattice fermion gas undergoing a quantum Ising transition in the presence of dissipative mechanisms such as local pumping, decaying, and dephasing.

In order to classify partial entanglement of multi-partite states, it is natural to consider the convex hulls, intersections and differences of basic convex cones obtained from partially separable states with respect to partitions of systems. In this paper, we consider convex cones consisting of X-shaped three qubit states arising in this way. The class of X-shaped states includes important classes like Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger diagonal states. We find all the extreme rays of those convex cones to exhibit corresponding partially separable states. We also give characterizations for those cones which give rise to necessary criteria in terms of diagonal and anti-diagonal entries for general three qubit states.

Characterizing quantum nonlocality in networks is a challenging, but important problem. Using quantum sources one can achieve distributions which are unattainable classically. A key point in investigations is to decide whether an observed probability distribution can be reproduced using only classical resources. This causal inference task is challenging even for simple networks, both analytically and using standard numerical techniques. We propose to use neural networks as numerical tools to overcome these challenges, by learning the classical strategies required to reproduce a distribution. As such, the neural network acts as an oracle, demonstrating that a behavior is classical if it can be learned. We apply our method to several examples in the triangle configuration. After demonstrating that the method is consistent with previously known results, we give solid evidence that the distribution presented in [N. Gisin, Entropy 21(3), 325 (2019)] is indeed nonlocal as conjectured. Finally we examine the genuinely nonlocal distribution presented in [M.-O. Renou et al., PRL 123, 140401 (2019)], and, guided by the findings of the neural network, conjecture nonlocality in a new range of parameters in these distributions. The method allows us to get an estimate on the noise robustness of all examined distributions.

Recent understanding of the thermodynamics of small-scale systems have allowed to characterize the thermodynamic requirements of implementing quantum processes for fixed input states. Here, we extend these results to construct optimal universal implementations of a given process, that is, implementations that are accurate for any possible input state even after many independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) repetitions of the process. We find that the optimal work cost rate of such an implementation is given by the thermodynamic capacity of the process, which is a single-letter and additive quantity defined as the maximal difference in relative entropy to the thermal state between the input and the output of the channel. As related results we find a new single-shot implementation of time-covariant processes, a new proof of the asymptotic equipartition property of the coherent relative entropy, and an optimal implementation of any i.i.d. process with thermal operations for a fixed i.i.d. input state. Beyond being a thermodynamic analogue of the reverse Shannon theorem for quantum channels, our results introduce a new notion of quantum typicality and present a thermodynamic application of convex-split methods.

The strong exponential-time hypothesis (SETH) is a commonly used conjecture in the field of complexity theory. It states that CNF formulas cannot be analyzed for satisfiability with a speedup over exhaustive search. This hypothesis and its variants gave rise to a fruitful field of research, fine-grained complexity, obtaining (mostly tight) lower bounds for many problems in P whose unconditional lower bounds are hard to find. In this work, we introduce a framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses, as quantum analogues to SETH.

Using the QSETH framework, we are able to translate quantum query lower bounds on black-box problems to conditional quantum time lower bounds for many problems in BQP. As an example, we illustrate the use of the QSETH by providing a conditional quantum time lower bound of $\Omega(n^{1.5})$ for the Edit Distance problem. We also show that the $n^2$ SETH-based lower bound for a recent scheme for Proofs of Useful Work, based on the Orthogonal Vectors problem holds for quantum computation assuming QSETH, maintaining a quadratic gap between verifier and prover.

We investigate signatures of convergence for a sequence of diffusion processes on a line in conservative force fields, stemming from potentials $U(x)\sim x^m$, $m=2n \geq 2$. This is paralleled by a transformation of each $m$-th diffusion generator $L$ to the affiliated Schr\"{o}dinger-type operator $\hat{H}= - D\Delta + {\cal{V}}$. The spectral "closeness" of $\hat{H}$ and the Neumann Laplacian $-\Delta_{\cal{N}}$ in the interval is analyzed for $m$ even and sufficiently large. A missing in the literature description is given for the analogous affinity, by departing from the semigroup (pseudo-Schr\"{o}dinger) dynamics, generated sequentially by the $m$-family of operators $\hat{H}$ with a priori chosen Feynman-Kac potentials ${\cal{V}}(x) \sim x^m$. So defined $\hat{H}$ becomes spectrally "close" to the Dirichlet Laplacian $-\Delta_{\cal{D}}$ for large $m$. The affiliated Langevin-driven diffusions are reconstructed and found to provide a reliable approximation of the ergodic (drifted) Brownian motion in the interval, with inaccessible endpoints. As a complementary topic, a classic case of diffusion in the (quartic) double-well potential $U(x)= a x^4 - bx^2$, $a,b >0$ is invoked to elucidate the Fokker-Planck-Schr\"{o}dinger affinity. Proceeding in reverse, the ergodic Fokker-Planck diffusion is reconstructed from the lowest eigenfunction of $\hat{H}$, where ${\cal{V}}(x)$ actually takes a canonical (quartic) double-well form (c.f. $U(x)$ in the above). A somewhat puzzling issue of the absence of negative eigenvalues for $\hat{H}$ with a bistable-looking potential ${\cal{V}}(x)$ has been analyzed in conjunction with the concept of quasi-exactly solvable Schr\"{o}dinger systems.

The magnetically-induced valley-spin filtering in transition metal dichalogenide monolayers promises new paradigm in information processing. Herein, the mechanism of this effect is elucidated within the metal-induced gap states concept. The filtering is shown to be primarily governed by the valley-spin polarized tunnelling processes, which yield fundamental scaling trends for valley-spin selectivity with respect to the intrinsic physics of the filter materials. The results are found to facilitate insight into the analyzed effects and provide general design guidelines toward efficient valley-spin filter devices based on discussed materials or other hexagonal monolayers with broken inversion symmetry.

We formulate a mixed-state analog of the NLTS conjecture [FH14] by asking whether there exist local Hamiltonians for which the thermal Gibbs state for constant temperature is globally-entangled in the sense that it cannot even be approximated by shallow quantum circuits. We then prove this conjecture holds for nearly optimal parameters: when the "inverse temperature" is almost a constant (temperature decays as 1/loglog(n))) and the Hamiltonian is nearly local (log(n)-local). The construction and proof combine quantum codes that arise from high-dimensional manifolds [Has17, LLZ19], the local-decoding approach to quantum codes [LTZ15, FGL18] and quantum locally-testable codes [AE15].

Two-photon states produce enough symmetry needed for Dirac's construction of the two-oscillator system which produces the Lie algebra for the O(3,2) space-time symmetry. This O(3,2) group can be contracted to the inhomogeneous Lorentz group which, according to Dirac, serves as the basic space-time symmetry for quantum mechanics in the Lorentz-covariant world. Since the harmonic oscillator serves as the language of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, it is right to say that the symmetry of the Lorentz-covariant world, with Einstein's $E = mc^2$, is derivable from Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.

Although many different entanglement measures have been proposed so far, much less is known in the multipartite case, which leads to the previous monogamy relations in literatures are not complete. We establish here a strict framework for defining multipartite entanglement measure (MEM): apart from the postulates of bipartite measure, a genuine MEM should additionally satisfy the unification condition and the hierarchy condition. We then come up with a complete monogamy formula for the unified MEM and a tightly complete monogamy relation for the genuine MEM. Consequently, we propose MEMs which are multipartite extensions of entanglement of formation (EoF), concurrence, tangle, Tsallis $q$-entropy of entanglement, R\'{e}nyi $\alpha$-entropy of entanglement, the convex-roof extension of negativity and negativity, respectively. We show that (i) the extensions of EoF, concurrence, tangle, and Tsallis $q$-entropy of entanglement are genuine MEMs, (ii) multipartite extensions of R\'{e}nyi $\alpha$-entropy of entanglement, negativity and the convex-roof extension of negativity are unified MEMs but not genuine MEMs, and (iii) all these multipartite extensions are completely monogamous and the ones which are defined by the convex-roof structure (except for the R\'{e}nyi $\alpha$-entropy of entanglement and the convex-roof extension of negativity) are not only completely monogamous but also tightly completely monogamous. In addition, we find a class of tripartite states that one part can maximally entangled with other two parts simultaneously according to the definition of maximally entangled mixed state (MEMS) in [Quantum Inf. Comput. 12, 0063 (2012)]. Consequently, we improve the definition of maximally entangled state (MES) and prove that there is no MEMS and that the only MES is the pure MES.

We consider the quantum traversal time of an incident wave packet across a potential well using the theory of quantum time of arrival (TOA)-operators. This is done by constructing the corresponding TOA-operator across a potential well via quantization. The expectation value of the potential well TOA-operator is compared to the free particle case for the same incident wave packet. The comparison yields a closed-form expression of the quantum well traversal time which explicitly shows the classical contributions of the positive and negative momentum components of the incident wave packet and a purely quantum mechanical contribution significantly dependent on the well depth. An incident Gaussian wave packet is then used as an example. It is shown that for shallow potential wells, the quantum well traversal time approaches the classical traversal time across the well region when the incident wave packet is spatially broad and approaches the expected quantum free particle traversal time when the wave packet is localized. For deep potential wells, the quantum traversal time oscillates from positive to negative implying that the wave packet can be advanced or delayed.

The surface code, with a simple modification, exhibits ultra-high error correction thresholds when the noise is biased towards dephasing. Here, we identify features of the surface code responsible for these ultra-high thresholds. We provide strong evidence that the threshold error rate of the surface code tracks the hashing bound exactly for all biases, and show how to exploit these features to achieve significant improvement in logical failure rate. First, we consider the infinite bias limit, meaning pure dephasing. We prove that the error threshold of the modified surface code for pure dephasing noise is $50\%$, i.e., that all qubits are fully dephased, and this threshold can be achieved by a polynomial time decoding algorithm. We demonstrate that the sub-threshold behavior of the code depends critically on the precise shape and boundary conditions of the code. That is, for rectangular surface codes with standard rough/smooth open boundaries, it is controlled by the parameter $g=\gcd(j,k)$, where $j$ and $k$ are dimensions of the surface code lattice. We demonstrate a significant improvement in logical failure rate with pure dephasing for co-prime codes that have $g=1$, and closely-related rotated codes, which have a modified boundary. The effect is dramatic: the same logical failure rate achievable with a square surface code and $n$ physical qubits can be obtained with a co-prime or rotated surface code using only $O(\sqrt{n})$ physical qubits. Finally, we use approximate maximum likelihood decoding to demonstrate that this improvement persists for a general Pauli noise biased towards dephasing. In particular, comparing with a square surface code, we observe a significant improvement in logical failure rate against biased noise using a rotated surface code with approximately half the number of physical qubits.

In this work we study the recurrence problem for quantum Markov chains, which are quantum versions of classical Markov chains introduced by S. Gudder and described in terms of completely positive maps. A notion of monitored recurrence for quantum Markov chains is examined in association with Schur functions, which codify information on the first return to some given state or subspace. Such objects possess important factorization and decomposition properties which allow us to obtain probabilistic results based solely on those parts of the graph where the dynamics takes place, the so-called splitting rules. These rules also yield an alternative to the folding trick to transform a doubly infinite system into a semi-infinite one which doubles the number of internal degrees of freedom. The generalization of Schur functions --so-called FR-functions-- to the general context of closed operators in Banach spaces is the key for the present applications to open quantum systems. An important class of examples included in this setting are the open quantum random walks, as described by S. Attal et al., but we will state results in terms of general completely positive trace preserving maps. We also take the opportunity to discuss basic results on recurrence of finite dimensional iterated quantum channels and quantum versions of Kac's Lemma, in close association with recent results on the subject.

We introduce the thermal-difference states (TDS), a three-parameter family of single-mode non-Gaussian bosonic states whose density operator is a weighted difference of two thermal states. We show that the states of "heralded photons" generated via parametric down-conversion (PDC) are precisely those among the TDS that are nonclassical, meaning they have a negative $P$-function. The three parameters correspond in that context to the initial brightness of PDC and the transmittances, characterizing the linear loss in the signal and the idler channels. At low initial brightness and unit transmittances, the heralded photon state is known to be a single-photon state. We explore the influence of brightness and linear loss on the heralded state of the signal mode. In particular, we analyze the influence of the initial brightness and the loss on the state nonclassicality by computing several measures of nonclassicality, such as the negative volume of the Wigner function, the sum of quantum Fisher information for two quadratures, and the ordering sensitivity, introduced recently by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 080402 (2019)]. We argue finally that the TDS provide new benchmark states for the analysis of a variety of properties of single-mode bosonic states.

Brillouin light scattering in ferromagnetic materials usually involves one magnon and two photons and their total angular momentum is conserved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the presence of a helicity-changing two-magnon Brillouin light scattering in a ferromagetic crystal, which can be viewed as a four-wave mixing process involving two magnons and two photons. Moreover, we observe an unconventional helicity-changing one-magnon Brillouin light scattering, which apparently infringes the conservation law of the angular momentum. We show that the crystal angular momentum intervenes to compensate the missing angular momentum in the latter scattering process.

Author(s): A. A. Balakin, A. G. Litvak, and S. A. Skobelev

An out-of-phase soliton distribution of the wave field is found for a multicore fiber (MCF) from an even number of cores located in a ring. Its stability is proved with respect both to small wave-field perturbations, including azimuthal ones, and to small deformations of the MCF structure. As an exa...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 053834] Published Fri Nov 15, 2019