Motivated by recent progress in the experimental development of quantum simulators based on Rydberg atoms, we investigate the dynamics of a class of $1+1$-dimensional quantum cellular automata. Their key feature is that they display stationary behavior and non-equilibrium phase transitions despite being isolated systems. We show that a tensor network representation through projected entangled pair states permits an efficient encoding of the cellular automata dynamics. This representation, which naturally captures the structure of the considered cellular automata, also reflects the degree of quantumness and complexity of the dynamics in the difficulty of contracting the tensor network. To illustrate this, we explore the role of quantum correlations in the critical physics emerging in a class of cellular automata which offers a controllable degree of local entanglement together with a steady-state non-equilibrium phase transition. Due to its flexibility, the framework we introduce is promising, both for applications to the study of quantum non-equilibrium phase transitions and for investigation of quantum correlations in complex dynamics.

This thesis is focused on the design and analysis of quantum communication protocols. Several schemes for quantum communication have been introduced in the recent past. For example, quantum teleportation, dense coding, quantum key distribution, quantum secure direct communication, etc., have been rigorously studied in the last 2-3 decades. Specifically, a specific attention of the present thesis is to study the quantum teleportation schemes with entangled orthogonal and nonorthogonal states and their experimental realization, but not limited to it. We have also studied some aspects of quantum cryptography.

We propose a criterion to characterize interacting theories in a suitable Wightman framework of relativistic quantum field theories which incorporates a "singularity hypothesis", which has been conjectured for a long time, is supported by renormalization group theory, but has never been formulated mathematically. The (nonperturbative) wave function renormalization $Z$ occurring in these theories is shown not to be necessarily equal to zero, except if the equal time commutation relations (ETCR) are assumed. Since the ETCR are not justified in general (because the interacting fields cannot in general be restricted to sharp times, as is known from model studies), the condition $Z=0$ is not of general validity in interacting theories. We conjecture that it characterizes either unstable (composite) particles or the charge-carrying particles, which become infraparticles in the presence of massless particles. In the case of QED, such "dressed" electrons are not expected to be confined, but in QCD we propose a quark confinement criterion, which follows naturally from lines suggested by the works of Casher, Kogut and Susskind and Lowenstein and Swieca.

The secret key rate of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system is limited by excess noise. A key issue typical to all modern CV-QKD systems implemented with a reference or pilot signal and an independent local oscillator is controlling the excess noise generated from the frequency and phase noise accrued by the transmitter and receiver. Therefore accurate phase estimation and compensation, so-called carrier recovery, is a critical subsystem of CV-QKD. Here, we explore the implementation of a machine learning framework based on Bayesian inference, namely an unscented Kalman filter (UKF), for estimation of phase noise and compare it to a standard reference method. Experimental results obtained over a 20 km fibre-optic link indicate that the UKF can ensure very low excess noise even at low pilot powers. The measurements exhibited low variance and high stability in excess noise over a wide range of pilot signal to noise ratios. This may enable CV-QKD systems with low implementation complexity which can seamlessly work on diverse transmission lines.

In this paper we will present tha main features of what can be called Schwinger's foundational approach to Quantum Mechanics. The basic ingredients of this formulation are the \textit{selective measurements}, whose algebraic composition rules define a mathematical structure called groupoid, which is associated with any physical system. After the introduction of the basic axioms of a groupoid, the concepts of observables and states, statistical interpretation and evolution are derived. An example is finally introduced to support the theoretical description of this approach.

The wave function of an atom passed through a diffraction grating acquires a regular space structure and the interaction of another particle with this atom can be thought of as scattering on a 'quantum grating' composed of a single atom. Probing this 'grating' by collisions with charged projectiles reveals interference effects due to coherent contributions of its 'slits' to the transition amplitude. In particular, the spectra of electrons emitted from the atom in collisions with swift ions exhibit a pronounced interference pattern whose shape can be extremely sensitive to the collision velocity.

Bucket brigade quantum RAM (QRAM) circuits were proposed for their advantageous addressing of the memory. Another quality of these circuits is that queries, once the addresses are determined, can be parallelised. State-of-the-art error-corrected formulation of these circuits, however, had to be decomposed into the Clifford+T gate set, and the initial parallelism was lost in the process. By using advantageous Toffoli gate decompositions, and without introducing any additional ancilla qubits, we construct bucket brigade QRAM circuits with a constant depth. This depth is reduced from $\mathcal{O}(2^q)$ to $\mathcal{O}(q)$ in the worst case when the QRAM is queried for any of its $2^q$ memory cells being used. Incidentally, the presented construction has a T-count more than half smaller, compared to the existing Clifford+T formulations. The construction shows that, if quantum hardware would not be a scarce resource, exponential query speed ups are possible compared to state-of-the art quantum read-only memory (QROM) designs.

Rare-earth related electron spins in crystalline hosts are unique material systems, as they can potentially provide a direct interface between telecom band photons and long-lived spin quantum bits. Specifically, their optically accessible electron spins in solids interacting with nuclear spins in their environment are valuable quantum memory resources. Detection of nearby individual nuclear spins, so far exclusively shown for few dilute nuclear spin bath host systems such as the NV center in diamond or the silicon vacancy in silicon carbide, remained an open challenge for rare-earths in their host materials, which typically exhibit dense nuclear spin baths. Here, we present the electron spin spectroscopy of single Ce$^{3+}$ ions in a yttrium orthosilicate host, featuring a coherence time of $T_{2}=124\,\mu$s. This coherent interaction time is sufficiently long to isolate proximal $^{89}$Y nuclear spins from the nuclear spin bath of $^{89}$Y. Furthermore, it allows for the detection of a single nearby $^{29}$Si nuclear spin, native to the host material with ~5% abundance. This study opens the door to quantum memory applications in rare-earth ion related systems based on coupled environmental nuclear spins, potentially useful for quantum error correction schemes.

The dominant source of decoherence in contemporary frequency-tunable superconducting qubits is 1/$f$ flux noise. To understand its origin and find ways to minimize its impact, we systematically study flux noise amplitudes in more than 50 flux qubits with varied SQUID geometry parameters and compare our results to a microscopic model of magnetic spin defects located at the interfaces surrounding the SQUID loops. Our data are in agreement with an extension of the previously proposed model, based on numerical simulations of the current distribution in the investigated SQUIDs. Our results and detailed model provide a guide for minimizing the flux noise susceptibility in future circuits.

Benchmarking numerical methods in quantum chemistry is one of the key opportunities that quantum simulators can offer. Here, we propose an analog simulator for discrete 2D quantum chemistry models based on cold atoms in optical lattices. We first analyze how to simulate simple models, like the discrete versions of H and H$_2^+$, using a single fermionic atom. We then show that a single bosonic atom can mediate an effective Coulomb repulsion between two fermions, leading to the analog of molecular Hydrogen in two dimensions. We extend this approach to larger systems by introducing as many mediating atoms as fermions, and derive the effective repulsion law. In all cases, we analyze how the continuous limit is approached for increasing optical lattice sizes.

We introduce the PBS-calculus to represent and reason on quantum computations involving polarising beam splitters (PBS for short). PBS-diagrams can be used to represent various schemes including quantum-controlled computations, which are known to have multiple computational and communication advantages over classically ordered models like quantum circuits. The PBS-calculus is equipped with an equational theory, which is proved to be sound and complete: two diagrams are representing the same quantum evolution if and only if one can be transformed into the other using the rules of the PBS-calculus. Moreover, we show that the equational theory is minimal. Finally, we show that any PBS-diagram involving only unitary matrices can be transformed into a diagram without feedback loop.

Microscopic two-level system (TLS) defects at dielectric surfaces and interfaces are among the dominant sources of loss in superconducting quantum circuits, and their properties have been extensively probed using superconducting resonators and qubits. We report on spectroscopy of TLSs coupling to the strain field in a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator. The narrow free spectral range of the resonator allows for two-tone spectroscopy where a strong pump is applied at one resonance while a weak signal is used to probe a different mode. We map the spectral hole burnt by the pump tone as a function of frequency and extract parameters of the TLS ensemble. Our results suggest that detuned acoustic pumping can be used to enhance the coherence of superconducting devices by saturating TLSs.

The typicality approach and the Hilbert space averaging method as its technical manifestation are important concepts of quantum statistical mechanics. Extensively used for expectation values we extend them in this paper to transition probabilities. In this context we also find that the transition probability of two random uniformly distributed states is connected to the spectral statistics of the considered operator. Furthermore, within our approach we are capable to consider distributions of matrix elements between states, that are not orthogonal. We will demonstrate our quite general result numerically for a kicked spin chain in the integrable resp. chaotic regime.

Quantum coherence quantifies the amount of superposition a quantum state can have in a given basis. Since there is a difference in the structure of eigenstates of the ergodic and many-body localized systems, we expect them also to differ in terms of their coherences in a given basis. Here, we numerically calculate the different measures of quantum coherence in the excited eigenstates of an interacting disordered Hamiltonian as a function of the disorder. We show that quantum coherence can be used as an order parameter to detect the well-studied ergodic to many-body-localized phase transition. We also perform quantum quench studies to distinguish the behavior of coherence in thermalized and localized phases. We then present a protocol to calculate measurement-based localizable coherence to investigate the thermal and many-body localized phases. The protocol allows one to look at the correlation in a non-destructive way since tracing out a subsystem always destroys coherence and correlation, making it more amenable to experimental investigation.

This paper is a gentle but rigorous introduction to quantum computing intended for discrete mathematicians. Starting from a small set of assumptions on the behavior of quantum computing devices, we analyze their main characteristics, stressing the differences with classical computers, and finally describe two well-known algorithms (Simon's algorithm and Grover's algorithm) using the formalism developed in previous sections. This paper does not touch on the physics of the devices, and therefore does not require any notion of quantum mechanics. Numerical examples on an implementation of Grover's algorithm using open-source software are provided.

The capacity of a channel is known to be equivalent to the highest rate at which it can generate entanglement. Analogous to entanglement, the notion of a causality measure characterises the temporal aspect of quantum correlations. Despite holding an equally fundamental role in physics, temporal quantum correlations have yet to find their operational significance in quantum communication. Here we uncover a connection between quantum causality and channel capacity. We show the amount of temporal correlations between two ends of the noisy quantum channel, as quantified by a causality measure, implies a general upper bound on its channel capacity. The expression of this new bound is simpler to evaluate than most previously known bounds. We demonstrate the utility of this bound by applying it to a class of shifted depolarizing channels, which results in improvement over previously calculated bounds for this class of channels.

Quantum history states were recently formulated by extending the consistent histories approach of Griffiths to the entangled superposition of evolution paths and were then experimented with Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger states. Tensor product structure of history-dependent correlations was also recently exploited as a quantum computing resource in simple linear optical setups performing multiplane diffraction (MPD) of fermionic and bosonic particles with remarkable promises. This significantly motivates the definition of quantum histories of MPD as entanglement resources with the inherent capability of generating an exponentially increasing number of Feynman paths through diffraction planes in a scalable manner and experimental low complexity combining the utilization of coherent light sources and photon-counting detection. In this article, quantum temporal correlation and interference among MPD paths are denoted with quantum path entanglement (QPE) and interference (QPI), respectively, as novel quantum resources. Operator theory modeling of QPE and counterintuitive properties of QPI are presented by combining history-based formulations with Feynman's path integral approach. Leggett--Garg inequality as temporal analog of Bell's inequality is violated for MPD with all signaling constraints in the ambiguous form recently formulated by Emary. The proposed theory for MPD-based histories is highly promising for exploiting QPE and QPI as important resources for quantum computation and communications in future architectures.

This is a self-contained set of lecture notes covering various aspects of the theory of open quantum system, at a level appropriate for a one-semester graduate course. The main emphasis is on completely positive maps and master equations, both Markovian and non-Markovian.

We study the computational complexity of quantum-mechanical expectation values of single-particle operators in bosonic and fermionic multi-particle product states. Such expectation values appear, in particular, in full-counting-statistics problems. Depending on the initial multi-particle product state, the expectation values may be either easy to compute (the required number of operations scales polynomially with the particle number) or hard to compute (at least as hard as a permanent of a matrix). However, if we only consider full counting statistics in a finite number of final single-particle states, then the full-counting-statistics generating function becomes easy to compute in all the analyzed cases. We prove the latter statement for the general case of the fermionic product state and for the single-boson product state (the same as used in the boson-sampling proposal). This result may be relevant for using multi-particle product states as a resource for quantum computing.

The method for preparation of a two-qubit state on two spins-1/2 that mutually interact through an auxiliary spin is proposed. The essence of the method is that, initially, the three spins evolve under the action of an external magnetic field during a predefined period of time. Then, the auxiliary spin is measured by a monochromatic electromagnetic radiation that allows obtaining a certain state of the remaining spins. We study the entanglement of this state and obtain the condition for achieving the maximally entangled state. The implementation of the method on the physical system of nuclear spins of xenon difluoride is described. As a results, the conditions which allow preparing the maximally entangled state on this system are obtained.