Synchronization phenomena have been recently reported in the quantum realm at atomic level due to collective dissipation. In this work we propose a dimer lattice of trapped atoms realizing a dissipative spin model where quantum synchronization occurs instead in presence of local dissipation. Atoms synchronization is enabled by the inhomogeneity of staggered local losses in the lattice and is favored by an increase of spins detuning. A comprehensive approach to quantum synchronization based on different measures considered in the literature allows to identify the main features of different synchronization regimes.

Quantum correlations between parts of a composite system most clearly reveal themselves through entanglement. Designing, maintaining, and controlling entangled systems is very demanding, which raises the stakes for understanding the efficacy of entanglement-free, yet quantum, correlations, exemplified by quantum discord. Discord is defined via conditional mutual entropies of parts of a composite system, and its direct measurement is hardly possible even via full tomographic characterization of the system state. Here we design a simple protocol to detect and quantify quantum discord in an unentangled bipartite system. Our protocol relies on a characteristic of discord that can be extracted from repeated direct measurements of certain correlations between subsystems of the bipartite system. The proposed protocol opens a way of extending experimental studies of discord to electronic systems but can also be implemented in quantum-optical systems.

The traditional pedagogical paradigm in physics is based on a deductive approach. However, with the recent advances in information technology, we are facing a dramatic increase in the amount of readily available information; hence, the ability to memorize the material and provide rigorous derivations lacks significance. Our success in navigating the current "sea" of information depends increasingly on our skills in pattern recognition and prompt qualitative analysis. Inductive learning (using examples and intuition-based) is most suitable for the development of such skills. This needed change in our pedagogical paradigm remains yet to be addressed in physics curricula. We propose that incorporating inductive elements in teaching -by infusing qualitative methods - will better prepare us to deal with the new information landscape. These methods bring the learning experience closer to the realities of active research. As an example, we are presenting a compendium for teaching qualitative methods in quantum mechanics, a traditionally non-intuitive subject.

Variational quantum eigensolvers are a promising class of quantum algorithms for preparing approximate ground states, due to their relatively low circuit depth. Minimizing the error in such an approximation requires designing the ansatzes to target the studied system. In this work, we present a novel approach for the design of VQE ansatzes. Motivated by the stabilizer formalism of quantum error correction, we construct a class of ansatzes that explore the entire Hilbert space using the minimum number of free parameters. We then demonstrate how one may compress an arbitrary ansatz by enforcing symmetry constraints of the target system, or by using them as parent ansatzes for a hierarchy of increasingly long but increasingly accurate sub-ansatzes. We apply a perturbative analysis and develop a diagrammatic formalism to optimize the generation of these hierarchies within a weak-coupling regime. We test our methods on a short spin chain, finding good convergence to the ground state in the paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic phase of the transverse-field Ising model.

In the task of quantum state learning, one receives some data about measurements performed on a state, and using that, must make predictions on the outcomes of unseen measurements. Computing a prediction is generally hard but it has been shown that learning can be performed efficiently for states that are generated by Clifford circuits, which are known to be efficiently classically simulable. This naturally leads to the question, how does efficient state learnability compare with efficient classical simulation? In this work we introduce an extra condition on top of classical simulablity that guarantees efficiently learnability. To illustrate this we prove two new examples of efficient learnability: states with low (Schmidt rank) entanglement and states described by an 'efficient' ontological model.

Neural quantum states (NQS) attract a lot of attention due to their potential to serve as variational wave functions for quantum many-body systems. Here we study the main factors governing the applicability of NQS to frustrated magnets. We consider exact ground states of several moderately sized spin Hamiltonians solvable by means of exact diagonalization. We have found that it is the sign structure that is responsible for the difficulty of the variational approach, especially in frustrated regime. We show that, if a neural network is exposed to a small fraction of signs of the ground state wave function during training, its generalization accuracy, i.e. the capability to learn from a limited number of samples and correctly predict signs on the rest of the Hilbert space basis, drops as the frustration increases (the network fails to generalize in the most difficult cases). When a larger portion of the space is used for training, the generalization accuracy undergoes a sharp transition, and the network approximates the ground state with high precision. We conclude that the main issue to be addressed at this stage, in order to bring the method of NQS to the point where it can be used to simulate realistic models, is that of generalization rather than expressibility.

The ability to implement the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) efficiently on a quantum computer facilitates the advantages offered by a variety of fundamental quantum algorithms, such as those for integer factoring, computing discrete logarithm over Abelian groups, solving systems of linear equations, and phase estimation, to name a few. The standard fault-tolerant implementation of an $n$-qubit unitary QFT approximates the desired transformation by removing small-angle controlled rotations and synthesizing the remaining ones into Clifford+T gates, incurring the T-count complexity of $O(n \log^2(n))$. In this paper, we show how to obtain approximate QFT with the T-count of $O(n \log(n))$. Our approach relies on quantum circuits with measurements and feedforward, and on reusing a special quantum state that induces the phase gradient transformation. We report asymptotic analysis as well as concrete circuits, demonstrating significant advantages in both theory and practice.

Time has been an illusive concept to grasp. Although we do not yet understand it properly, there has been advances made in regards as to how we could explain it. One of such advances is the Page-Wootters' mechanism. In the mechanism time is seen as an inaccessible coordinate and the apparently passage of time arises as a consequence of correlations between the subsystems of a global state. Here we propose a measure that captures the relational character of the mechanism, showing that it is the internal coherence the necessary ingredient to the emergence of time in the Page-Wootters' model. Also, we connect it to results in quantum thermodynamics, showing that it is directly related to the extractable work from quantum coherence.

Several versions of quantum theory assume some form of localized collapse. If measurement outcomes are indeed defined by localized collapses, then a loophole-free demonstration of Bell non-locality needs to ensure space-like separated collapses associated with the measurements of the entangled systems. This collapse locality loophole remains largely untested, with one significant exception probing Diosi's and Penrose's gravitationally induced collapse hypotheses. I describe here techniques that allow much stronger experimental tests. These apply to all the well known types of collapse postulate, including gravitationally induced collapse, spontaneous localization models and Wigner's consciousness-induced collapse.

In the framework of Generalized probabilistic theories (GPT), we illustrate a class of statistical processes in case of two noninteracting identical particles in two modes that satisfies a well motivated notion of physicality conditions namely the double stochasticity and the no-interaction condition proposed by Karczewski et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 080401 (2018)), which can not be realized through a quantum mechanical process. This class of statistical process is ruled out by an additional requirement called the evolution condition imposed on two particle evolution. We also show that any statistical process of two noninteracting identical particles in two modes that satisfies all of the three physicality conditions can be realized within quantum mechanics using the beam splitter operation.

We study the dissipative preparation of pure non-Gaussian states of a target mode which is coupled both linearly and quadratically to an auxiliary damped mode. We show that any pure state achieved independently of the initial condition is either (i) a cubic phase state, namely a state given by the action of a non-Gaussian (cubic) unitary on a squeezed vacuum or (ii) a (squeezed and displaced) finite superposition of Fock states. Which of the two states is realized depends on whether the transformation induced by the engineered reservoir on the target mode is canonical (i) or not (ii). We discuss how to prepare these states in an optomechanical cavity driven with multiple control lasers, by tuning the relative strengths and phases of the drives. Relevant examples in (ii) include the stabilization of mechanical Schr\"odinger cat-like states or Fock-like states of any order. Our analysis is entirely analytical, it extends reservoir engineering to the non-Gaussian regime and enables the preparation of novel mechanical states with negative Wigner function.

The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is considered a signature of the quantumness of light, as the dip in coincidence probability using semi-classical theories has an upper bound of 50%. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that, with proper phase control of the signals, classical pulses can mimic a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like dip. We demonstrate a dip of 99.635 +/- 0.002% with classical microwave fields. Quantumness manifests in wave-particle complementarity of the two-photon state. We construct quantum and classical interferometers for the complementarity test and show that while the two-photon state shows wave-particle complementarity, the classical pulses do not.

In this paper, we construct a new scheme for delegating a large circuit family, which we call "C+P circuits". "C+P" circuits are the circuits composed of Toffoli gates and diagonal gates. Our scheme is non-interactive, only requires small quantum resources on the client side, and can be proved secure in the quantum random oracle model, without relying on additional assumptions, for example, the existence of fully homomorphic encryption. In practice the random oracle can be replaced by appropriate hash functions or symmetric key encryption schemes, for example, SHA-3, AES.

This protocol allows a client to delegate the most expensive part of some quantum algorithms, for example, Shor's algorithm. The previous protocols that are powerful enough to delegate Shor's algorithm require either many rounds of interactions or the existence of FHE. The quantum resources required by the client are fewer than when it runs Shor's algorithm locally.

Different from many previous protocols, our scheme is not based on quantum one time pad, but on a new encoding called "entanglement encoding". We then generalize the garbled circuit to reversible garbled circuit to allow the computation on this encoding.

To prove the security of this protocol, we study key dependent message(KDM) security in the quantum random oracle model. Then as a natural generalization, we define and study quantum KDM security. KDM security was not previously studied in quantum settings.

Recent progress in photonics has led to a renewed interest in time-varying media that change on timescales comparable to the optical wave oscillation time. However, these studies typically overlook the role of material dispersion that will necessarily imply a delayed temporal response or, stated alternatively, a memory effect. We investigate the influence of the medium memory on a specific effect, i.e. the excitation of quantum vacuum radiation due to the temporal modulation. We construct a framework which reduces the problem to single-particle quantum mechanics, which we then use to study the quantum vacuum radiation. We find that the delayed temporal response changes the vacuum emission properties drastically: Frequencies mix, something typically associated with nonlinear processes, despite the system being completely linear. Indeed, this effect is related to the parametric resonances of the light-matter system, and to the parametric driving of the system by frequencies present locally in the drive but not in its spectrum.

Several experimental groups reported the evidence of multiple periodic modulations of nuclear decay constants which amplitudes are of the order 0.05% and have periods of one year, 24 hours or about one month. We argue that these deviations from radioactive decay law can be explained as the effect of small nonlinear corrections to standard quantum mechanics, in particular, to Hamiltonian of quantum system interaction with gravitational field. It's shown that modified Doebner-Goldin nonlinear model predicts the similar decay parameter variations under influence of Sun gravity.

A universal quantum computing scheme, with a universal set of logical gates, is proposed based on networks of 1D quantum systems. The encoding of information is in terms of universal features of gapped phases, for which effective field theories such as sine-Gordon field theory can be employed to describe a qubit. Primary logical gates are from twist, pump, glue, and shuffle operations that can be realized in principle by tuning parameters of the systems. Our scheme demonstrates the power of 1D quantum systems for robust quantum computing.

We extend classical Maxwell field theory to a first quantized theory of the photon by deriving a conserved Lorentz four-current whose zero component is a positive definite number density. Fields are real and their positive (negative) frequency parts are interpreted as absorption (emission) of a positive energy photon. With invariant plane wave normalization, the photon position operator is Hermitian with instantaneously localized eigenvectors that transform as Lorentz four-vectors. Reality of the fields and wave function ensure causal propagation and zero net absorption of energy in the absence of charged matter. The photon probability amplitude is the real part of the projection of the photon's state vector onto a basis of position eigenvectors and its square implements the Born rule. Manifest covariance and consistency with quantum field theory is maintained through use of the electromagnetic four-potential and the Lorenz gauge.

We propose a simple algorithm to convert a projected entangled pair state (PEPS) into a canonical form, analogous to the well-known canonical form of a matrix product state. Our approach is based on a variational gauging ansatz for the QR tensor decomposition of PEPS columns into a matrix product operator and a finite depth circuit of unitaries and isometries. We describe a practical initialization scheme that leads to rapid convergence in the QR optimization. We explore the performance and stability of the variational gauging algorithm in norm calculations for the transverse-field Ising and Heisenberg models on a square lattice. We also demonstrate energy optimization within the PEPS canonical form for the transverse-field Ising model. We expect this canonical form to open up improved analytical and numerical approaches for PEPS.

We prove a nearly tight lower bound on the approximate degree of the two-level $\mathsf{AND}$-$\mathsf{OR}$ tree using symmetrization arguments. Specifically, we show that $\widetilde{\mathrm{deg}}(\mathsf{AND}_m \circ \mathsf{OR}_n) = \widetilde{\Omega}(\sqrt{mn})$. To our knowledge, this is the first proof of this fact that relies on symmetrization exclusively; most other proofs involve formulating approximate degree as a linear program and exhibiting an explicit dual witness. Our proof relies on a symmetrization technique involving Laurent polynomials (polynomials with negative exponents) that was previously introduced by Aaronson, Kothari, Kretschmer, and Thaler [AKKT19].

Single photon detector (SPD) has a maximum count rate due to its dead time, which results in that the dynamic range of photon counting optical time-domain reflectometry (PC-OTDR) de-creases with the length of monitored fiber. To further improve the dynamic range of PC-OTDR, we propose and demonstrate an externally time-gated scheme. The externally time-gated scheme is realized by using a high-speed optical switch, i.e. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, to modulate the back-propagation optical signal, and to allow that only a certain segment of the fiber is monitored by the SPD. The feasibility of proposed scheme is first examined with theoretical analysis and simulation; then we experimentally demonstrate it with our experimental PC-OTDR testbed operating at 800 nm wavelength band. In our studies, a dynamic range of 30.0 dB is achieved in a 70 meters long PC-OTDR system with 50 ns external gates, corresponding to an improvement of 11.0 dB in dynamic range comparing with no gating operation. Furthermore, with the improved dynamic range, a successful identification of a 0.37 dB loss event is detected with 30-seconds accumulation, which could not be identified without gating operation. Our scheme paves an avenue for developing PC-OTDR systems with high dynamic range.