The Poisson equation has applications across many areas of physics and engineering, such as the dynamic process simulation of ocean current. Here we present a quantum Fast Poisson Solver, including the algorithm and the complete and modular circuit design. The algorithm takes the HHL algorithm as the template. The controlled rotation is performed based on the arc cotangent function which is evaluated by the Plouffe's binary expansion method. And the same method is used to compute the cosine function for the eigenvalue approximation in phase estimation. Quantum algorithms for solving square root and reciprocal functions are developed based on the non-restoring digit-recurrence method. These advances make the algorithm's complexity lower and the circuit-design more modular. The number of the qubits and operations used by the circuit are O(dlog2({\epsilon}-1)) and O(dlog3({\epsilon}-1)), respectively. We demonstrate our circuits on a quantum virtual computing system installed on the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer. This is an important step toward practical applications of quantum Fast Poisson Solver in the near-term hybrid classical/quantum devices.

We study the phonon dynamics in lattices of optomechanical resonators where the mutually coupled photonic modes are coherently driven and the mechanical resonators are uncoupled and connected to independent thermal baths. We present a general procedure to obtain the effective Lindblad dynamics of the phononic modes for an arbitrary lattice geometry, where the light modes play the role of an effective reservoir that mediates the phonon nonequilibrium dynamics. We show how to stabilize stationary states exhibiting directional heat currents over arbitrary distance, despite the absence of thermal gradient and of direct coupling between the mechanical resonators.

The interaction of matter with a quantized electromagnetic mode is considered. Representing a strong exciting field, the mode is assumed to contain a large number of photons. As a result, the material response is highly nonlinear: the completely quantized description results in generation of high harmonics. In order to understand the essence of the physical processes that are involved, we consider a finite dimensional model for the material system. Using an appropriate description in phase space, this approach leads to a transparent picture showing that the interaction splits the initial, exciting coherent state into parts, and the rapid change of the populations of these parts (that are coherent states themselves) results in the generation of high-order harmonics as secondary radiation. The method we use is an application of the discrete lattice of coherent states that was introduced by J. von Neumann.

Transition-metal-oxide (TMO) heterostructures are promising candidates for building photon-harvesting devices which can exploit optimal quantum transport of charge excitations generated by light absorption. Here we address the explicit role of an electric field on the quantum transport properties of photo-excitations subject to dephasing in one-dimensional chains coupled to a continuum of states acting as a sink. We show that the average transfer time to the sink is optimized for suitable values of both the coupling strength to the sink and the electric field, thus fully exploiting the coherence-enhanced efficiency in the quantum transport regime achievable in few monolayers TMO heterostructures. The optimal coupling to the continuum remains approximately the same as that in absence of electric field and is characterizing the Superradiant Transition. On the other hand, the optimal electric field for which we provide estimates using an analytical expression is dependent on the initial state.

This paper presents a workflow to evaluate the macro scale thermal fairness for producers in a district heating network during the conceptual design phase of such a network. It uses the workflow to evaluate two types of proposed topologies for a future network to be constructed in Europe. The workflow is also novel in the sense that it has been demonstrated in the paper that within the implementation, the load balancing step can be solved readily by a quantum computing system (in particular, a quantum annealer from DWave). The concept of fairness is also addressed in the workflow and the results show that there exist an optimum number of producers for a given district heating topology.

Quantum computing experiments are moving into a new realm of increasing size and complexity, with the short-term goal of demonstrating an advantage over classical computers. Boson sampling is a promising platform for such a goal, however, the number of involved single photons was up to five so far, limiting these small-scale implementations to a proof-of-principle stage. Here, we develop solid-state sources of highly efficient, pure and indistinguishable single photons, and 3D integration of ultra-low-loss optical circuits. We perform an experiment with 20 single photons fed into a 60-mode interferometer, and, in its output, sample over Hilbert spaces with a size of $10^{14}$ $-$over ten orders of magnitude larger than all previous experiments. The results are validated against distinguishable samplers and uniform samplers with a confidence level of 99.9%.

We study topological features of interacting spin- 1 2 particles in one-dimensional state-dependent optical lattices. Due to the co-translational symmetry, we introduce the center-of-mass Zak phase with the help of center-of-mass momentum. There appear topological bound states composed by two particles in different spin states via tuning hopping and interaction strengths. Under symmetric open boundary conditions, topological edge bound-states appear as a result of the non-trivial center-ofmass Zak phase of bound-state band, which is protected by the center-of-mass inversion symmetry. The interaction plays a crucial role in the appearance of topological bound states and the system becomes completely trivial if the interaction is switched off. By periodically modulating the hopping and interaction strengths, we show how to implement topological Thouless pumping of bound states, in which the quantized shift of center-of-mass can be described by a non-trivial center-of-mass Chern number.

We propose an experiment for detecting Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) based on the axion-photon interaction in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field. The impact of virtual ALPs on the polarization of the photons inside a cavity is studied and a detection scheme is proposed. We find that the cavity normal modes are dispersed differently owing to their coupling to the ALPs in the presence of a background magnetic field. This birefringence, in turn, can be observed as a phase difference between the cavity polarization modes. The signal is considerably enhanced close to the resonance frequencies of the cavity and further enhanced for a squeezed light source. We propose to scan the resonances with a variable frequency source. We argue that the amplified signal allows for exclusion of a broad range of axion mass $10^{-3}\text{eV} \lesssim m_{a} \lesssim 1 \text{eV}$ even at very small axion-photon coupling constant with the potential to reach sensitivity to the QCD axion. Our scheme allows for the exclusion of a range of axion masses that has not yet been covered by other experimental techniques.

Emerging quantum processors provide an opportunity to explore new approaches for solving traditional problems in the Post Moore's law supercomputing era. However, the limited number of qubits makes it infeasible to tackle massive real-world datasets directly in the near future, leading to new challenges in utilizing these quantum processors for practical purposes. Hybrid quantum-classical algorithms that leverage both quantum and classical types of devices are considered as one of the main strategies to apply quantum computing to large-scale problems. In this paper, we advocate the use of multilevel frameworks for combinatorial optimization as a promising general paradigm for designing hybrid quantum-classical algorithms. In order to demonstrate this approach, we apply this method to two well-known combinatorial optimization problems, namely, the Graph Partitioning Problem, and the Community Detection Problem. We develop hybrid multilevel solvers with quantum local search on D-Wave's quantum annealer and IBM's gate-model based quantum processor. We carry out experiments on graphs that are orders of magnitudes larger than the current quantum hardware size and observe results comparable to state-of-the-art solvers.

We consider testing the ability of quantum network nodes to execute multi-round quantum protocols. Specifically, we examine protocols in which the nodes are capable of performing quantum gates, storing qubits and exchanging said qubits over the network a certain number of times. We propose a simple ping-pong test, which provides a certificate for the capability of the nodes to run certain multi-round protocols. We first show that in the noise-free regime the only way the nodes can pass the test is if they do indeed possess the desired capabilities. We then proceed to consider the case where operations are noisy, and provide an initial analysis showing how our test can be used to estimate parameters that allow us to draw conclusions about the actual performance of such protocols on the tested nodes. Finally, we investigate the tightness of this analysis using example cases in a numerical simulation.

We experimentally demonstrate a long-distance quantum communication at 143 km between the city of Kazan and the urban-type village of Apastovo in the Republic of Tatarstan by using quantum key distribution prototype providing high noise-immunity of network lines and nodes due to phase coding in subcarrier wave. Average secret key generation rate was 12 bits per second with losses in the line of 37 decibels for a distance of 143 km during 16.5 hours of continuous field test. The commercialization perspectives of the demonstrated long-range QKD system are discussed.

The internal energies, including transverse and longitudinal parts, of quantum Heisenberg systems for arbitrary spin S are investigated by the double-time Green's function method. The expressions for ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) systems are derived when one component of magnetization is considered with the higher order longitudinal correlation functions being carefully treated. An unexpected result is that around the order and disorder transition points the neighboring spins in a FM (AFM) system are more likely longitudinally antiparallel (parallel) than parallel (antiparallel) to each other for S<=3/2 in spite of the FM (AFM) exchange between the spins. This is attributed to the strong quantum fluctuation of the systems with small S values. We also present the expressions of the internal energies of FM systems when the three-component of magnetizations are considered.

The Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes in a non-relativistic system are typically classified in two types: being of either an odd (type I) or an even (type II) power energy-momentum dispersion. Conventionally, the type-II NG modes arise from the spontaneous breaking of noncommutative symmetry pairs. Here, we predict a novel type of quadratically dispersed NG modes which emerges from mixed $s$ and $p$ band Bose superfluids in a two-dimensional optical lattice and, unlike the conventional type-II NG modes, cannot be interpreted with the celebrated symmetry-based argument. Instead, we show that the existence of such modes is linked to an emergent topological transition on a projection complex order-parameter space, for which a generic framework is established. Our work reveals a new basic category of type-II NG modes beyond the conventional symmetry-based classification.

The experimental realization of a coupled spin pair has been reported by Heiko Webber et.al and its theoretical description has been previously discussed including the condition that local magnetization of the junction is required for the individual moments to affect the electrons in the molecular ligand through the Kondo interaction. Here in this work, we show that when the couple spin pair is placed in an interferometry set up of the Aharonov-Bohm type additional features related to the switching behavior of the coupled spin pair emerge. This features lead to a phase dependent exchange magnetic field coming from the ferromagnets in proximity with the molecule, a phase dependent commutation of the singlet/triplet ground state around zero bias and it leads to variations in the voltage dependent effective exchange profile between the spin pair. These predictions contribute to the acceptance of the hypothesis that spin polarization can be harvested from quantum coherence in molecular quantum mechanics

Machine-learning driven models have proven to be powerful tools for the identification of phases of matter. In particular, unsupervised methods hold the promise to help discover new phases of matter without the need for any prior theoretical knowledge. While for phases characterized by a broken symmetry, the use of unsupervised methods has proven to be successful, topological phases without a local order parameter seem to be much harder to identify without supervision. Here, we use an unsupervised approach to identify topological phases and transitions out of them. We train artificial neural nets to relate configurational data or measurement outcomes to quantities like temperature or tuning parameters in the Hamiltonian. The accuracy of these predictive models can then serve as an indicator for phase transitions. We successfully illustrate this approach on both the classical Ising gauge theory as well as on the quantum ground state of a generalized toric code.

A formal analysis is conducted on the exactness of various forms of unitary coupled cluster (UCC) theory based on particle-hole excitation and de-excitation operators. Both the conventional single exponential UCC parameterization and a disentangled (factorized) version are considered. We formulate a differential cluster analysis to determine the UCC amplitudes corresponding to a general quantum state. The exactness of conventional UCC (ability to represent any state) is explored numerically and it is formally shown to be determined by the structure of the critical points of the UCC exponential mapping. A family of disentangled UCC wave functions are shown to exactly parameterize any state, thus showing how to construct Trotter-error-free parameterizations of UCC for applications in quantum computing. From these results, we derive an exact disentangled UCC parameterization that employs an infinite sequence of particle-hole or general one- and two-body substitution operators.

A recent no-go theorem gives an extension of the Wigner's friend argument that purports to prove that "Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself." The argument is complex and thought provoking, but fails in a straightforward way if one treats QM as a statistical theory in the most fundamental sense, i.e. if one applies the so-called ensemble interpretation. This explanation is given here at an undergraduate level, which can be edifying for experts and students alike. A recent paper has already shown that the no-go theorem is incorrect with regard to the de Broglie Bohm theory and misguided in some of its general claims. This paper's contribution is three fold. It shows how the extended Wigner's friend argument fails in the ensemble interpretation. It also makes more evident how natural a consistent statistical treatment of the wave function is. In this way, the refutation of the argument is useful for bringing out the core statistical nature of QM. It, in addition, manifests the unnecessary complications and problems introduced by the collapse mechanism that is part of the Copenhagen interpretation. The paper uses the straightforwardness of the ensemble interpretation to make the no-go argument and its refutation more accessible.

Measurement-Device-Independent (MDI) QKD eliminates detector side channels in QKD and allows an untrusted relay between two users. A desirable yet highly challenging application is to implement MDI-QKD through free-space channels. One of the major factors that affect the secure key rate in free-space MDI-QKD is atmospheric turbulence. In this work we show two important results: First, the independent fluctuations of transmittances in the two channels can significantly reduce MDI-QKD performance due to turbulence-induced channel asymmetry. Second, we consider the Prefixed Real-Time Selection (P-RTS) method we formerly introduced to BB84 and extend it to MDI-QKD. Users can monitor classical transmittances in their channels and improve performance by post-selecting signals in real-time based on pre-calculated thresholds. We show that we can establish a 2-dimensional threshold between Alice and Bob to post-select signals with both high signal-to-noise ratio and low channel asymmetry in real time, and greatly extend the maximum range of MDI-QKD in the presence of turbulence, which can be an important step towards future free-space MDI-QKD experiments.

We present a photonic integrated circuit architecture for a quantum programmable gate array (QPGA) capable of preparing arbitrary quantum states and operators. The architecture consists of a lattice of phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which perform rotations on path-encoded photonic qubits, and embedded quantum emitters, which use a two-photon scattering process to implement a deterministic controlled-$\sigma_z$ operation between adjacent qubits. By appropriately setting phase shifts within the lattice, the device can be programmed to implement any quantum circuit without hardware modifications. We provide algorithms for exactly preparing arbitrary quantum states and operators on the device and we show that gradient-based optimization can train a simulated QPGA to automatically implement highly compact approximations to important quantum circuits with near-unity fidelity.

Pearle (1970) gave an example of a local hidden variables model which exactly reproduced the singlet correlations of quantum theory, through the device of data-rejection: particles can fail to be detected in a way which depends on the hidden variables carried by the particles and on the measurement settings. If the experimenter computes correlations between measurement outcomes of particle pairs for which both particles are detected, he is actually looking at a subsample of particle pairs, determined by interaction involving both measurement settings and the hidden variables carried in the particles. We correct a mistake in Pearle's formulas (a normalization error) and more importantly show that the model is more simple than first appears. We illustrate with visualisations of the model and with a small simulation experiment, with code in the statistical programming language R included in the paper. Open problems are discussed.