Feed aggregator

Imperfect 1-out-of-2 quantum oblivious transfer: bounds, a protocol, and its experimental implementation. (arXiv:2007.04712v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Oblivious transfer is an important primitive in modern cryptography. Applications include secure multiparty computation, oblivious sampling, e-voting, and signatures.

Information-theoretically secure perfect 1-out-of 2 oblivious transfer is impossible to achieve. Imperfect variants, where both participants' ability to cheat is still limited, are possible using quantum means while remaining classically impossible. Precisely what security parameters are attainable remains unknown.

We introduce a theoretical framework for studying semi-random quantum oblivious transfer, which is shown equivalent to regular oblivious transfer in terms of cheating probabilities. We then use it to derive bounds on cheating. We also present a protocol with lower cheating probabilities than previous schemes, together with its optical realisation.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductivity based on a parallel-coupled double quantum-dot. (arXiv:2007.04729v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We investigate the heat flow transport properties of a parallel-coupled double quantum-dot system connected to two reservoirs with a temperature bias in the Coulomb blockade regime. We demonstrate that the effects of thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance (NDTC) exist in this system and analyze the influences of energy level difference and Coulomb interaction on the thermal rectification and NDTC. We find that this system can achieve a high thermal rectification ratio and NDTC when the asymmetry factor of the system is enhanced.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Observations of coherence de Broglie waves. (arXiv:2007.04738v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Photonic de Broglie waves (PBWs) via two-mode entangled photon pair interactions on a beam splitter show a pure quantum feature which cannot be obtained by classical means1-4. Although PBWs have been intensively studied for quantum metrology5-13 and quantum sensing14-25 over the last several decades, their implementation has been limited due to difficulties of high-order NOON state generation4. Recently a coherence version of PBWs, the so-called coherence de Broglie waves (CBWs), has been proposed in a pure classical regime of an asymmetrically coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)26. Unlike PBWs, the quantumness of CBWs originates from the cascaded quantum superposition of the coupled MZI. Here, the first CBWs observation is presented in a pure classical regime and discussed for its potential applications in coherence quantum metrology to overcome conventional PBWs limited by higher-order entangled photons. To understand the quantum superposition-based nonclassical features in CBWs, various violation tests are also performed, where asymmetrical phase coupling is the key parameter for CBWs.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Many-body localization of bosons in optical lattice: Dynamics in disorder-free potentials. (arXiv:2007.04745v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

The phenomenon of Many-Body Stark Localization of bosons in tilted optical lattice is studied. Despite the fact that no disorder is necessary for Stark localization to occur, it is very similar to well known many body localization (MBL) in sufficiently strong disorder. Not only the mean gap ratio reaches poissonian value as characteristic for localized situations but also the eigenstates reveal multifractal character as in standard MBL. Stark localization enables a coexistence of spacially separated thermal and localized phases in the harmonic trap similarly to fermions. Stark localization may also lead to spectacular trapping of particles in a reversed harmonic field which naively might be considered as an unstable configuration.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Exponential growth of out-of-time-order correlator without chaos: inverted harmonic oscillator. (arXiv:2007.04746v1 [hep-th])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We provide a detailed examination of a thermal out-of-time-order correlator (OTOC) growing exponentially in time in systems without chaos. The system is a one-dimensional quantum mechanics with a potential whose part is an inverted harmonic oscillator. We numerically observe the exponential growth of the OTOC when the temperature is higher than a certain threshold. The Lyapunov exponent is found to be of the order of the classical Lyapunov exponent generated at the hilltop, and it remains non-vanishing even at high temperature. We adopt various shape of the potential and find these features universal. The study confirms that the exponential growth of the thermal OTOC does not necessarily mean chaos when the potential includes a local maximum. We also provide a bound for the Lyapunov exponent of the thermal OTOC in generic quantum mechanics in one dimension, which is of the same form as the chaos bound obtained by Maldacena, Shenker and Stanford.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Proper relativistic position operators in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. (arXiv:2007.04770v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We have revisited the Dirac theory in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions by using the covariant representation of the parity-extended Poincar\'e group in their native dimensions. The parity operator plays a crucial role in deriving wave equations in both theories. We studied two position operators, a canonical one and a covariant one that becomes the particle position operator projected onto the particle subspace. In 1+1 dimensions the particle position operator, not the canonical position operator, provides the conserved Lorentz generator. The mass moment defined by the canonical position operator needs an additional unphysical spin-like operator to become the conserved Lorentz generator in 1+1 dimensions. In 2+1 dimensions, the sum of the orbital angular momentum given by the canonical position operator and the spin angular momentum becomes a constant of motion. However, orbital and spin angular momentum do not conserve separately. On the other hand the orbital angular momentum given by the particle position operator and its corresponding spin angular momentum become a constant of motion separately.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Physics-inspired forms of the Bayesian Cram\'er-Rao bound. (arXiv:2007.04849v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Using the language of differential geometry, I derive a form of the Bayesian Cram\'er-Rao bound that remains invariant under reparametrization. By assuming that the prior probability density is the square of a wavefunction, I also express the bound in terms of functionals that are quadratic with respect to the wavefunction and its gradient. The problem of finding an unfavorable prior to tighten the bound for minimax estimation is shown, in a special case, to be equivalent to finding the ground-state energy with the Schr\"odinger equation, with the Fisher information playing the role of the potential.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Quantum Friction. (arXiv:2007.04857v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Thermodynamic principles are often deceptively simple and yet surprisingly powerful. We show how a simple rule, such as the net flow of energy in and out of a moving atom under nonequilibrium steady state condition, can expose the shortcomings of many popular theories of quantum friction. Our thermodynamic approach provides a conceptual framework in guiding atom-optical experiments, thereby highlighting the importance of fluctuation-dissipation relations and long-time correlations between subsystems. Our results introduce consistency conditions for (numerical) models of nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Searching for vector dark matter with an optomechanical accelerometer. (arXiv:2007.04899v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We consider using optomechanical accelerometers as resonant detectors for ultralight dark matter. As a concrete example, we describe a detector based on a silicon nitride membrane fixed to a beryllium mirror, forming an optical cavity. The use of different materials gives access to forces proportional to baryon (B) and lepton (L) charge, which are believed to be coupling channels for vector dark matter particles ("dark photons"). The cavity meanwhile provides access to quantum-limited displacement measurements. For a centimeter-scale membrane pre-cooled to 10 mK, we argue that sensitivity to vector B-L dark matter can exceed that of the E\"{o}t-Wash experiment in integration times of minutes, over a fractional bandwidth of $\sim 0.1\%$ near 10 kHz (corresponding to a particle mass of $10^{-10}$eV/c$^2$). Our analysis can be translated to alternative systems such as levitated particles, and suggests the possibility of a new generation of table-top experiments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Reformulation of the No-Free-Lunch Theorem for Entangled Data Sets. (arXiv:2007.04900v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

The No-Free-Lunch (NFL) theorem is a celebrated result in learning theory that limits one's ability to learn a function with a training data set. With the recent rise of quantum machine learning, it is natural to ask whether there is a quantum analog of the NFL theorem, which would restrict a quantum computer's ability to learn a unitary process (the quantum analog of a function) with quantum training data. However, in the quantum setting, the training data can possess entanglement, a strong correlation with no classical analog. In this work, we show that entangled data sets lead to an apparent violation of the (classical) NFL theorem. This motivates a reformulation that accounts for the degree of entanglement in the training set. As our main result, we prove a quantum NFL theorem whereby the fundamental limit on the learnability of a unitary is reduced by entanglement. We employ Rigetti's quantum computer to test both the classical and quantum NFL theorems. Our work establishes that entanglement is a commodity in quantum machine learning.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Repeated radiation damage and thermal annealing of avalanche photodiodes. (arXiv:2007.04902v1 [physics.ins-det])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are well-suited for single-photon detection on quantum communication satellites as they are a mature technology with high detection efficiency without requiring cryogenic cooling. They are, however, prone to significantly increased thermal noise caused by in-orbit radiation damage. Previous work demonstrated that a one-time application of thermal annealing reduces radiation-damage-induced APD thermal noise. Here we examine the effect of cyclical proton irradiation and thermal annealing, emulating the realistic operating profile of a satellite in low-Earth-orbit over a two-year life span. We show that repeated thermal annealing is effective in maintaining thermal noise of silicon APDs within a range suitable for quantum key distribution throughout the nominal mission life, and beyond. We examine two strategies---annealing at a fixed period of time, and annealing only when the thermal noise exceeds a pre-defined limit---and find that the latter exhibits lower thermal noise at end-of-life for most samples. We also observe that afterpulsing probability of the detector increases with cumulative proton irradiation. This knowledge helps guide design and tasking decisions for future space-borne quantum communication applications.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum dynamics of Bose-polaron in a $d$-dimensional Bose Einstein condensate. (arXiv:2007.04925v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We study the quantum motion of an impurity atom immersed in a Bose Einstein condensate in arbitrary dimension. The Bogoliubov excitations of the Bose Einstein condensate act as a bosonic bath for the impurity. We present a detailed derivation of the $d$-dimensional Langevin equations that describe the quantum dynamics of the system, and of the associated generalized tensor that describes the spectral density in the full generality. When the impurity is not trapped, we calculate the mean square displacement, showing that the motion is super diffusive. We obtain also explicit expressions for the super diffusive coefficient in the small and large temperature limits. We find that, in the latter case, the maximal value of this coefficient is the same in all dimensions. We study also the behaviour of the average energy and compare the results for various dimensions. In the trapped case, we study squeezing and find that the stronger position squeezing can be obtained in lower dimensions. We quantify the non-Markovianity of the particle's motion, and find that it increases with dimensionality.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Gigahertz phononic integrated circuits on thin-film lithium niobate on sapphire. (arXiv:2007.04961v1 [physics.app-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Acoustic devices play an important role in classical information processing. The slower speed and lower losses of mechanical waves enable compact and efficient elements for delaying, filtering, and storing of electric signals at radio and microwave frequencies. Discovering ways of better controlling the propagation of phonons on a chip is an important step towards enabling larger scale phononic circuits and systems. We present a platform, inspired by decades of advances in integrated photonics, that utilizes the strong piezoelectric effect in a thin film of lithium niobate on sapphire to excite guided acoustic waves immune from leakage into the bulk due to the phononic analogue of index-guiding. We demonstrate an efficient transducer matched to 50 ohm and guiding within a 1-micron wide mechanical waveguide as key building blocks of this platform. Putting these components together, we realize acoustic delay lines, racetrack resonators, and meander line waveguides for sensing applications. To evaluate the promise of this platform for emerging quantum technologies, we characterize losses at low temperature and measure quality factors on the order of 50,000 at 4 kelvin. Finally, we demonstrate phononic four-wave mixing in these circuits and measure the nonlinear coefficients to provide estimates of the power needed for relevant parametric processes.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Born Rule and Logical Inference in Quantum Mechanics. (arXiv:1804.10067v5 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Logical inference leads to one of the major interpretations of probability theory called logical interpretation, in which the probability is seen as a measure of the plausibility of a logical statement under incomplete information. In this paper, assuming that our usual inference procedure makes sense for every set of logical propositions represented in terms of commuting projectors on a given Hilbert space, we extend the logical interpretation to quantum mechanics and derive the Born rule. Our result implies that, from the epistemological viewpoints, we can regard quantum mechanics as a natural extension of the classical probability.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On Basing One-way Permutations on NP-hard Problems under Quantum Reductions. (arXiv:1804.10309v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

A fundamental pursuit in complexity theory concerns reducing worst-case problems to average-case problems. There exist complexity classes such as PSPACE that admit worst-case to average-case reductions. However, for many other classes such as NP, the evidence so far is typically negative, in the sense that the existence of such reductions would cause collapses of the polynomial hierarchy(PH). Basing cryptographic primitives, e.g., the average-case hardness of inverting one-way permutations, on NP-completeness is a particularly intriguing instance. As there is evidence showing that classical reductions from NP-hard problems to breaking these primitives result in PH collapses, it seems unlikely to base cryptographic primitives on NP-hard problems. Nevertheless, these results do not rule out the possibilities of the existence of quantum reductions. In this work, we initiate a study of the quantum analogues of these questions. Aside from formalizing basic notions of quantum reductions and demonstrating powers of quantum reductions by examples of separations, our main result shows that if NP-complete problems reduce to inverting one-way permutations using certain types of quantum reductions, then coNP $\subseteq$ QIP(2).

Categories: Journals, Physics

Non-signaling Causal Hierarchy of General Multisource Networks. (arXiv:1808.06336v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Large-scale multisource networks have been employed to overcome the practical constraints that entangled systems are difficult to faithfully transmit over large distance or store in long time. However, a full characterization of the multipartite nonlocality of these networks remains out of reach, mainly due to the complexity of multipartite causal models. In this paper, we propose a general framework of Bayesian networks to reveal connections among different causal structures. The present model implies a special star-convex set of non-signaling correlations from multisource networks that allows constructing polynomial-time algorithm for solving the compatibility problem of a given correlation distribution and a fixed causal network. It is then used to classify the nonlocality originated from the standard entanglement swapping of tripartite networks. Our model provides a unified device-independent information processing method for exploring the practical security against non-signaling eavesdroppers on multisource quantum networks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Information-theoretic aspects of the generalized amplitude damping channel. (arXiv:1903.07747v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

The generalized amplitude damping channel (GADC) is one of the sources of noise in superconducting-circuit-based quantum computing. It can be viewed as the qubit analogue of the bosonic thermal channel, and it thus can be used to model lossy processes in the presence of background noise for low-temperature systems. In this work, we provide an information-theoretic study of the GADC. We first determine the parameter range for which the GADC is entanglement breaking and the range for which it is anti-degradable. We then establish several upper bounds on its classical, quantum, and private capacities. These bounds are based on data-processing inequalities and the uniform continuity of information-theoretic quantities, as well as other techniques. Our upper bounds on the quantum capacity of the GADC are tighter than the known upper bound reported recently in [Rosati et al., Nat. Commun. 9, 4339 (2018)] for the entire parameter range of the GADC, thus reducing the gap between the lower and upper bounds. We also establish upper bounds on the two-way assisted quantum and private capacities of the GADC. These bounds are based on the squashed entanglement, and they are established by constructing particular squashing channels. We compare these bounds with the max-Rains information bound, the mutual information bound, and another bound based on approximate covariance. For all capacities considered, we find that a large variety of techniques are useful in establishing bounds.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Nondestructive photon counting in waveguide QED. (arXiv:1906.12296v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Number-resolving single-photon detectors represent a key technology for a host of quantum optics protocols, but despite significant efforts, state-of-the-art devices are limited to few photons. In contrast, state-dependent atom counting in arrays can be done with extremely high fidelity up to hundreds of atoms. We show that in waveguide QED, the problem of photon counting can be reduced to atom counting, by entangling the photonic state with an atomic array in the collective number basis. This is possible as the incoming photons couple to collective atomic states and can be achieved by engineering a second decay channel of an excited atom to a metastable state. Our scheme is robust to disorder and finite Purcell factors, and its fidelity increases with atom number. Analyzing the state of the re-emitted photons, we further show that if the initial atomic state is a symmetric Dicke state, dissipation engineering can be used to implement a nondestructive photon-number measurement, in which the incident state is scattered into the waveguide unchanged. Our results generalize to related platforms, including superconducting qubits.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tunable Aharonov-Bohm-like cages for quantum walks. (arXiv:1910.00845v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

Aharonov-Bohm cages correspond to an extreme confinement for two-dimensional tight-binding electrons in a transverse magnetic field. When the dimensionless magnetic flux per plaquette $f$ equals a critical value $f_c=1/2$, a destructive interference forbids the particle to diffuse away from a small cluster. The corresponding energy levels pinch into a set of highly degenerate discrete levels as $f\to f_c$. We show here that cages also occur for discrete-time quantum walks on either the diamond chain or the $\mathcal{T}_3$ tiling but require specific coin operators. The corresponding quasi-energies versus $f$ result in a Floquet-Hofstadter butterfly displaying pinching near a critical flux $f_c$ and that may be tuned away from 1/2. The spatial extension of the associated cages can also be engineered.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for photoemission from a metal. (arXiv:1911.00201v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Fri, 2020-07-10 10:53

We solve rigorously the time dependent Schr\"odinger equation describing electron emission from a metal surface by a laser field perpendicular to the surface. We consider the system to be one-dimensional, with the half-line $x<0$ corresponding to the bulk of the metal and $x>0$ to the vacuum. The laser field is modeled as a classical electric field oscillating with frequency $\omega$, acting only at $x>0$. We consider an initial condition which is a stationary state of the system without a field, and, at time $t=0$, the field is switched on. We prove the existence of a solution $\psi(x,t)$ of the Schr\"odinger equation for $t>0$, and compute the surface current. The current exhibits a complex oscillatory behavior, which is not captured by the "simple" three step scenario. As $t\to\infty$, $\psi(x,t)$ converges with a rate $t^{-\frac32}$ to a time periodic function with period $\frac{2\pi}{\omega}$ which coincides with that found by Faisal, Kami\'nski and Saczuk (Phys Rev A 72, 023412, 2015). However, for realistic values of the parameters, we have found that it can take quite a long time (over 50 laser periods) for the system to converge to its asymptote. Of particular physical importance is the current averaged over a laser period $\frac{2\pi}\omega$, which exhibits a dramatic increase when $\hbar\omega$ becomes larger than the work function of the metal, which is consistent with the original photoelectric effect.

Categories: Journals, Physics
Syndicate content