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Event based simulation of an EPR-B experiment by local hidden variables: epr-simple and epr-clocked. (arXiv:1507.00106v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

In this note, I analyse the data generated by M. Fodje's simulation programs "epr-simple" and "epr-clocked" using appropriate modified Bell-CHSH type inequalities: the Larsson detection loophole adjusted CHSH, and the Larsson-Gill coincidence loophole adjusted CHSH. The experimental efficiencies turn out to be approximately eta = 81% and gamma = 55% respectively, and the observed value of CHSH is (of course) well within the adjusted bounds.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Witnessing quantum resource conversion within deterministic quantum computation using one pure superconducting qubit. (arXiv:1806.05543v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Deterministic quantum computation with one qubit (DQC1) is iconic in highlighting that exponential quantum speedup may be achieved with negligible entanglement. Its discovery catalyzed heated study of general quantum resources, and various conjectures regarding their role in DQC1's performance advantage. Coherence and discord are prominent candidates, respectively characterizing non-classicality within localized and correlated systems. Here we realize DQC1 within a superconducting system, engineered such that the dynamics of coherence and discord can be tracked throughout its execution. We experimentally confirm that DQC1 acts as a resource converter, consuming coherence to generate discord during its operation. Our results highlight superconducting circuits as a promising platform for both realizing DQC1 and related algorithms, and experimentally characterizing resource dynamics within quantum protocols.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum generative adversarial network for discrete data. (arXiv:1807.01235v5 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Quantum machine learning has recently attracted much attention from the community of quantum computing. In this paper, we explore the ability of generative adversarial networks (GANs) based on quantum computing. More specifically, we propose a quantum GAN for generating classical discrete distribution, which has a classical-quantum hybrid architecture and is composed of a parameterized quantum circuit as the generator and a classical neural network as the discriminator. The parameterized quantum circuit only consists of simple one-qubit rotation gates and two-qubit controlled-phase gates that are available in current quantum devices. Our scheme has the following characteristics and potential advantages: (i) It is intrinsically capable of generating discrete data (e.g., text data), while classical GANs are clumsy for this task due to the vanishing gradient problem. (ii) Our scheme avoids the input/output bottlenecks embarrassing most of the existing quantum learning algorithms that either require to encode the classical input data into quantum states, or output a quantum state corresponding to the solution instead of giving the solution itself, which inevitably compromises the speedup of the quantum algorithm. (iii) The probability distribution implicitly given by data samples can be loaded into a quantum state, which may be useful for some further applications.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Scrambling dynamics across a thermalization-localization quantum phase transition. (arXiv:1807.06086v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We study quantum information scrambling, specifically the growth of Heisenberg operators, in large disordered spin chains using matrix product operator dynamics to scan across the thermalization-localization quantum phase transition. We observe ballistic operator growth for weak disorder, and a sharp transition to a phase with sub-ballistic operator spreading. The critical disorder strength for the ballistic to sub-ballistic transition is well below the many body localization phase transition, as determined from finite size scaling of energy eigenstate entanglement entropy in small chains. In contrast, we find that the transition from sub-ballistic to logarithmic behavior at the actual eigenstate localization transition is not resolved in our finite numerics. These data are discussed in the context of a universal form for the growing operator shape and substantiated with a simple phenomenological model of rare regions.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Who needs category theory?. (arXiv:1807.11399v3 [cs.LO] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

In mathematical applications, category theory remains a contentious issue, with enthusiastic fans and a skeptical majority. In a muted form this split applies to the authors of this note. When we learned that the only mathematically sound foundation of topological quantum computing in the literature is based on category theory, the skeptical author suggested to "decategorize" the foundation. But we discovered, to our surprise, that category theory (or something like it) is necessary for the purpose, for computational reasons. The goal of this note is to give a high-level explanation of that necessity, which avoids details and which suggests that the case of topological quantum computing is far from unique.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Tripartite information, scrambling, and the role of Hilbert space partitioning in quantum lattice models. (arXiv:1808.05646v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

For the characterization of the dynamics in quantum many-body systems the question how information spreads and becomes distributed over the constituent degrees of freedom is of fundamental interest. The delocalization of information under many-body dynamics has been dubbed scrambling and out-of-time-order correlators were proposed to probe this behavior. In this work we investigate the time-evolution of tripartite information as a natural operator-independent measure of scrambling, which quantifies to which extent the initially localized information can only be recovered by global measurements. Studying the dynamics of quantum lattice models with tunable integrability breaking we demonstrate that in contrast to quadratic models generic interacting systems scramble information irrespective of the chosen partitioning of the Hilbert space, which justifies the characterization as scrambler. Without interactions the dynamics of tripartite information in momentum space reveals unambiguously the absence of scrambling.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum criticality in Ising chains with random hyperuniform couplings. (arXiv:1809.04595v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We study quantum phase transitions in transverse-field Ising spin chains in which the couplings are random but hyperuniform, in the sense that their large-scale fluctuations are suppressed. We construct a one-parameter family of disorder models in which long-wavelength fluctuations are increasingly suppressed as a parameter $\alpha$ is tuned. For $\alpha = 0$, one recovers the familiar infinite-randomness critical point. For $0 < \alpha < 1$, we find a line of infinite-randomness critical points with continuously varying critical exponents; however, the Griffiths phases that flank the critical point at $\alpha = 0$ are absent at any $\alpha > 0$. When $\alpha > 1$, randomness is a dangerously irrelevant perturbation at the clean Ising critical point, leading to a state we call the critical Ising insulator. In this state, thermodynamics and equilibrium correlation functions behave as in the clean system. However, all finite-energy excitations are localized, thermal transport vanishes, and autocorrelation functions remain finite in the long-time limit. We characterize this line of hyperuniform critical points using a combination of perturbation theory, renormalization-group methods, and exact diagonalization.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Remarks on the time-energy uncertainty relation. (arXiv:1810.11462v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We analyze the Heisenberg and Mandelstam-Tamm time-energy uncertainty relations and we show that contrary to the position-momentum uncertainty relation, these relations can not be considered as universally valid.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Symmetry and Topology in Non-Hermitian Physics. (arXiv:1812.09133v4 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We develop a complete theory of symmetry and topology in non-Hermitian physics. We demonstrate that non-Hermiticity ramifies the celebrated Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classification for insulators and superconductors. In particular, charge conjugation is defined in terms of transposition rather than complex conjugation due to the lack of Hermiticity, and hence chiral symmetry becomes distinct from sublattice symmetry. It is also shown that non-Hermiticity enables a Hermitian-conjugate counterpart of the Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry. Taking into account sublattice symmetry or pseudo-Hermiticity as an additional symmetry, the total number of symmetry classes is 38 instead of 10, which describe intrinsic non-Hermitian topological phases as well as non-Hermitian random matrices. Furthermore, due to the complex nature of energy spectra, non-Hermitian systems feature two different types of complex-energy gaps, point-like and line-like vacant regions. On the basis of these concepts and K-theory, we complete classification of non-Hermitian topological phases in arbitrary dimensions and symmetry classes. Remarkably, non-Hermitian topology depends on the type of complex-energy gaps and multiple topological structures appear for each symmetry class and each spatial dimension, which are also illustrated in detail with concrete examples. Moreover, the bulk-boundary correspondence in non-Hermitian systems is elucidated within our framework, and symmetries preventing the non-Hermitian skin effect are identified. Our classification not only categorizes recently observed lasing and transport topological phenomena, but also predicts a new type of symmetry-protected topological lasers with lasing helical edge states and dissipative topological superconductors with nonorthogonal Majorana edge states. Furthermore, our theory provides topological classification of Hermitian and non-Hermitian free bosons.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Non-Markovian noise that cannot be dynamically decoupled. (arXiv:1904.03627v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Dynamical decoupling is the leading technique to remove unwanted interactions in a vast range of quantum systems through fast rotations. But what determines the time-scale of such rotations in order to achieve good decoupling? By providing an explicit counterexample of a qubit coupled to a charged particle and magnetic monopole, we show that such time-scales cannot be decided by the decay profile induced by the noise: even though the system shows a quadratic decay (a Zeno region revealing non-Markovian noise), it cannot be decoupled, no matter how fast the rotations.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Topological bound states for quantum charges. (arXiv:1904.10542v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We discuss how, in appropriately designed configurations, solenoids carrying a semifluxon can be used as topological energy barriers for charged quantum systems. We interpret this phenomenon as a consequence of the fact that such solenoids induce nodal lines in the wave function describing the charge, which on itself is a consequence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, we present a thought experiment with a cavity where two solenoids are sufficient to create bound states.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Time-crystalline behavior in an engineered spin chain ?. (arXiv:1904.12328v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Time crystals appear when systems display a commensurate spontaneous breaking of the discrete time translational invariance imposed by an external periodic drive. No consensus on the definition has been reached as yet, but important aspects comprise robustness against small variations of the parameters and the initial quantum state. Often, disorder and interaction are thought to be essential ingredients for the occurrence of time crystals. We study a finite-length polarized XX spin chain engineered to display a spectrum of equidistant energy levels without drive and show that it keeps a spectrum of equidistant quasienergies in Floquet theory for a large variety of periodic driving schemes. This interesting behavior is explained by mapping the XX spin chain with $N+1$ sites to a single large spin with $S=N/2$ invoking the closure of the group SU(2). For suitably tuned parameters this system realizes time crystals of various periodicities for \emph{all} initial states. The robustness against variations of the parameters is also discussed. Thereby, we establish a clean system without interaction which can display the phenomenon of time crystallization.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Bounds on Lyapunov exponents via entropy accumulation. (arXiv:1905.03270v3 [math-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Lyapunov exponents describe the asymptotic behavior of the singular values of large products of random matrices. A direct computation of these exponents is however often infeasible. By establishing a link between Lyapunov exponents and an information theoretic tool called entropy accumulation theorem we derive an upper and a lower bound for the maximal and minimal Lyapunov exponent, respectively. The bounds are analytical and are tight in the commutative case as well as in other scenarios. They can be expressed in terms of an optimization problem that only involves single matrices rather than large products. The upper bound for the maximal Lyapunov exponent can be evaluated efficiently via the theory of convex optimization.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Aligned SICs and embedded tight frames in even dimensions. (arXiv:1905.09737v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Alignment is a geometric relation between pairs of Weyl-Heisenberg SICs, one in dimension $d$ and another in dimension $d(d-2)$, manifesting a well-founded conjecture about a number-theoretical connection between the SICs. In this paper, we prove that if $d$ is even, the SIC in dimension $d(d-2)$ of an aligned pair can be partitioned into $(d-2)^2$ tight $d^2$-frames of rank $d(d-1)/2$ and, alternatively, into $d^2$ tight $(d-2)^2$-frames of rank $(d-1)(d-2)/2$. The corresponding result for odd $d$ is already known, but the proof for odd $d$ relies on results which are not available for even $d$. We develop methods that allow us to overcome this issue. In addition, we provide a relatively detailed study of parity operators in the Clifford group, emphasizing differences in the theory of parity operators in even and odd dimensions and discussing consequences due to such differences. In a final section, we study implications of alignment for the symmetry of the SIC.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Measurements of the branching ratios for $6P_{1/2}$ decays in $^{138}$Ba$^+$. (arXiv:1905.06523v3 [physics.atom-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

Measurement of the branching ratios for $6P_{1/2}$ decays to $6S_{1/2}$ and $5D_{3/2}$ in $^{138}$Ba$^+$ are reported with the decay probability from $6P_{1/2}$ to $5D_{3/2}$ measured to be $p=0.268177\pm(37)_\mathrm{stat}-(20)_\mathrm{sys}$. This result differs from a recent report by $12\sigma$. A detailed account of systematics is given and the likely source of the discrepancy is identified. The new value of the branching ratio is combined with a previous experimental results to give a new estimate of $\tau=7.855(10)\,\mathrm{ns}$ for the $6P_{1/2}$ lifetime. In addition, ratios of matrix elements calculated from theory are combined with experimental results to provide improved theoretical estimates of the $6P_{3/2}$ lifetime and the associated matrix elements.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On the measurement problem with entangled photons and the possibility of local hidden variables. (arXiv:1604.08105v17 [physics.gen-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It refutes Bell's Theorem.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Scalable Emulation of Sign-Problem$-$Free Hamiltonians with Room Temperature p-bits. (arXiv:1810.07144v5 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

The growing field of quantum computing is based on the concept of a q-bit which is a delicate superposition of 0 and 1, requiring cryogenic temperatures for its physical realization along with challenging coherent coupling techniques for entangling them. By contrast, a probabilistic bit or a p-bit is a robust classical entity that fluctuates between 0 and 1, and can be implemented at room temperature using present-day technology. Here, we show that a probabilistic coprocessor built out of room temperature p-bits can be used to accelerate simulations of a special class of quantum many-body systems that are sign-problem$-$free or stoquastic, leveraging the well-known Suzuki-Trotter decomposition that maps a $d$-dimensional quantum many body Hamiltonian to a $d$+1-dimensional classical Hamiltonian. This mapping allows an efficient emulation of a quantum system by classical computers and is commonly used in software to perform Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithms. By contrast, we show that a compact, embedded MTJ-based coprocessor can serve as a highly efficient hardware-accelerator for such QMC algorithms providing several orders of magnitude improvement in speed compared to optimized CPU implementations. Using realistic device-level SPICE simulations we demonstrate that the correct quantum correlations can be obtained using a classical p-circuit built with existing technology and operating at room temperature. The proposed coprocessor can serve as a tool to study stoquastic quantum many-body systems, overcoming challenges associated with physical quantum annealers.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum metrology enhanced by coherence-induced-driving in a cavity QED setup. (arXiv:1906.01858v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We propose a quantum metrology scheme in a cavity QED setup to achieve the Heisenberg limit. In our scheme, a series of identical two-level atoms randomly pass through and interact with a dissipative single-mode cavity. Different from the entanglement based Heisenberg limit metrology scheme, we do not need to prepare the atomic entangled states before they enter into the cavity. We show that the initial atomic coherence will induce an effective driving to the cavity field, whose steady state is an incoherent superposition of orthogonal states, with the superposition probabilities being dependent on the atom-cavity coupling strength. By measuring the average photon number of the cavity in the steady state, we demonstrate that the root-mean-square of the fluctuation of the atom-cavity coupling strength is proportional to $1/N_c^2$ ($N_c$ is the effective atom number interacting with the photon in the cavity during its lifetime). It implies that we have achieved the Heisenberg limit in our quantum metrology process. We also discuss the experimental feasibility of our theoretical proposal. Our findings may find potential applications in quantum metrology technology.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Uncertainty and symmetry bounds for the quantum total detection probability. (arXiv:1906.08108v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We investigate a generic discrete quantum system prepared in state $|\psi_\text{in}\rangle$, under repeated detection attempts aimed to find the particle in state $|d\rangle$, for example a quantum walker on a finite graph searching for a node. For the corresponding classical random walk, the total detection probability $P_\text{det}$ is unity. Due to destructive interference, one may find initial states $|\psi_\text{in}\rangle$ with $P_\text{det}<1$. We first obtain an uncertainty relation which yields insight on this deviation from classical behavior, showing the relation between $P_\text{det}$ and energy fluctuations: $ \Delta P \,\mathrm{Var}[\hat{H}]_d \ge | \langle d| [\hat{H}, \hat{D}] | \psi_\text{in} \rangle |^2$ where $\Delta P = P_\text{det} - |\langle\psi_\text{in}|d\rangle |^2$, and $\hat{D} = |d\rangle\langle d|$ is the measurement projector. Secondly, exploiting symmetry we show that $P_\text{det}\le 1/\nu$ where the integer $\nu$ is the number of states equivalent to the initial state. These bounds are compared with the exact solution for small systems, obtained from an analysis of the dark and bright subspaces, showing the usefulness of the approach. The upper bounds works well even in large systems, and we show how to tighten the lower bound in this case.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On the complexity of the steady-state of weakly symmetric open quantum lattices. (arXiv:1910.09241v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - 2 hours 45 min ago

We investigate the properties of Lindblad equations on $d$-dimensional lattices supporting a unique steady-state configuration. We consider the case of a time evolution weakly symmetric under the action of a finite group $G$, which is also a symmetry group for the lattice structure. We show that in such case the steady-state belongs to a relevant subspace, and provide an explicit algorithm for constructing an orthonormal basis of such set. As explicitly shown for a spin-1/2 system, the dimension of such subspace is extremely smaller than the dimension of the set of square operators. As a consequence, by projecting the dynamics within such set, the steady-state configuration can be determined with a considerable reduced amount of resources. We demonstrate the validity of our theoretical results by determinining the \emph{exact} structure of the steady-state configuration of the two dimensional XYZ model in the presence of uniform dissipation, with and without magnetic fields, up to a number of sites equal to 12. As far as we know, this is the first time one is capable of determining the steady-state structure of such model for the 12 sites cluster exactly. Altough in this work we consider explicitly only spin-1/2 systems, our approach can be exploited in the characterisation of arbitrary spin systems, fermion and boson systems (with truncated Fock space), as well as many-particle systems with degrees of freedom having different statistical properties.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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