We study the dynamics of a classical scalar field that rolls down a linear potential as it interacts bi-quadratically with a quantum field. We explicitly solve the dynamical problem by using the classical-quantum correspondence (CQC). Rolling solutions on the effective potential are shown to compare very poorly with the full solution. Spatially homogeneous initial conditions maintain their homogeneity and small inhomogeneities in the initial conditions do not grow.

This paper highlights the importance of the assumption of locality of physical interactions, and the concomitant necessity of the off-shell propagation of quanta between two non-relativistic test masses in probing the quantum nature of linearized gravity in the laboratory. At the outset, we will argue that observing the quantum nature of a system is not limited to evidencing $O\left(\hbar\right)$ corrections to a classical theory: it instead hinges upon verifying tasks that a classical system cannot accomplish, which is the method adopted in the aforementioned tabletop experiments. We explain the background concepts needed from quantum field theory, namely forces arising through the exchange of virtual (off-shell) quanta, as well as the background exploited from quantum information theory, such as Local Operations and Classical Communication (LOCC) and entanglement witnesses. We clarify the key assumption inherent in our evidencing experiment, namely the locality of physical interactions, which is a generic feature of interacting systems of quantum fields around us, and naturally incorporates micro-causality in the description of our experiment. We also present the types of states the matter field must inhabit, putting the experiment on firm relativistic quantum field theoretic grounds. At the end we use a non-local (but not complete action at a distance) theory of gravity to illustrate how our mechanism may still be used to detect the qualitatively quantum nature of a force when the scale of non-locality is finite. We find that the scale of non-locality, including the entanglement entropy production in local/ non-local gravity, may be revealed from the results of our experiment.

We consider a rotationally invariant system-bath (RISB) model in three-dimensional space that is described by a linear-rigid rotor independently coupled to three sets of harmonic-oscillator baths as functions of the Euler angle. While this model has been developed to study a dielectric relaxation of a dipolar molecule in solvation as a problem of classical Debye relaxation, here we investigate it as a problem of open quantum dynamics as an extension of our previous work [J. Chem. Phys, 149, 084110 (2018)], in which we studied a two-dimensional (2D) RISB model, to a three-dimensional (3D) RISB model. As in the 2D case, due to a difference in the energy discretization of the total Hamiltonian, the dynamics described by the 3D RISB model differ significantly from those described by the rotational Caldeira-Legget (RCL) model. To illustrate characteristic features of the quantum 3D rotor system described by angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers, we derive a quantum master equation (QME) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) for the 3D RISB model in the high-temperature case. Using the QME, we compute linear and two-dimensional (2D) rotational spectra, defined by the linear and nonlinear response functions of the rotor dipole, respectively. The quantum transitions between the angular momentum states and magnetic states arising from polarized Stark fields as well as the system-bath interactions are clearly observed in 2D rotational spectroscopy.

EPR-steering refers to the ability of one observer to convince a distant observer that they share entanglement by making local measurements. Determining which states allow a demonstration of EPR-steering remains an open problem in general. Here, we outline and demonstrate a method of analytically constructing new classes of two-qubit states which are non-steerable by arbitrary projective measurements, from consideration of local operations performed by the steering party on states known to be non-steerable.

Everettian Quantum Mechanics, or the Many Worlds Interpretation, has no Born rule, and lacks a valid explanation for quantum probabilities. We show their values are the factors by which 2-dimensional Lebesgue measures contract under orthogonal projections in complex Hilbert spaces, and that the unit total probability condition corresponds to a Pythagorean theorem for such measures. From this and two simple, yet unorthodox, physical assumptions, we obtain that those factors give, in the set of worlds originating from a quantum measurement, the fractions corresponding to each result. These are associated to probabilities, in both the frequentist and Bayesian views, solving the probability problem of Everett's theory. This allows its preferred basis problem to be solved as well, and may help settle questions about the nature of probability in general.

One of the central problems in quantum theory is to characterize, detect, and quantify quantumness in terms of classical strategies. Dephasing processes, caused by non-dissipative information exchange between quantum systems and environments, provides a natural platform for this purpose, as they control the quantum-to-classical transition. Recently, it has been shown that dephasing dynamics itself can exhibit (non)classical traits, depending on the nature of the system-environment correlations and the related (im)possibility to simulate these dynamics with Hamiltonian ensembles---the classical strategy. Here we establish the framework of detecting and quantifying the nonclassicality for pure dephasing dynamics. The uniqueness of the canonical representation of Hamiltonian ensembles is shown, and a constructive method to determine the latter is presented. We illustrate our method for qubit, qutrit, and qubit-pair pure dephasing and describe how to implement our approach with quantum process tomography experiments. Our work is readily applicable to present-day quantum experiments.

Quantum theory sets a bound on the minimal time evolution between initial and target states. This bound is called as quantum speed limit time. It is used to quantify maximal speed of quantum evolution. The quantum evolution will be faster, if quantum speed limit time decreases. In this work, we study the quantum speed limit time of a quantum state in the presence of disturbance effects in an environment. We use the model which is provided by Masashi Ban in \href{https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.99.012116}{Phys. Rev. A 99, 012116 (2019)}. In this model two quantum systems $\mathcal{A}$ and $\mathcal{S}$ interact with environment sequentially. At first, quantum system $\mathcal{A}$ interacts with the environment $\mathcal{E}$ as an auxiliary system then quantum system $\mathcal{S}$ interacts with disturbed environment immediately. In this work, we consider dephasing coupling with two types of environment with different spectral density: Ohmic and Lorentzian. We observe that, non-Markovian effects will be appear in the dynamics of quantum system $\mathcal{S}$ by the interaction of quantum system $\mathcal{A}$ with the environment. Given the fact that quantum speed limit time reduces due to non-Markovian effects, we show that disturbance effects will reduce the quantum speed limit time.

Encoding quantum information in continuous variables is intrinsically faulty. Nevertheless, redundant qubits can be used for error correction, as proposed by Gottesman, Kitaev and Preskill in Phys. Rev. A 64 012310, (2001). We show how to experimentally implement this encoding using time-frequency continuous degrees of freedom of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion. Our theoretical model relies on the analogy between operations involving multi-photon states in one mode of the electromagnetic field and single photons occupying many modes. We illustrate our results using an integrated AlGaAs platform, and show how single qubit gates and error correction can be experimentally implemented in a circuit-like and in a measurement-based architecture.

Author(s): Alessandro Alberucci, Chandroth P. Jisha, Ulf Peschel, and Stefan Nolte

We discuss a class of interactions between self-confined optical beams breaking the action-reaction principle. The effective force intertwining the beams does not satisfy momentum conservation, paving the way to the potential existence of situations where both beams are pushed in the same direction,...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 011802(R)] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Riccardo Rota and Vincenzo Savona

We propose a class of quantum simulators for antiferromagnetic spin systems based on coupled photonic cavities in the presence of two-photon driving and dissipation. By modeling the coupling between the different cavities through a hopping term with negative amplitude, we solve numerically the quant...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 013838] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Simanraj Sadana, Debadrita Ghosh, Kaushik Joarder, A. Naga Lakshmi, Barry C. Sanders, and Urbasi Sinha

The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is considered a signature of the quantumness of light, as the dip in coincidence probability using semiclassical theories has an upper bound of 50%. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that, with proper phase control of the signals, classical pulses can mimic a ...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 013839] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Timothy J. Proctor, Arnaud Carignan-Dugas, Kenneth Rudinger, Erik Nielsen, Robin Blume-Kohout, and Kevin Young

Benchmarking methods that can be adapted to multiqubit systems are essential for assessing the overall or “holistic” performance of nascent quantum processors. The current industry standard is Clifford randomized benchmarking (RB), which measures a single error rate that quantifies overall performan...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 030503] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Philip Ball

A pair of satellites 200 km apart has demonstrated a record-high precision in distance determination, which will be useful for mapping out Earth’s gravitational field.

[Physics 12, 83] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Alex Rigby, J. C. Olivier, and Peter Jarvis

Quantum low-density parity-check codes can be decoded using a syndrome based GF(4) belief propagation decoder (where GF denotes Galois field). However, the performance of this decoder is limited both by unavoidable 4-cycles in the code's factor graph and the degenerate nature of quantum errors. For ...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 012330] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

Author(s): Debajyoti Bera and Tharrmashastha P. V.

We present a technique to reduce the error probability of quantum algorithms that determine whether its input has a specified property of interest. The standard process of reducing this error is statistical processing of the results of multiple independent executions of an algorithm. Denoting by ρ a...

[Phys. Rev. A 100, 012331] Published Fri Jul 19, 2019

We consider the quench of an atomic impurity via a single Rydberg excitation in a degenerate Fermi gas. The Rydberg interaction with the background gas particles induces an ultralong-range potential that binds particles to form dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc. Such oligomeric molecules were recently observed in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work, we demonstrate with a functional determinant approach that quantum statistics and fluctuations have observable spectral consequences. We show that the occupation of molecular states is predicated on the Fermi statistics, which suppresses molecular formation in an emergent molecular shell structure. At large gas densities this leads to spectral narrowing, which can serve as a probe of the quantum gas thermodynamic properties.

We review recent progresses towards an understanding of the Skyrmion Hall transport in insulating as well as conducting materials. First, we consider a theoretical breakthrough based on the quantum field theory Ward identity, a first principle analysis, relying on symmetries and conservation laws. Broken parity (inversion) symmetry plays a crucial role in Skyrmion Hall transport. In addition to the well known thermal and electric Hall conductivities, our analysis has led us to the discovery of a new and unforeseen physical quantity, Hall viscosity - an anti-symmetric part of the viscosity tensor. We propose a simple way to confirm the existence of Hall viscosity in the measurements of Hall conductivity as a function of momentum. We provide various background materials to assist the readers to understand the quantum field theory Ward identity.

In the second part, we review recent theoretical and experimental advancements of the Skyrmion Hall effects and the topological (Magnon) Hall effects for conducting (insulting) magnets. For this purpose, we consider two enveloping themes: spin torque and thermo-electromagnetic effect. First, we overview various spin torques, such as spin transfer torque, spin-orbit torque, and spin Hall torque, and generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations and Thiele equations using a phenomenological approach. Second, we consider irreversible thermodynamics to survey possible thermo-electromagnetic effects, such as Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects in the presence of the electric currents, along with the Hall effects in the presence of a background magnetic field. Recently developed spin Seebeck effects are also a significant part of the survey. We also accommodate extensive background materials to make this review self-contained. Finally, we revisit the Skyrmion Hall transport from the Ward identity view point.

We present a generalization of the Holevo theorem by means of distances used in the definition of distinguishability of states, showing that each one leads to an alternative Holevo theorem. This result involves two quantities: the generalized Holevo information and the generalized accessible information. Additionally, we apply the new inequalities to qubits ensembles showing that for the Kolmogorov notion of distinguishability (for the case of an ensemble of two qubits) the generalized quantities are equal. On the other hand, by using a known example, we show that the Bhattacharyya notion captures not only the non-commutativity of the ensemble but also its purity.

Superfluid helium at milli-Kelvin temperatures is a dielectric liquid with an extremely low loss tangent at microwave frequencies. As such, it is a promising candidate for incorporation into hybrid quantum systems containing superconducting qubits. We demonstrate the viability of this hybrid systems approach by controllably immersing a three-dimensional superconducting transmon qubit in superfluid $^4$He. By measuring spectroscopic and coherence properties we find that the cavity, the qubit, and their coupling are all modified by the presence of the dielectric superfluid, which we analyze within the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). At temperatures relevant to quantum computing experiments, the energy relaxation time of the qubit is not significantly changed by the presence of the superfluid, while the pure dephasing time modestly increases, which we attribute to improved thermalization via the superfluid.

We present new bounds on the existence of quantum maximum distance separable codes (QMDS): the length $n$ of all non-trivial QMDS codes with local dimension $D$ and distance $d$ is bounded by $n \leq D^2 + d - 2$. We obtain their weight distribution and present additional bounds that arise from Rains' shadow inequalities. Our main result can be seen as a generalization of bounds that are known for the two special cases of stabilizer QMDS codes and absolutely maximally entangled states, and confirms the quantum MDS conjecture in the special case of distance-three codes. As the existence of QMDS codes is linked to that of highly entangled subspaces (in which every vector has uniform $r$-body marginals) of maximal dimension, our methods directly carry over to address questions in multipartite entanglement.