The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way. We survey open problems, and we show that the widespread idea that "quantum correlations are more extreme than classical physics allows" is at best highly inaccurate, through giving a concrete example of a classical correlation which satisfies all the symmetries and all the certainty relations and which exceeds the quantum correlations over a whole range of settings

We discuss the simulation of non-perturbative cavity-QED effects using systems of trapped ions. Specifically, we address the implementation of extended Dicke models with both collective dipole-field and direct dipole-dipole interactions, which represent a minimal set of models for describing light-matter interactions in the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regime. We show that this approach can be used in state-of-the-art trapped ion setups to investigate excitation spectra or the transition between sub- and superradiant ground states, which are currently not accessible in any other physical system. Our analysis also reveals the intrinsic difficulty of accessing this non-perturbative regime with larger numbers of dipoles, which makes the simulation of many-dipole cavity QED a particularly challenging test case for future quantum simulation platforms.

Qubit readout is an indispensable element of any quantum information processor. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a non-perturbative cross-Kerr coupling between a transmon and a polariton mode which enables an improved quantum non-demolition (QND) readout for superconducting qubits. The new mechanism uses the same experimental techniques as the standard QND qubit readout in the dispersive approximation, but due to its non-perturbative nature, it maximizes the speed, the single-shot fidelity and the QND properties of the readout. In addition, it minimizes the effect of unwanted decay channels such as the Purcell effect. We observed a single-shot readout fidelity of 97.4% for short 50 ns pulses, and we quantified a QND-ness of 99% for long measurement pulses with repeated single-shot readouts.

Author(s): Sumei Huang and Aixi Chen

We discuss the Fano resonance and amplification in a quadratically coupled optomechanical system with a nonlinear Kerr medium. We find that effective cavity detuning and the strength of the Kerr nonlinearity lead to the appearance of the Fano resonance in the output probe field at room temperature, ...

[Phys. Rev. A 101, 023841] Published Fri Feb 28, 2020

Author(s): Yuanwei Zhang

We investigate an active-passive-cavity system where a membrane is quadratically coupled to the passive cavity. When the passive cavity is strong coherently driven to enhance the optomechanical coupling, the optical field interacts with the mechanical oscillator through the two-phonon process. By ca...

[Phys. Rev. A 101, 023842] Published Fri Feb 28, 2020

Author(s): Matteo Conforti, Arnaud Mussot, Alexandre Kudlinski, Stefano Trillo, and Nail Akhmediev

Solitons on a finite background, also called breathers, are solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which play a pivotal role in the description of rogue waves and modulation instability. The breather family includes Akhmediev breathers (AB), Kuznetsov-Ma (KM), and Peregrine solito...

[Phys. Rev. A 101, 023843] Published Fri Feb 28, 2020

Author(s): Philip Ball

A new attempt to detect the neutron’s electric dipole moment tightens the constraints on theories of symmetry breaking in the early Universe.

[Physics 13, 25] Published Fri Feb 28, 2020

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Yong-Su Kim, Young-Wook Cho, Hyang-Tag Lim, and Sang-Wook Han

Entanglement among multiple particles is a keystone for not only fundamental research on quantum information but also various practical quantum information applications. In particular, the W state has attracted a lot of attention due to the robustness against particle loss and the applications in mu...

[Phys. Rev. A 101, 022337] Published Fri Feb 28, 2020

Topological states in non-Hermitian systems are known to exhibit some anomalous features. Here, we find two new anomalous features of non-Hermitian topological states. We consider a one dimensional nonreciprocal Hamiltonian and show that topological robustness can be practically lost for a linear combination of topological eigenstates in non-Hermitian systems due to the non-Hermitian skin effect. We consider a two dimensional non-Hermitian Chern insulator and show that chirality of topological states can be broken at some parameters of the Hamiltonan. This implies that the topological states are no longer immune to backscattering in 2D.

A quantum-mechanical model is developed which reproduces the atomic and molecular energy spectra of the many-body Pauli equation with Coulomb interactions and external electro- and magneto-static fields without putting these interactions in by hand. The model also describes the emission of electromagnetic radiation / photons with the right frequencies. Photons feature without invoking ``second quantizing'' the classical Maxwell equations. The model also suggests that Lorentz covariance emerges through a law of large numbers from a microscopic model which is not itself fundamentally Lorentz covariant.

We study the dynamics of correlations in a paradigmatic setup to observe $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric physics: a pair of coupled oscillators, one subject to a gain one to a loss. Starting from a coherent state, quantum correlations (QCs) are created, despite the system being driven only incoherently, and can survive indefinitely. $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry breaking is accompanied by non-zero stationary QCs. We link $\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry breaking to the long-time behavior of both total and QCs, which display different scalings in the $\mathcal{PT}$-broken/unbroken phase and at the exceptional point (EP). This is analytically shown and quantitatively explained in terms of entropy balance. The EP in particular stands out as the most classical configuration.

The Schwinger model (quantum electrodynamics in 1+1 dimensions) is a testbed for the study of quantum gauge field theories. We give scalable, explicit digital quantum algorithms to simulate the lattice Schwinger model in both NISQ and fault-tolerant settings. In particular, we perform a tight analysis of low-order Trotter formula simulations of the Schwinger model, using recently derived commutator bounds, and give upper bounds on the resources needed for simulations in both scenarios. In lattice units, we find a Schwinger model on $N/2$ physical sites with coupling constant $x^{-1/2}$ and electric field cutoff $x^{-1/2}\Lambda$ can be simulated on a quantum computer for time $2xT$ using a number of $T$-gates or CNOTs in $\widetilde{O}( N^{3/2} T^{3/2} \sqrt{x} \Lambda )$ for fixed operator error. This scaling with the truncation $\Lambda$ is better than that expected from algorithms such as qubitization or QDRIFT. Furthermore, we give scalable measurement schemes and algorithms to estimate observables which we cost in both the NISQ and fault-tolerant settings by assuming a simple target observable---the mean pair density. Finally, we bound the root-mean-square error in estimating this observable via simulation as a function of the diamond distance between the ideal and actual CNOT channels. This work provides a rigorous analysis of simulating the Schwinger model, while also providing benchmarks against which subsequent simulation algorithms can be tested.

Limitations to the speed of evolution of quantum systems, typically referred to as quantum speed limits (QSLs), have important consequences for quantum control problems. However, in its standard formulation, is not straightforward to obtain meaningful QSL bounds for time-dependent Hamiltonians with unknown control parameters. In this paper we present a short introductory overview of quantum speed limit for unitary dynamics and its connection to quantum control. We then analyze potential methods for obtaining new bounds on control times inspired by the QSL. We finally extend the work in [Poggi, Lombardo and Wisniacki EPL 104 40005 (2013)] by studying the properties and limitations of these new bounds in the context of a driven two-level quantum system

We propose how to achieve nonreciprocal optomechanical entanglement in a spinning resonator and maintain its quality against backscattering losses. We find that by splitting the counter-propagating optical modes in the resonator via the Sagnac effect, photon-phonon entanglement can be created from one side while prohibited from the other--that is, achieving quantum nonreciprocity in such a system. An important and counterintuitive feature of the nonreciprocal entanglement is its robustness against backscattering losses induced by impurities or material imperfections in practical devices. Building a new bridge between quantum control and nonreciprocal physics, our work reveals a new strategy to protect quantum entanglement which has applications in such a wide range of fields as backaction-immune quantum metrology and chiral quantum information networks.

A decomposition of the non-equilibrium stationary state of a quadratic Fermi system influenced by linear baths is obtained and used to establish a simulation protocol in terms of tensor states. The scheme is then applied to examine the occurrence of uncoupled Majorana fermions in Kitaev chains subject to baths on the ends. The resulting phase diagram is compared against the topological characterization of the equilibrium chain and the protocol efficiency is studied with respect to this model

An argument first proposed by John von Neumann shows that measurement of a superposed quantum system creates an entangled "measurement state" (MS) in which macroscopically distinct detector states appear to be superposed, a paradoxical prediction implying the measurement has no definite outcome. We argue that this prediction is based on a misunderstanding of what the MS represents. We show, by studying the phase dependence of entangled photon states generated in parametric down conversion, that the MS represents not a superposition of detector states, but rather a superposition of coherent (i.e. phase-dependent) correlations between detector states and system states. In fact an argument by Einstein shows that a nonlocal entangled state is required, at least briefly, following a quantum system's interaction with a detector. Such a state does not represent a paradoxical macroscopic superposition. This resolves the paradox of indefinite outcomes of measurements.

Quantum computers hold promise to enable efficient simulations of the properties of molecules and materials; however, at present they only permit ab initio calculations of a few atoms, due to a limited number of qubits. In order to harness the power of near-term quantum computers for simulations of larger systems, it is desirable to develop hybrid quantum-classical methods where the quantum computation is restricted to a small portion of the system. This is of particular relevance for molecules and solids where an active region requires a higher level of theoretical accuracy than its environment. Here we present a quantum embedding theory for the calculation of strongly-correlated electronic states of active regions, with the rest of the system described within density functional theory. We demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the approach by investigating several defect quantum bits in semiconductors that are of great interest for quantum information technologies. We perform calculations on quantum computers and show that they yield results in agreement with those obtained with exact diagonalization on classical architectures, paving the way to simulations of realistic materials on near-term quantum computers.

Quantum coherence is a crucial resource for quantum information processing. By employing the language of coherence orders largely applied in NRM systems, quantum coherence has been currently addressed in terms of multiple quantum coherences (MQCs). Here we investigate the $\alpha$-MQCs, a novel class of multiple quantum coherences which is based on $\alpha$-relative purity, an information-theoretic quantifier analogous to quantum fidelity and closely related to R\'{e}nyi relative entropy of order $\alpha$. Our framework enables linking $\alpha$-MQCs to Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information (WYDSI), an asymmetry monotone finding applications in quantum thermodynamics and quantum metrology. Furthermore, we derive a family of bounds on $\alpha$-MQCs, particularly showing that $\alpha$-MQC define a lower bound to quantum Fisher information (QFI). We illustrate these ideas for quantum systems described by single-qubit states, two-qubit Bell-diagonal states, and a wide class of multiparticle mixed states. Finally, we investigate the time evolution of the $\alpha$-MQC spectrum and the overall signal of relative purity, by simulating the time reversal dynamics of a many-body all-to-all Ising Hamiltonian and comment on applications to physical platforms such as NMR systems, trapped ions, and ultracold atoms.

In a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 250402], \"Ohberg and Wright describe a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped on a ring in the presence of the density-dependent gauge potential. It is claimed that the ground state of the system corresponds to a rotating chiral bright soliton and consequently it forms a genuine time crystal which minimizes its energy by performing periodic motion. We show that the energy of the chiral soliton in the laboratory frame is not correctly calculated in the letter. The correct energy becomes minimal if the soliton does not move.

The paper describes an algorithm for cognitive representation of triples of related behavioral contexts two of which correspond to mutually exclusive states of some binary situational factor while uncertainty of this factor is the third context. The contexts are mapped to vector states in the two-dimensional quantum Hilbert space describing a dichotomic decision alternative in relation to which the contexts are subjectively recognized. The obtained triad of quantum cognitive representations functions as a minimal carrier of semantic relations between the contexts, which are quantified by phase relations between the corresponding quantum representation states. The described quantum model of subjective semantics supports interpretable vector calculus which is geometrically visualized in the Bloch sphere view of quantum cognitive states.