Author(s): Zixin Huang, Christian Schwab, and Cosmo Lupo

One of the big challenges in exoplanet science is to determine the atmospheric makeup of extrasolar planets and to find biosignatures that hint at the existence of biochemical processes on another world. The biomarkers we are trying to detect are gases in the exoplanet atmosphere such as oxygen or m…

[Phys. Rev. A 107, 022409] Published Wed Feb 08, 2023

Author(s): Xiao-yu Chen, Maoke Miao, Rui Yin, and Jiantao Yuan

We use matched quantum entanglement witnesses to study the separable criteria of continuous variable states. The witness can be written as an identity operator minus a Gaussian operator. The optimization of the witness then is transformed to an eigenvalue problem of a Gaussian kernel integral equati…

[Phys. Rev. A 107, 022410] Published Wed Feb 08, 2023

I derive a family of Ryu--Takayanagi formulae that are valid in the large $N$ limit of holographic quantum error-correcting codes, and parameterized by a choice of UV cutoff in the bulk. The bulk entropy terms are matched with a family of von Neumann factors nested inside the large $N$ von Neumann algebra describing the bulk effective field theory. These factors are mapped onto one another by a family of conditional expectations, which are interpreted as a renormalization group flow for the code subspace. Under this flow, I show that the renormalizations of the area term and the bulk entropy term exactly compensate each other. This result provides a concrete realization of the ER=EPR paradigm, as well as an explicit proof of a conjecture due to Susskind and Uglum.

The behaviour of correlations across a bipartition is an indispensable tool in diagnosing quantum phases of matter. Here we present a spin chain with position-dependent XX couplings and magnetic fields, that can reproduce arbitrary structure of free fermion correlations across a bipartition. In particular, by choosing appropriately the strength of the magnetic fields we can obtain any single particle energies of the entanglement spectrum with high fidelity. The resulting ground state can be elegantly formulated in terms of $q$-deformed singlets. To demonstrate the versatility of our method we consider certain examples, such as a system with homogeneous correlations and a system with correlations that follow a prime number decomposition. Hence, our entanglement simulator can be easily employed for the generation of arbitrary entanglement spectra with possible applications in quantum technologies and condensed matter physics.

We experimentally demonstrate stable trapping and controlled manipulation of silica microspheres in a structured optical beam consisting of a dark focus surrounded by light in all directions - the so-called Dark Focus Tweezer. Results from power spectrum and potential analysis demonstrate the non-harmonicity of the trapping potential landspace, which is reconstructed from experimental data in agreement to Lorentz-Mie numerical simulations. Applications of the dark tweezer in levitated optomechanics and biophysics are discussed.

These notes provide an explanation of the type classification of von Neumann algebras, which has made many appearances in recent work on entanglement in quantum field theory and quantum gravity. The goal is to bridge a gap in the literature between resources that are too technical for the non-expert reader, and resources that seek to explain the broad intuition of the theory without giving precise definitions. Reading these notes will provide you with: (i) an argument for why "factors" are the fundamental von Neumann algebras that one needs to study; (ii) an intuitive explanation of the type classification of factors in terms of renormalization schemes that turn unnormalizable positive operators into "effective density matrices;" (iii) a mathematical explanation of the different types of renormalization schemes in terms of the allowed traces on a factor; (iv) an intuitive characterization of type I and II factors in terms of their "standard forms;" and (v) a list of some interesting connections between type classification and modular theory, including the argument for why type III$_1$ factors are believed to be the relevant ones in quantum field theory. None of the material is new, but the pedagogy is different from other sources I have read; it is most similar in spirit to the recent work on gravity and the crossed product by Chandrasekaran, Longo, Penington, and Witten.

Bosonic mean-field theories can approximate the dynamics of systems of $n$ bosons provided that $n \gg 1$. We show that there can also be an exact correspondence at finite $n$ when the bosonic system is generalized to include interactions with the environment and the mean-field theory is replaced by a stochastic differential equation. When the $n \to \infty$ limit is taken, the stochastic terms in this differential equation vanish, and a mean-field theory is recovered. Besides providing insight into the differences between the behavior of finite quantum systems and their classical limits given by $n \to \infty$, the developed mathematics can provide a basis for quantum algorithms that solve some stochastic nonlinear differential equations. We discuss conditions on the efficiency of these quantum algorithms, with a focus on the possibility for the complexity to be polynomial in the log of the stochastic system size. A particular system with the form of a stochastic discrete nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation is analyzed in more detail.

In this paper we propose QContext, a new compiler structure that incorporates context-aware and topology-aware decompositions. Because of circuit equivalence rules and resynthesis, variants of a gate-decomposition template may exist. QContext exploits the circuit information and the hardware topology to select the gate variant that increases circuit optimization opportunities. We study the basis-gate-level context-aware decomposition for Toffoli gates and the native-gate-level context-aware decomposition for CNOT gates. Our experiments show that QContext reduces the number of gates as compared with the state-of-the-art approach, Orchestrated Trios.

Quantum computers are emerging as a viable alternative to tackle certain computational problems that are challenging for classical computers. With the rapid development of quantum hardware such as those based on trapped ions, there is practical motivation for identifying risk management problems that are efficiently solvable with these systems. Here we focus on network partitioning as a means for analyzing risk in critical infrastructures and present a quantum approach for its implementation. It is based on the potential speedup quantum computers can provide in the identification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sparse graph Laplacians, a procedure which is constrained by time and memory on classical computers.

The Born rule is part of the collapse axiom in the standard version of quantum theory, as presented by standard textbooks on the subject. We show here that its signature quadratic dependence follows from a single additional physical assumption beyond the other axioms - namely, that the probability of a particular measurement outcome (the state $\phi_k$, say) is independent of the choice of observable to be measured, so long as one of its eigenstates corresponds to that outcome. We call this assumption ``observable independence.'' As a consequence, the Born rule cannot be completely eliminated from the list of axioms, but it can, in principle, be reduced to a more physical statement. Our presentation is suitable for advanced undergraduates or graduate students who have taken a standard course in quantum theory. It does not depend on any particular interpretation of the theory.

In many classical and quantum systems described by an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, spectral phase transitions, from an entirely real energy spectrum to a complex spectrum, can be observed as a non-Hermitian parameter in the system is increased above a critical value. A paradigmatic example is provided by systems possessing parity-time (PT) symmetry, where the energy spectrum remains entirely real in the unbroken PT phase while a transition to complex energies is observed in the unbroken PT phase. Such spectral phase transitions are universally sharp. However, when the system is slowly and periodically cycled, the phase transition can become smooth, i.e. imperfect, owing to the complex Berry phase associated to the cyclic adiabatic evolution of the system. This remarkable phenomenon is illustrated by considering the spectral phase transition of the Wannier-Stark ladders in a PT-symmetric class of two-band non-Hermitian lattices subjected to an external dc field, unraveling that a non-vanishing imaginary part of the Zak phase -- the Berry phase picked up by a Bloch eigenstate evolving across the entire Brillouin zone -- is responsible for imperfect spectral phase transitions

We investigate the occurrence of steady-state multi-stability in a cavity system containing spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate and driven by a strong pump laser. The applied magnetic field splits the Bose-Einstein condensate into pseudo-spin states, which then became momentum sensitive with two counter propagating Raman lasers directly interacting with ultra-cold atoms. After governing the steady-state dynamics for all associated subsystems, we show the emergence of multi-stable behavior of cavity photon number, which is unlike with previous investigation on cavity-atom systems. However, this multi-stability can be tuned with associated system parameters. Further, we illustrate the occurrence of mixed-stability behavior for atomic population of the pseudo spin-$\uparrow$ amd spin-$\downarrow$ states, which are appearing in so-called bi-unstable form. The collective behavior of these atomic number states interestingly possesses a transitional interface among the population of both spin states, which can be enhance and controlled by spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field effects. Furthermore, we illustrate the emergence of secondary interface mediated by increasing the mechanical dissipation rate of the pseudo-spin states. These interfaces could be cause by the non-trivial behavior of synthetic spin state mediated by cavity. Our findings are not only crucial for the subject of optical switching, but also could provide foundation for future studies on mechanical aspect of synthetic atomic states with cavity quantum electrodynamics.

The trapped-ion system has been a leading platform for practical quantum computation and quantum simulation since the first scheme of a quantum gate was proposed by Cirac and Zoller in 1995. Quantum gates with trapped ions have shown the highest fidelity among all physical platforms. Recently, sophisticated schemes of quantum gates such as amplitude, phase, frequency modulation, or multi-frequency application, have been developed to make the gates fast, robust to many types of imperfections, and applicable to multiple qubits. Here, we review the basic principle and recent development of quantum gates with trapped ions.

We revisit the problem of the deformed oscillator with position-dependent mass [da Costa et al., J. Math. Phys. {\bf 62}, 092101 (2021)] in the classical and quantum formalisms, by introducing the effect of the mass function in both kinetic and potential energies. The resulting Hamiltonian is mapped into a Morse oscillator by means of a point canonical transformation from the usual phase space $(x, p)$ to a deformed one $(x_\gamma, \Pi_\gamma)$. Similar to the Morse potential, the deformed oscillator presents bound trajectories in phase space corresponding to an anharmonic oscillatory motion in classical formalism and, therefore, bound states with a discrete spectrum in quantum formalism. On the other hand, open trajectories in phase space are associated with scattering states and continuous energy spectrum. Employing the factorization method, we investigate the properties of the coherent states, such as the time evolution and their uncertainties. A fast localization, classical and quantum, is reported for the coherent states due to the asymmetrical position-dependent mass. An oscillation of the time evolution of the uncertainty relationship is also observed, whose amplitude increases as the deformation increases.

The typical time-independent view of quantum error correction (QEC) codes hides significant freedom in the decomposition into circuits that are executable on hardware. Using the concept of detecting regions, we design time-dynamic QEC circuits directly instead of designing static QEC codes to decompose into circuits. In particular, we improve on the standard circuit constructions for the surface code, presenting new circuits that can embed on a hexagonal grid instead of a square grid, that can use ISWAP gates instead of CNOT or CZ gates, that can exchange qubit data and measure roles, and that move logical patches around the physical qubit grid while executing. All these constructions use no additional entangling gate layers and display essentially the same logical performance, having teraquop footprints within 25% of the standard surface code circuit. We expect these circuits to be of great interest to quantum hardware engineers, because they achieve essentially the same logical performance as standard surface code circuits while relaxing demands on hardware.

We study the capacity of entanglement as an alternative to entanglement entropies in estimating the degree of entanglement of quantum bipartite systems over fermionic Gaussian states. In particular, we derive the exact and asymptotic formulas of average capacity of two different cases - with and without particle number constraints. For the later case, the obtained formulas generalize some partial results of average capacity in the literature. The key ingredient in deriving the results is a set of new tools for simplifying finite summations developed very recently in the study of entanglement entropy of fermionic Gaussian states.

Combinatorial optimization is anticipated to be one of the primary use cases for quantum computation in the coming years. The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) and Quantum Annealing (QA) have the potential to demonstrate significant run-time performance benefits over current state-of-the-art solutions. Using existing methods for characterizing classical optimization algorithms, we analyze solution quality obtained by solving Max-Cut problems using a quantum annealing device and gate-model quantum simulators and devices. This is used to guide the development of an advanced benchmarking framework for quantum computers designed to evaluate the trade-off between run-time execution performance and the solution quality for iterative hybrid quantum-classical applications. The framework generates performance profiles through effective visualizations that show performance progression as a function of time for various problem sizes and illustrates algorithm limitations uncovered by the benchmarking approach. The framework is an enhancement to the existing open-source QED-C Application-Oriented Benchmark suite and can connect to the open-source analysis libraries. The suite can be executed on various quantum simulators and quantum hardware systems.

The critical state in disordered systems, a fascinating and subtle eigenstate, has attracted a lot of research interest. However, the nature of the critical state is difficult to describe quantitatively. Most of the studies focus on numerical verification, and cannot predict the system in which the critical state exists. In this work, we propose an explicit and universal criterion that for the critical state Lyapunov exponent should be 0 simultaneously in dual spaces, namely Lyapunov exponent remains invariant under Fourier transform. With this criterion, we exactly predict a specific system hosting a large number of critical states for the first time. Then, we perform numerical verification of the theoretical prediction, and display the self-similarity and scale invariance of the critical state. Finally, we conjecture that there exist some kind of connection between the invariance of the Lyapunov exponent and conformal invariance.

We investigate the situation when a normal positive linear unital map on a semifinite von Neumann algebra leaving the trace invariant does not change fixed quantum Renyi's entropy of the density of a normal state. It is also shown that such a map does not change the entropy of any density if and only if it is a Jordan *-isomorphism on the algebra.

In this paper, we introduce a class of learning dynamics for general quantum games, that we call "follow the quantum regularized leader" (FTQL), in reference to the classical "follow the regularized leader" (FTRL) template for learning in finite games. We show that the induced quantum state dynamics decompose into (i) a classical, commutative component which governs the dynamics of the system's eigenvalues in a way analogous to the evolution of mixed strategies under FTRL; and (ii) a non-commutative component for the system's eigenvectors which has no classical counterpart. Despite the complications that this non-classical component entails, we find that the FTQL dynamics incur no more than constant regret in all quantum games. Moreover, adjusting classical notions of stability to account for the nonlinear geometry of the state space of quantum games, we show that only pure quantum equilibria can be stable and attracting under FTQL while, as a partial converse, pure equilibria that satisfy a certain "variational stability" condition are always attracting. Finally, we show that the FTQL dynamics are Poincar\'e recurrent in quantum min-max games, extending in this way a very recent result for the quantum replicator dynamics.