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In this paper, the foundations of classical phenomenological thermodynamics are being thoroughly revisited. A new rigorous basis for thermodynamics is laid out in the main text and presented in full detail in the appendix. All relevant concepts, such as work, heat, internal energy, heat reservoirs, reversibility, absolute temperature and entropy, are introduced on an abstract level and connected through traditional results, such as Carnot's Theorem, Clausius' Theorem and the Entropy Theorem. The paper offers insights into the basic assumptions one has to make in order to formally introduce a phenomenological thermodynamic theory. This contribution is of particular importance when applying phenomenological thermodynamics to systems, such as black holes, where the microscopic physics is not yet fully understood. Altogether, this work can serve as a basis for a complete and rigorous introduction to thermodynamics in an undergraduate course which follows the traditional lines as closely as possible.

This paper presents a method of computing approximate conservation laws and eigenstates of integrability-broken models using the concept of adiabatic continuation. Given some Hamiltonian, eigenstates and conserved operators may be computed by using those of a simple Hamiltonian close by in parameter space, dressed by some unitary rotation. However, most adiabatic continuation analyses only use this unitary implicitly. In this work, approximate adiabatic gauge potentials are used to construct a state dressing using variational methods, to compute eigenstates via a rotated truncated spectrum approximation. These methods allow construction of both low and high-energy approximate nonthermal eigenstates, as well as quasi-local almost-conserved operators, in models where integrability may be non-perturbatively broken. These concepts will be demonstrated in the mixed-field Ising model.

Non-equilibrium properties of quantum materials present many intriguing properties, among them athermal behavior, which violates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. Such behavior has primarily been observed in disordered systems. More recently, experimental and theoretical evidence for athermal eigenstates, known as "quantum scars" has emerged in non-integrable disorder-free models in one dimension with constrained dynamics. In this work, we show the existence of quantum scar eigenstates and investigate their dynamical properties in many simple two-body Hamiltonians with "staggered" interactions, involving ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic motifs, in arbitrary dimensions. These magnetic models include simple modifications of widely studied ones (e.g., the XXZ model) on a variety of frustrated and unfrustrated lattices. We demonstrate our ideas by focusing on the two dimensional frustrated spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnet, which was previously shown to harbor a special exactly solvable point with "three-coloring" ground states in its phase diagram. For appropriately chosen initial product states -- for example, those which correspond to any state of valid three-colors -- we show the presence of robust quantum revivals, which survive the addition of anisotropic terms. We also suggest avenues for future experiments which may see this effect in real materials.

A generalization of the standard model of Dirac particle in external electromagnetic field is proposed. In the generalization we take into account interactions of this particle with environment, which is described by the memory function. This function takes into account that the behavior of the particle at proper time can depend not only at the present time, but also on the history of changes on finite time interval. In this case the Dirac particle can be considered an open quantum system with non-Markovian dynamics. The violation of the semigroup property of dynamic maps is a characteristic property of dynamics with memory. We use the Fock-Schwinger proper time method and derivatives of non-integer orders with respect to proper time. The fractional differential equation, which describes the Dirac particle with memory, and the expression of its exact solution are suggested. The asymptotic behavior of the proposed solutions is described.

Weak coin flipping is among the fundamental cryptographic primitives which ensure the security of modern communication networks. It allows two mistrustful parties to remotely agree on a random bit when they favor opposite outcomes. Unlike other two-party computations, one can achieve information-theoretic security using quantum mechanics only: both parties are prevented from biasing the flip with probability higher than $1/2+\epsilon$, where $\epsilon$ is arbitrarily low. Classically, the dishonest party can always cheat with probability $1$ unless computational assumptions are used. Despite its importance, no physical implementation has been proposed for quantum weak coin flipping. Here, we present a practical protocol that requires a single photon and linear optics only. We show that it is fair and balanced even when threshold single-photon detectors are used, and reaches a bias as low as $\epsilon=1/\sqrt{2}-1/2\approx 0.207$. We further show that the protocol may display quantum advantage over a few hundred meters with state-of-the-art technology.

The atom-optics kicked rotor can be used to prepare specific momentum distributions on a discrete basis set. We implement a continuous-time quantum walk and a quantum search protocol in this momentum basis. In particular we propose ways to identify a specific marked state from the final momentum distribution after the walker's evolution. Our protocol is guided by current experimental possibilities making it accessible to experimentally implemented quantum walks with Bose-Einstein condensates.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved to be information-theoretically secure in theory. Unfortunately, the imperfect devices in practice compromise its security. Thus, to improve the security property of practical QKD systems, a commonly used method is to patch the loopholes in the existing QKD systems. However, in this work, we first time show an adversary's capability of exploiting the new feature of the originally flawed component to bypass a patch. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate that the patch of photocurrent monitor against the detector blinding attack can be defeated by the pulse illumination attack proposed in this paper. We also analyze the secret key rate under the pulse illumination attack, which theoretically confirmed that Eve can conduct the attack to learn the secret key. This work indicates the importance of inspecting the security loopholes in a detection unit to further understand their impacts on a QKD system. The method of pulse illumination attack can be a general testing item in the security evaluation standard of QKD.

Phase synchronization was proved to be unbounded in quantum level, but the witness of phase synchronization is always expensive in terms of the quantum resource and non-local measurements involved. Based on the quantum uncertainty relation, we construct two local criterions for the phase synchronization in this paper. The local criterions indicate that the phase synchronization in the quantum level can be witnessed only by the local measurements, and the deduction has been verified in the optomechanics system in numerical way. Besides, by analyzing the physical essence of the phase synchronization in quantum level, we show that one can prepare a state, which describes two synchronized oscillators with no entanglement between them. Thus, the entanglement resource is not necessary in the occurrence of the ideal phase synchronization, and also the reason for this phenomenon is discussed.

We propose a platform for robust and tunable nonreciprocal phonon transport based on arrays of optomechanical microtoroids. In our approach, time-reversal symmetry is broken by the interplay of photonic spin-orbit coupling, engineered using a state-of-the-art geometrical approach, and the optomechanical interaction. We demonstrate the topologically protected nature of this system by investigating its robustness to imperfections. This type of system could find application in phonon-based information storage and signal processing devices.

The evolution of degenerate matter out of equilibrium is a topic of interest in fields such as condensed matter, nuclear and atomic physics, and increasingly cosmology, including inflaton physics prior to reheating. This follow-up paper extends the recent paper on the super-de Broglie dynamics of pure condensates of non-relativistic identical particles subject to non-local two-body interactions to the dynamics of mixed states. It is found that the two-body correlation function plays an increasingly dynamical role in these systems, driving the development of condensates and distributed phases alike. Examples of distribution and correlation evolution are presented, including instances of collapse, bound and unbound states, and phonons in the bulk. Potential applications are also discussed.

The work presents a novel quantum secret sharing strategy based on GHZ product state sharing between three parties. The dealer, based on the classical information to be shared, toggles his qubit and shares the product state. The other parties make their Bell measurements and collude to reconstruct the secret. Unlike the other protocols, this protocol does not involve the entire initial state reconstruction, rather uses selective qubits to discard the redundant qubits at the time of reconstruction to decrypt the secret. The protocol also allows for security against malicious attacks by an adversary without affecting the integrity of the secret. The security of the protocol lies in the fact that each party's correct announcement of their measurement is required for reconstruction, failing which the reconstruction process is jeopardized, thereby ascertaining the $(3,3)$ scheme which can further be extended for a $(n,n)$ scheme.

Quantum secret sharing (QSS) is a cryptographic protocol in which a quantum secret is distributed among a number of parties where some subsets of the parties are able to recover the secret while some subsets are unable to recover the secret. In the standard $((k,n))$ quantum threshold secret sharing scheme, any subset of $k$ or more parties out of the total $n$ parties can recover the secret while other subsets have no information about the secret. But recovery of the secret incurs a communication cost of at least $k$ qudits for every qudit in the secret. Recently, a class of communication efficient QSS schemes were proposed which can improve this communication cost to $\frac{d}{d-k+1}$ by contacting $d\geq k$ parties where $d$ is fixed prior to the distribution of shares. In this paper, we propose a more general class of $((k,n))$ quantum secret sharing schemes with low communication complexity. Our schemes are universal in the sense that the combiner can contact any number of parties to recover the secret with communication efficiency i.e. any $d$ in the range $k\leq d\leq n$ can be chosen by the combiner. This is the first such class of universal communication efficient quantum threshold schemes.

Inspired by the Hayden-Preskill protocol for black hole evaporation, we consider the dynamics of a quantum many-body qudit system coupled to an external environment, where the time evolution is driven by the continuous limit of certain $2$-local random unitary circuits. We study both cases where the unitaries are chosen with and without a conserved $U(1)$ charge and focus on two aspects of the dynamics. First, we study analytically and numerically the growth of the entanglement entropy of the system, showing that two different time scales appear: one is intrinsic to the internal dynamics (the scrambling time), while the other depends on the system-environment coupling. In the presence of a $U(1)$ conserved charge, we show that the entanglement follows a Page-like behavior in time: it begins to decrease in the middle stage of the "evaporation", and decreases monotonically afterwards. Second, we study the time needed to retrieve information initially injected in the system from measurements on the environment qudits. Based on explicit numerical computations, we characterize such time both when the retriever has control over the initial configuration or not, showing that different scales appear in the two cases.