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Mar 30, 2012

Multi-photon interference reveals strictly non-classical phenomena. Its applications range from fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to photonic quantum information processing, where a significant fraction of key experiments achieved so far comes from multi-photon state manipulation. We review the progress, both theoretical and experimental, of this rapidly advancing research.

Mar 30, 2012

We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection.

Mar 30, 2012

In analogy with the usual quantum state-estimation problem, we introduce the problem of state estimation for a pre- and postselected ensemble. The problem has fundamental physical significance since, as argued by Y. Aharonov and collaborators, pre- and postselected ensembles are the most basic quantum ensembles. Two new features are shown to appear: (1) information is flowing to the measuring device both from the past and from the future; (2) because of the postselection, certain measurement outcomes can be forced never to occur.

Mar 30, 2012

Quantum simulators are controllable quantum systems that can reproduce the dynamics of the system of interest in situations that are not amenable to classical computers. Recent developments in quantum technology enable the precise control of individual quantum particles as required for studying complex quantum systems. In particular, quantum simulators capable of simulating frustrated Heisenberg spin systems provide platforms for understanding exotic matter such as high-temperature superconductors.

Mar 30, 2012

Quantum entanglement in the motion of macroscopic solid bodies has implications both for quantum technologies and foundational studies of the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds. Entanglement is usually fragile in room-temperature solids, owing to strong interactions both internally and with the noisy environment. We generated motional entanglement between vibrational states of two spatially separated, millimeter-sized diamonds at room temperature.

Mar 30, 2012

Single photons provide excellent quantum information carriers, but current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed single photons, while linear-optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here, we introduce a deterministic scheme for photonic quantum information.

Mar 30, 2012

Quantum theory demands that, in contrast to classical physics, not all properties can be simultaneously well defined. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is a manifestation of this fact. Another important corollary arises that there can be no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements, allowing a quantum system to be classically understood.

Mar 30, 2012

The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit when the number of particles involved becomes very large. Here we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these extreme limits.

Mar 30, 2012

An overwhelming majority of experiments in classical and quantum physics make a priori assumptions about the dimension of the system under consideration. However, would it be possible to assess the dimension of a completely unknown system only from the results of measurements performed on it, without any extra assumption? The concept of a dimension witness answers this question, as it allows one to bound the dimension of an unknown classical or quantum system in a device-independent manner, that is, only from the statistics of measurements performed on it.

Mar 30, 2012

The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long distance entanglement sharing and communication exploits networks, whose nodes share EPR pairs. In [Perseguers et al., Phys. Rev. A 78,062324 (2008)] an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in dimension D and transmission of quantum information in D+1 network has been put forward. It implies that fault tolerant quantum computing allows in principle for long distance quantum communication.