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Supersymmetric theories and graphene. (arXiv:2104.07420v1 [hep-th])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We discuss a 1+2 dimensional model with unconventional supersymmetry at the boundary of an AdS${}_4$, \,$\mathcal{N}$-extended supergravity. The resulting features of the supersymmetric boundary open the possibility of describing the electronic properties of graphene-like 2D materials at the Dirac points \textbf{K} and \textbf{K'}, exploiting a top-down approach. The Semenoff and Haldane-type masses entering the corresponding Dirac equations can be then extrapolated from the geometric parameters of the model describing the substrate.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Dynamical quantum indistinguishability. (arXiv:2104.07422v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We observe that quantum indistinguishability is a dynamical effect dependent on measurement duration. We propose a quantitative criterion for observing indistinguishability in quantum fluids and its implications including quantum statistics and derive a viscoelastic function capable of describing both long-time and short-time regimes where indistinguishability and its implications are operative and inactive, respectively. On the basis of this discussion, we propose an experiment to observe a transition between two states where the implications of indistinguishability become inoperative, including a transition between statistics-active and statistics-inactive states.

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Floquet higher-order Weyl and nexus semimetals. (arXiv:2104.07433v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

This work reports the general design and characterization of two exotic, anomalous nonequilibrium topological phases. In equilibrium systems, the Weyl nodes or the crossing points of nodal lines may become the transition points between higher-order and first-order topological phases defined on two-dimensional slices, thus featuring both hinge Fermi arc and surface Fermi arc. We advance this concept by presenting a strategy to obtain, using time-sequenced normal insulator phases only, Floquet higher-order Weyl semimetals and Floquet higher-order nexus semimetals, where the concerned topological singularities in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone border anomalous two-dimensional higher-order Floquet phases. The fascinating topological phases we obtain are previously unknown and can be experimentally studied using, for example, a three-dimensional lattice of coupled ring resonators.

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Simple Quantum Key Distribution using a Stable Transmitter-Receiver Scheme. (arXiv:2104.07442v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a technology that allows secure key exchange between two distant users. A widespread adoption of QKD requires the development of simple, low-cost, and stable systems. However, implementation of the current QKD requires a complex self-alignment process during the initial stage and an additional hardware to compensate the environmental disturbances. In this study, we have presented the implementation of a simple QKD with the help of a stable transmitter-receiver scheme, which simplifies the self-alignment and is robust enough to withstand environmental disturbances. In case of the stability test, the implementation system is able to remain stable for 48 hours and exhibits an average quantum bit error rate of less than 1\% without any feedback control. The scheme is also tested over a fiber spool, obtaining a stable and secure finite key rate of 7.32k bits per second over a fiber spool extending up to 75 km. The demonstrated long-term stability and obtained secure key rate prove that our method of implementation is a promising alternative for practical QKD systems, in particular, for Cubesat platform and satellite applications.

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Motion analysis of a trapped ion chain by single photon self-interference. (arXiv:2104.07447v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We present an optical scheme to detect the oscillations of a two-ion string confined in a linear Paul trap. The motion is detected by analyzing the intensity correlations in the fluorescence light emitted by one or two ions in the string. We present measurements performed under continuous Doppler cooling and under pulsed illumination. We foresee several direct applications of this detection method, including motional analysis of multi-ion species or coupled mechanical oscillators, and sensing of mechanical correlations.

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A simple approach to characterizing band topology in bosonic pairing Hamiltonians. (arXiv:2104.07449v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We revisit the problem of characterizing band topology in dynamically-stable quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians that do not conserve particle number. We show this problem can be rigorously addressed by a smooth and local adiabatic mapping procedure to a particle number conserving Hamiltonian. In contrast to a generic fermionic pairing Hamiltonian, such a mapping can always be constructed for bosons. Our approach shows that particle non-conserving bosonic Hamiltonians can be classified using known approaches for fermionic models. It also provides a simple means for identifying and calculating appropriate topological invariants. We also explicitly study dynamically stable but non-positive definite Hamiltonians (as arise frequently in driven photonic systems). We show that in this case, each band gap is characterized by two distinct invariants.

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Quantum Origins of the Density Operator. (arXiv:2104.07465v1 [physics.gen-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Students in quantum mechanics class are taught that the wave function contains all knowable information about an isolated system. Later in the course, this view seems to be contradicted by the mysterious density matrix, which introduces a new set of probabilities in addition to those that are built into the wave function. This paper brings attention to the fact that the density matrix can be reconciled with the underlying quantum-mechanical description using a two-particle entangled state with a one-particle subsystem as the simplest illustration of the basic principle. The extra-quantum probabilities are traced to the coefficients of superposition of the quantum state vector and the seemingly irreversible exponential population decay is shown to be compatible with the unitary time evolution of a pure state when the two particles interact. The two-particle universe thus provides the student with a tool for understanding how the density operator, with all its richness, emerges from quantum mechanics.

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Motion-induced radiation due to an atom in the presence of a graphene plane. (arXiv:2104.07479v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We study the motion-induced radiation due to the non-relativistic motion of an atom, coupled to the vacuum electromagnetic field by an electric dipole term, in the presence of a static graphene plate. After computing the probability of emission for an accelerated atom in empty space, we evaluate the corrections due to the presence of the plate. We show that the effect of the plate is to increase the probability of emission when the atom is near the plate and oscillates along a direction perpendicular to it. On the contrary, for parallel oscillations there is a suppression. We also evaluate the quantum friction on an atom moving at constant velocity parallel to the plate. We show that there is a threshold for quantum friction: friction occurs only when the velocity of the atom is larger than the Fermi velocity of the electrons in graphene.

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Decoherence of Coupled Flip-Flop Qubits Due to Charge Noise. (arXiv:2104.07485v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We study the decoherence effect of charge noise on a single flip-flop qubit and two dipole-coupled qubits. We find that a single flip-flop qubit is highly resistant to charge noise at its sweet spots. However, due to the proximity of the charge excited states to the flip-flop logical states, the presence of charge noise greatly reduces the fidelity of two-qubit operations. We identify leakage from the qubit Hilbert space as the main culprit for the reduced gate fidelity. We also explore different bias conditions to mitigate this decoherence channel.

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Realignment separability criterion assisted with filtration for detecting continuous-variable entanglement. (arXiv:2104.07510v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We introduce a weak form of the realignment separability criterion which is particularly suited to detect continuous-variable entanglement and is physically implementable (it requires linear optics transformations and homodyne detection). Moreover, we define a family of states, called Schmidt-symmetric states, for which the weak realignment criterion reduces to the original formulation of the realignment criterion, making it even more valuable as it is easily computable especially in higher dimensions. Then, we focus in particular on Gaussian states and introduce a filtration procedure based on noiseless amplification or attenuation, which enhances the entanglement detection sensitivity. In some specific examples, it does even better than the original realignment criterion.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Continuum-electron interferometry for enhancement of photoelectron circular dichroism and measurement of bound, free, and mixed contributions to chiral response. (arXiv:2104.07522v1 [physics.atom-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We develop photoelectron interferometry based on laser-assisted extreme ultraviolet ionization for randomly oriented chiral molecules. As in the well established 'reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions', an infrared or visible laser pulse promotes interferences between components of the photoelectron wave packet ionized by a comb of XUV photons, applied here to a sample of chiral molecules. We show that the magnitude of the resulting chiral signal is simply controlled by the time delay between the XUV and laser pulses, the choice of the laser frequency determines the photoelectron energy at which the chiral signal is probed, and comparison of different polarization configurations in the two-photon process allows for disentangling the contributions of bound and continuum states to the chiral response. Our proposal provides a simple, experimentally feasible, robust and versatile tool for the control of photoelectron circular dichroism.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Further Compactifying Linear Optical Unitaries. (arXiv:2104.07561v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Quantum integrated photonics requires large-scale linear optical circuitry, and for many applications it is desirable to have a universally programmable circuit, able to implement an arbitrary unitary transformation on a number of modes. This has been achieved using the Reck scheme, consisting of a network of Mach Zehnder interferometers containing a variable phase shifter in one path, as well as an external phase shifter after each Mach Zehnder. It subsequently became apparent that with symmetric Mach Zehnders containing a phase shift in both paths, the external phase shifts are redundant, resulting in a more compact circuit. The rectangular Clements scheme improves on the Reck scheme in terms of circuit depth, but it has been thought that an external phase-shifter was necessary after each Mach Zehnder. Here, we show that the Clements scheme can be realised using symmetric Mach Zehnders, requiring only a small number of external phase-shifters that do not contribute to the depth of the circuit. This will result in a significant saving in the length of these devices, allowing more complex circuits to fit onto a photonic chip, and reducing the propagation losses associated with these circuits. We also discuss how similar savings can be made to alternative schemes which have robustness to imbalanced beam-splitters.

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Quantum gravimetry in the same internal state using composite light Raman pulses. (arXiv:2104.07601v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We introduce an atomic gravimetric sequence using Raman-type composite light pulses that excites a superposition of two momentum states with the same internal level. The scheme allows the suppression of common noise, making it less sensitive to external fluctuations of electromagnetic fields. The Raman beams are generated with a fiber modulator and are capable of momentum transfer in opposite directions. We obtain analytical expressions for the interference fringes in terms of three perturbative parameters that characterize the imperfections due to undesired frequencies introduced by the modulation process. We find special values of the Rabi frequency that improve the fringes visibility.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Scaling of temporal entanglement in proximity to integrability. (arXiv:2104.07607v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Describing dynamics of quantum many-body systems is a formidable challenge due to rapid generation of quantum entanglement between remote degrees of freedom. A promising approach to tackle this challenge, which has been proposed recently, is to characterize the quantum dynamics of a many-body system and its properties as a bath via the Feynman-Vernon influence matrix (IM), which is an operator in the space of time trajectories of local degrees of freedom. Physical understanding of the general scaling of the IM's temporal entanglement and its relation to basic dynamical properties is highly incomplete to present day. In this Article, we analytically compute the exact IM for a family of integrable Floquet models - the transverse-field kicked Ising chain - finding a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like "wavefunction" on the Schwinger-Keldysh contour with algebraically decaying correlations. We demonstrate that the IM exhibits area-law temporal entanglement scaling for all parameter values. Furthermore, the entanglement pattern of the IM reveals the system's phase diagram, exhibiting jumps across transitions between distinct Floquet phases. Near criticality, a non-trivial scaling behavior of temporal entanglement is found. The area-law temporal entanglement allows us to efficiently describe the effects of sizeable integrability-breaking perturbations for long evolution times by using matrix product state methods. This work shows that tensor network methods are efficient in describing the effect of non-interacting baths on open quantum systems, and provides a new approach to studying quantum many-body systems with weakly broken integrability.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Attainable and usable coherence in X states over Markovian and non-Markovian channels. (arXiv:2104.07648v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

The relations between the resource theoretic measures of quantum coherence are rigorously investigated for various Markovian and non-Markovian channels for the two-qubit $X$ states with specific attention to the maximum and minimum attainable coherence and usefulness of these states in performing quantum teleportation in noisy environment. The investigation has revealed that under both dephasing and dissipative type noises the maximally entangled mixed states and Werner states lose their form and usefulness. However, maximally non-local mixed states (MNMSs) lose their identity in dissipative noise only. Thus, MNMSs are established to be useful in teleporting a qubit with fidelity greater than the classical limit in the presence of dephasing noise. MNMSs also remain useful for device independent quantum key distribution in this case as they still violate Bell's inequality. In the presence of noise, coherence measured by relative entropy of coherence is found to fall faster than the same measured using $l_1$ norm of coherence. Further, information back-flow from the environment to the system is observed over non-Markovian channels which leads to revival in coherence. Additionally, sequential interaction of two qubits with the same environment is found to result in correlated noise on both qubits, and coherence is observed to be frozen in this case under dephasing channel. Under the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing channels studied here, we observed that MNMSs have maximum relative coherence, i.e., they have the maximum amount of $l_1$ norm of coherence among the states with the same amount of relative entropy of coherence. However, this feature is not visible in any $X$ state evolving over dissipative channels.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Entanglement detection of two-qubit Werner states. (arXiv:2104.07653v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

In this article, we introduce a framework for entanglement detection of photon pairs represented by two-qubit Werner states. The measurement scheme is based on the symmetric informationally complete POVM. To make the framework realistic, we impose the Poisson noise on the measured two-photon coincidences. For various settings, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the efficiency of the framework.

Categories: Journals, Physics

General Analytical Method of Kibble-Zurek Mechanism for Exact Prediction of Topological Defects Production. (arXiv:1611.10205v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

In the field of non-equilibrium phase transitions, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) is undoubtedly an important discovery, pointing out that some universal scaling rules are applied to a wide range of physical systems from quantum to the cosmos in complex non-equilibrium continuous phase transitions. However, except for some scaling relations in specific cases, the algebraic-based KZM can not provide further details on the topological defect generation laws. In this work, we propose an analytical-based KZM that can accurately predict topological defect generation for a given quenching condition. Compared with the conventional KZM, our theory is more accurate and more widely applicable, especially in non-linear quenching conditions and inhomogeneous structural systems, where it has more obvious advantages. Our work reveals a fundamental and intrinsic mechanism in non-equilibrium phase transitions, blazing a new trail for accurate description and manipulation of topological defect generation.

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Protecting qudit operations from noise by continuous dynamical decoupling. (arXiv:1912.06775v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We develop a procedure of generalized continuous dynamical decoupling (GCDD) for an ensemble of $d$-level systems (qudits), allowing one to protect the action of an arbitrary multi-qudit gate from general noise. We first present our GCDD procedure for the case of an arbitrary qudit and apply it to the case of a Hadamard gate acting on a qutrit. This is done using a model that, in principle, could be implemented using the three magnetic hyperfine states of the ground energy level of $^{87}\mathrm{Rb}$ and laser beams whose intensities and phases are modulated according to our prescription. We show that this model allows one to generate continuously all the possible SU(3) group operations which are, in general, needed to apply the GCDD procedure. We finally show that our method can be extended to the case of an ensemble of qudits, identical or not.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Classical Optimizers for Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum Devices. (arXiv:2004.03004v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We present a collection of optimizers tuned for usage on Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) devices. Optimizers have a range of applications in quantum computing, including the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE) and Quantum Approximate Optimization (QAOA) algorithms. They are also used for calibration tasks, hyperparameter tuning, in machine learning, etc. We analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of different optimizers in a VQE case study. VQE is a hybrid algorithm, with a classical minimizer step driving the next evaluation on the quantum processor. While most results to date concentrated on tuning the quantum VQE circuit, we show that, in the presence of quantum noise, the classical minimizer step needs to be carefully chosen to obtain correct results. We explore state-of-the-art gradient-free optimizers capable of handling noisy, black-box, cost functions and stress-test them using a quantum circuit simulation environment with noise injection capabilities on individual gates. Our results indicate that specifically tuned optimizers are crucial to obtaining valid science results on NISQ hardware, and will likely remain necessary even for future fault tolerant circuits.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Adaptive generalized measurement for unambiguous state discrimination of quaternary phase-shift-keying coherent states. (arXiv:2009.02558v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Generalized quantum measurements identifying non-orthogonal states without ambiguity often play an indispensable role in various quantum applications. For such unambiguous state discrimination scenario, we have a finite probability of obtaining inconclusive results and minimizing the probability of inconclusive results is of particular importance. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an adaptive generalized measurement that can unambiguously discriminate the quaternary phase-shift-keying coherent states with a near-optimal performance. Our scheme is composed of displacement operations, single photon detections and adaptive control of the displacements dependent on a history of photon detection outcomes. Our experimental results show a clear improvement of both a probability of conclusive results and a ratio of erroneous decision caused by unavoidable experimental imperfections over conventional static generalized measurements.

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