Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

We study a driven harmonic oscillator operating an Otto cycle between two thermal baths of finite size. By making extensive use of the tools of Gaussian quantum mechanics, we directly simulate the dynamics of the engine as a whole, without the need to make any approximations. This allows us to understand the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of the engine not only from the perspective of the working medium, but also as it is seen from the thermal baths' standpoint. For sufficiently large baths, our engine is capable of running a number of ideal cycles, delivering finite power while operating with maximal efficiency. Thereafter, having traversed the baths, the perturbations created by the interaction start deteriorating the engine's performance. We additionally study the correlations generated in the system, and relate the buildup of working medium-baths and bath-bath correlations to the degrading performance of the engine over the course of many cycles.

This paper demonstrates the use of entanglement resources in quantum speedup by presenting two algorithms which are generalizations of an algorithm recently proposed by Goswami and Panigrahi [arXiv:1706.09489 (2017)]. Our first algorithm provides deterministic solutions having an advantage over classical algorithms, whereas the second algorithm yields probabilistic results. The former one has been experimentally verified by using IBM's five-qubit quantum computer with a high fidelity.

Trapped Rydberg ions are a promising novel approach to quantum computing and simulations. They are envisaged to combine the exquisite control of trapped ion qubits with the fast two-qubit Rydberg gates already demonstrated in neutral atom experiments. Coherent Rydberg excitation is a key requirement for these gates. Here, we carry out the first coherent Rydberg excitation of an ion and perform a single-qubit Rydberg gate, thus demonstrating basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer.

The concept of parity describes the inversion symmetry of a system and is of fundamental relevance in the standard model, quantum information processing, and field theory. In quantum electrodynamics, parity is conserved and selection rules (SRs) appear when matter is probed with electromagnetic radiation. However, typically large field gradients are required to engineer the parity of the light-matter interaction operator for natural atoms. In this work, we instead irradiate a specifically designed superconducting artificial atom with spatially shaped microwave fields to select the interaction parity in situ. In this way, we observe dipole and quadrupole SRs for single state transitions and induce transparency via longitudinal coupling. Furthermore, we engineer an artificial potassium-like atom with adjustable wave function parity originating from an artificial orbital momentum provided by a resonator. Our work advances light-matter interaction to a new level with promising application perspectives in simulations of chemical compounds, quantum state engineering, and relativistic physics.

This article is an introductory presentation of the quantization of the half-plane based on affine coherent states (ACS). The half-plane is viewed as the phase space for the dynamics of a positive physical quantity evolving with time, and its affine symmetry is preserved due to the covariance of this type of quantization. We promote the interest of such a procedure for transforming a classical model into a quantum one, since the singularity at the origin is systematically removed, and the arbitrariness of boundary conditions can be easily overcome. We explain some important mathematical aspects of the method. Three elementary examples of applications are presented, the quantum breathing of a massive sphere, the quantum smooth bouncing of a charged sphere, and a smooth bouncing "dust" sphere as a simple model of quantum Newtonian cosmology.

The content of this thesis can be broadly summarised into two categories: first, I constructed modified numerical algorithms based on tensor networks to simulate systems of anyons in low dimensions, and second, I used those methods to study the topological phases the anyons form when they braid around one another. In the first phase of my thesis, I extended the anyonic tensor network algorithms, by incorporating U(1) symmetry to give a modified ansatz, Anyon-U(1) tensor networks, which are capable of simulating anyonic systems at any rational filling fraction. In the second phase, I used the numerical methods to study some models of non-Abelian anyons that naturally allows for exchange of anyons. I proposed a lattice model of anyons, which I dubbed anyonic Hubbard model, which is a pair of coupled chains of anyons (or simply called anyonic ladder). Each site of the ladder can either host a single anyonic charge, or it can be empty. The anyons are able to move around, interact with one another, and exchange positions with other anyons, when vacancies exist. Exchange of anyons is a non-trivial process which may influence the formation of different kinds of new phases of matter. I studied this model using the two prominent species of anyons: Fibonacci and Ising anyons, and made a number of interesting discoveries about their phase diagrams. I identified new phases of matter arising from both the interaction between these anyons and their exchange braid statistics.

We study the interplay of coherence and entanglement under the action of three qubit quantum cloning operations. Considering two well-known quantum cloning machines, we provide examples of coherent and incoherent operations performed by them. We show that both the output entanglement and coherence could vanish under incoherent cloning operations. Coherent cloning operations on the other hand, could be used to construct a universal and optimal coherence machine. It is also shown that under coherent cloning operations the output two qubit entanglement could be maximal even if the input coherence is negligible.

In recent work, the so-called quasi-Zeno dynamics of a system has been investigated in the context of the quantum first passage problem. This dynamics considers the time volution of a system subjected to a sequence of selective projective measurements made at small but finite intervals of time. The dynamics considers a sequence of steps, with each step consisting of a unitary transformation followed by a projection. The dynamics is non-unitary and it has been shown that this dynamics can be effectively described by two different non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Here we explore this connection by considering the problem of detecting a free quantum particle moving on a one-dimensional lattice, where the detector is placed at the origin and the particle is initially located at some lattice point. We find that results for distribution times for first detection probability, obtained from the non-Hermitian Hamitlonian are in excellent agreement with known exact results as well as exact numerics. Interesting finite-size effects are discussed. We also study the first detection problem for the example of a particle moving in a quasi-periodic potential, an example where the electron motion can be ballistic, localized or diffusive.

A quantum phase space with Wannier basis is constructed: (i) classical phase space is divided into Planck cells; (ii) a complete set of Wannier functions are constructed with the combination of Kohn's method and L\"owdin method such that each Wannier function is localized at a Planck cell. With these Wannier functions one can map a wave function unitarily onto phase space. Various examples are used to illustrate our method and compare it to Wigner function. The advantage of our method is that it can smooth out the oscillations in wave functions without losing any information and is potentially a better tool in studying quantum-classical correspondence. In addition, we point out that our method can be used for time-frequency analysis of signals.

We consider quantum maps induced by periodically-kicked scattering systems and discuss the computation of their resonance spectra in terms of complex scaling and sufficiently weak absorbing potentials. We also show that strong absorptive and projective openings, as commonly used for open quantum maps, fail to produce the resonance spectra of kicked scattering systems, even if the opening does not affect the classical trapped set. The results are illustrated for a concrete model system whose dynamics resembles key features of ionization and exhibits a trapped set which is organized by a topological horseshoe at large kick strength. Our findings should be useful for future tests of fractal Weyl conjectures and investigations of dynamical tunneling.

Completely determining the relationship between quantum correlation sets is a long-standing open problem, known as Tsirelson's problem. Following recent progress by Slofstra [arXiv:1606.03140 (2016), arXiv:1703.08618 (2017)] only two instances of the problem remain open. One of them is the question of whether the set of finite-dimensional quantum correlations is strictly contained in the set of infinite-dimensional ones (i.e. whether $\mathcal C_{q} \neq \mathcal C_{qs}$). The usual formulation of the question assumes finite question and answer sets. In this work, we show that, when one allows for either infinite answer sets (and finite question sets) or infinite question sets (and finite answer sets), there exist correlations that are achievable using an infinite-dimensional quantum strategy, but not a finite-dimensional one. For the former case, our proof exploits a recent result [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], which shows self-testing of any pure bipartite entangled state of arbitrary local dimension $d$, using question sets of size 3 and 4 and answer sets of size $d$. For the latter case, a key step in our proof is to show a novel self-test, inspired by [Nat. Comm. 8, 15485 (2017)], of all bipartite entangled states of any local dimension d, using question sets of size $O(d)$, and answer sets of size 4 and 3 respectively.

Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) is a promising scheme that aims to improve the rate-versus-distance behavior of a QKD system by using the state-of-the-art devices. It can be seen as a bridge between current QKD links to quantum repeater based networks. While, similar to quantum repeaters, MA-MDI-QKD relies on quantum memory (QM) units, the requirements for such QMs are less demanding than that of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Here, we present a variant of MA-MDI-QKD structure that relies on only a single physical QM: a nitrogen-vacancy center embedded into a cavity where its electronic spin interacts with photons and its nuclear spin is used for storage. This enables us to propose a simple but efficient MA-MDI-QKD scheme resilient to memory errors and capable of beating, in terms of rate and reach, existing QKD demonstrations. We also show how we can extend this setup to a quantum repeater system, reaching, thus, larger distances.

We provide simple analytical and numerical examples of entangled states that are positive under partial transposition, and hence undistillable. The construction makes use of the properties of the projectors onto the symmetric and antisymmetric subspaces, and the examples can be considered as generalizations of the celebrated Werner states.

We investigate all possible nilpotent symmetries for a particle on torus. We explicitly construct four independent nilpotent BRST symmetries for such systems and derive the algebra between the generators of such symmetries. We show that such a system has rich mathematical properties and behaves as double Hodge theory. We further construct the finite field dependent BRST transformation for such systems by integrating the infinitesimal BRST transformation systematically. Such a finite transformation is useful in realizing the various theories with toric geometry.

We study the dynamics of X-state for anisotropic Heisenberg spin system using quantum fidelity. It is shown that while Bell diagonal state, a special class of X-state, is stationary, there exists a set of two parametric states which are stationary in presence of external uniform magnetic field.

The entropy of an ordinary (photon) laser and an atom laser (Bose condensate) is calculated. In particular, the nonzero entropy of a single mode laser or maser operating near threshold is obtained. This result is to be compared with the statement frequently made in the study of the maser heat engine to the effect that: "because maser radiation is in a pure state, its entropy is zero." Similarly, the entropy of the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate (a.k.a. the atom laser) is also calculated for the first time. This is to be compared with the textbook wisdom which holds that: "The condensed particles ... are condensed in momentum space, a set of stationary particles ... having zero energy and zero entropy."

As a toy model for the capacity problem in Quantum Information Theory we investigate finite and asymptotic regularizations of the maximum pure-state input-output fidelity $F(\cal N$) of a general quantum channel $\cal N$. We show that the asymptotic regularization $\tilde F(\cal N$) is lower bounded by the maximum output $\infty$-norm $\nu_\infty(\cal N)$ of the channel. For $\cal N$ being a Pauli channel we find that both quantities are equal.

Many of the contemporary formulations of quantum mechanics describe the marginal probability distributions of entangled many-body systems in a non-local way. Unlike the non-locality of joint distributions, the non-locality of marginal distributions is not forced by theory or experiment. This paper investigates the issue in the context of the Copenhagen, de Broglie-Bohm and sum-over-paths interpretations. A dissociation between information flow into quantum subsystems and the tensor product structure of wavefunctions is highlighted in connection to the problem.

In this article we describe the incoherent and coherent spin and charge dynamics of a single electron quantum dot. We use a stochastic master equation to model the state of the system, as inferred by an observer with access to only the measurement signal. Measurements obtained during an interval of time contribute, by a past quantum state analysis, to our knowledge about the system at any time $t$ within that interval. Such analysis permits precise estimation of physical parameters, and we propose and test a modification of the classical Baum-Welch parameter re-estimation method to systems driven by both coherent and incoherent processes.

A local description of quantum subsystems can be used to construct ontologies of the full quantum predictions. This paper communicates one possible way to do so. A retrocausal interpretation of quantum mechanics where the de Broglie-Bohm particles are the retrocausal agents is developed. This interpretation is constrained to be compatible with the existence of a local realist description of quantum subsystems.