Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

We consider the quench of an atomic impurity via a single Rydberg excitation in a degenerate Fermi gas. The Rydberg interaction with the background gas particles induces an ultralong-range potential that binds particles to form dimers, trimers, tetramers, etc. Such oligomeric molecules were recently observed in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In this work, we demonstrate with a functional determinant approach that quantum statistics and fluctuations have observable spectral consequences. We show that the occupation of molecular states is predicated on the Fermi statistics, which suppresses molecular formation in an emergent molecular shell structure. At large gas densities this leads to spectral narrowing, which can serve as a probe of the quantum gas thermodynamic properties.

We review recent progresses towards an understanding of the Skyrmion Hall transport in insulating as well as conducting materials. First, we consider a theoretical breakthrough based on the quantum field theory Ward identity, a first principle analysis, relying on symmetries and conservation laws. Broken parity (inversion) symmetry plays a crucial role in Skyrmion Hall transport. In addition to the well known thermal and electric Hall conductivities, our analysis has led us to the discovery of a new and unforeseen physical quantity, Hall viscosity - an anti-symmetric part of the viscosity tensor. We propose a simple way to confirm the existence of Hall viscosity in the measurements of Hall conductivity as a function of momentum. We provide various background materials to assist the readers to understand the quantum field theory Ward identity.

In the second part, we review recent theoretical and experimental advancements of the Skyrmion Hall effects and the topological (Magnon) Hall effects for conducting (insulting) magnets. For this purpose, we consider two enveloping themes: spin torque and thermo-electromagnetic effect. First, we overview various spin torques, such as spin transfer torque, spin-orbit torque, and spin Hall torque, and generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations and Thiele equations using a phenomenological approach. Second, we consider irreversible thermodynamics to survey possible thermo-electromagnetic effects, such as Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects in the presence of the electric currents, along with the Hall effects in the presence of a background magnetic field. Recently developed spin Seebeck effects are also a significant part of the survey. We also accommodate extensive background materials to make this review self-contained. Finally, we revisit the Skyrmion Hall transport from the Ward identity view point.

We present a generalization of the Holevo theorem by means of distances used in the definition of distinguishability of states, showing that each one leads to an alternative Holevo theorem. This result involves two quantities: the generalized Holevo information and the generalized accessible information. Additionally, we apply the new inequalities to qubits ensembles showing that for the Kolmogorov notion of distinguishability (for the case of an ensemble of two qubits) the generalized quantities are equal. On the other hand, by using a known example, we show that the Bhattacharyya notion captures not only the non-commutativity of the ensemble but also its purity.

Superfluid helium at milli-Kelvin temperatures is a dielectric liquid with an extremely low loss tangent at microwave frequencies. As such, it is a promising candidate for incorporation into hybrid quantum systems containing superconducting qubits. We demonstrate the viability of this hybrid systems approach by controllably immersing a three-dimensional superconducting transmon qubit in superfluid $^4$He. By measuring spectroscopic and coherence properties we find that the cavity, the qubit, and their coupling are all modified by the presence of the dielectric superfluid, which we analyze within the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED). At temperatures relevant to quantum computing experiments, the energy relaxation time of the qubit is not significantly changed by the presence of the superfluid, while the pure dephasing time modestly increases, which we attribute to improved thermalization via the superfluid.

We present new bounds on the existence of quantum maximum distance separable codes (QMDS): the length $n$ of all non-trivial QMDS codes with local dimension $D$ and distance $d$ is bounded by $n \leq D^2 + d - 2$. We obtain their weight distribution and present additional bounds that arise from Rains' shadow inequalities. Our main result can be seen as a generalization of bounds that are known for the two special cases of stabilizer QMDS codes and absolutely maximally entangled states, and confirms the quantum MDS conjecture in the special case of distance-three codes. As the existence of QMDS codes is linked to that of highly entangled subspaces (in which every vector has uniform $r$-body marginals) of maximal dimension, our methods directly carry over to address questions in multipartite entanglement.

We present a thermodynamic framework for the refined weak coupling limit. In this limit the interaction between system and environment is weak, but not negligible. As a result, the system dynamics becomes non-Markovian breaking divisibility conditions. Nevertheless, we propose a derivation of the first and second law just in terms of the reduced system dynamics. To this end, we extend the refined weak coupling limit for allowing slow-varying external drivings, and reconsider the definition of internal energy due to the non-negligible interaction.

Long-lived sub-levels of the electronic ground-state manifold of rare-earth ions in crystals can be used as atomic population reservoirs for photon echo-based quantum memories. We measure the dynamics of the Zeeman sub-levels of erbium ions that are doped into a lithium niobate waveguide, finding population lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures as long as seconds. Then, using these levels, we prepare and characterize atomic frequency combs, which can serve as a memory for quantum light at 1532 nm wavelength. The results allow predicting a 0.1\% memory efficiency, mainly limited by unwanted background absorption that we conjecture to be caused by the coupling between two-level systems (TLS) and erbium spins. Hence, while it should be possible to create an AFC-based quantum memory in Er$^{3+}$:Ti$^{3+}$:LiNbO$_3$, improved crystal growth together with optimized AFC preparation will be required to make it suitable for applications in quantum communication.

Knowledge of the nitrogen-vacancy center formation kinetics in diamond is critical to engineering sensors and quantum information devices based on this defect. Here we utilize the longitudinal tracking of single NV centers to elucidate NV defect kinetics during high-temperature annealing from 800-1100 $^\circ$C in high-purity chemical-vapor-deposition diamond. We observe three phenomena which can coexist: NV formation, NV quenching, and NV orientation changes. Of relevance to NV-based applications, a 6 to 24-fold enhancement in the NV density, in the absence of sample irradiation, is observed by annealing at 980 $^\circ$C, and NV orientation changes are observed at 1050 $^\circ$C. With respect to the fundamental understanding of defect kinetics in ultra-pure diamond, our results indicate a significant vacancy source can be activated for NV creation between 950-980 $^\circ$C and suggests that native hydrogen from NVH$_y$ complexes plays a dominant role in NV quenching, in agreement with recent {\it ab initio} calculations. Finally, the direct observation of orientation changes allows us to estimate an NV diffusion barrier of 5.1~eV.

We present a derivation of the holographic dual of logarithmic negativity in $AdS_3/CFT_2$ that was recently conjectured in [Phys. Rev. D 99, 106014 (2019)]. This is given by the area of an extremal cosmic brane that terminates on the boundary of the entanglement wedge. The derivation consists of relating the recently introduced R\'enyi reflected entropy to the logarithmic negativity in holographic conformal field theories. Furthermore, we clarify previously mysterious aspects of negativity at large central charge seen in conformal blocks and comment on generalizations to generic dimensions, dynamical settings, and quantum corrections.

We introduce a formalism that exploits the many-input many-output nature of nodes in quantum circuits. There is a diagrammatic and an algebraic version, the latter similar to the spinor formalism of general relativity. This allows us to work in truly basis independent ways, clarifying and simplifying many aspects of quantum state processing. The narrative is at times interrupted by antics of characters from quantum age fairy tales.

Measuring the expectation value of Pauli operators on prepared quantum states is a fundamental task in a multitude of quantum algorithms. Simultaneously measuring sets of operators allows for fewer measurements and an overall speedup of the measurement process. We investigate the task of partitioning a random subset of Pauli operators into simultaneously-measurable parts. Using heuristics from coloring random graphs, we give an upper bound for the expected number of parts in our partition. We go on to conjecture that allowing arbitrary Clifford operators before measurement, rather than single-qubit operations, leads to a decrease in the number of parts which is linear with respect to the lengths of the operators. We give evidence to confirm this conjecture and comment on the importance of this result for a specific near-term application: speeding up the measurement process of the variational quantum eigensolver.

Resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) is a leading probe of valence band order in materials best known for establishing the existence of charge density wave order in the copper-oxide superconductors. One of the biggest limitations on the RSXS technique is the presence of a severe fluorescence background which, like the RSXS cross section itself, is enhanced under resonance conditions. This background prevents the study of weak signals such as diffuse scattering from glassy or fluctuating order that is spread widely over momentum space. Recent advances in superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) detectors have led to major improvements in resolution and detection efficiency in the soft x-ray range. Here, we perform a RSXS study of stripe-ordered La$_{2-x}$Ba$_x$CuO$_4$ at the Cu $L_{3/2}$ edge (932.2 eV) using a TES detector with 1.5 eV resolution, to evaluate its utility for mitigating the fluorescence background problem. We find that, for suitable degree of detuning from the resonance, the TES could be used to reject the fluorescence background, leading to a 5 to 10 times improvement in the statistical quality of the data compared to an equivalent, energy-integrated measurement. We conclude that a TES presents a promising approach to reducing background in RSXS studies and may lead to new discoveries in materials exhibiting valence band order that is fluctuating or glassy.

We investigate the statistical distribution that governs an ideal gases of N bosons confined in a limited cubic volume V . By adjusting the spatial sizes and imposing the boundary conditions that can be manipulated by the phase factors, we numerically calculate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation to analyse the statistical properties in these systems. We find that, the smaller spatial sizes can sufficiently increase the magnitude of the critical temperature. And the critical temperature exhibits a periodic variation of 2{\pi} with the phase, particularly, the counterperiodic boundary condition is more capable of increasing the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.

High-dimensional entangled states of light provide novel possibilities for quantum information, from fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to enhanced computation and communication protocols. In this context, the frequency degree of freedom combines the assets of robustness to propagation and easy handling with standard telecommunication components. Here we use an integrated semiconductor chip to engineer the wavefunction and exchange statistics of frequency-entangled photon pairs directly at the generation stage, without post-manipulation. Tuning the spatial properties of the pump beam allows to generate frequency-anticorrelated, correlated and separable states, and to control the symmetry of the spectral wavefunction to induce either bosonic or fermionic behaviors. These results, supported by analytical and numerical calculations, open promising perspectives for the quantum simulation of fermionic problems with photons on an integrated platform, as well as for communication and computation protocols exploiting antisymmetric high-dimensional quantum states.

It is well known that the Schmidt decomposition exists for all pure states of a two-party quantum system. We demonstrate that there are two ways to obtain an analogous decomposition for arbitrary rank-1 operators acting on states of a bipartite finite-dimensional Hilbert space. These methods amount to joint Schmidt-type decompositions of two pure states where the two sets of coefficients and local bases depend on the properties of either state, however, at the expense of the local bases not all being orthonormal and in one case the complex-valuedness of the coefficients. With these results we derive several generally valid purity-type formulae for one-party reductions of rank-1 operators, and we point out relevant relations between the Schmidt decomposition and the Bloch representation of bipartite pure states.

Synchronisation is a collective phenomenon widely investigated in classical oscillators and, more recently, in quantum systems. However, it remains unclear what features distinguish synchronous behaviour in these two scenarios. Recent works have shown that investigating the dynamics of synchronisation in open quantum systems can give insight into this issue. Here we study transient synchronisation in a bio-inspired vibronic dimer, where the dynamics of electronic excitation is mediated by coherent interactions with intramolecular vibrational modes. We show that the synchronisation dynamics of the displacement of these local modes exhibit a rich behaviour which arises directly from the distinct time-evolutions of different vibronic quantum coherences. Furthermore, our study shows that coherent energy transport in this bio-inspired system is concomitant with the emergence of positive synchronisation between mode displacements. Our work provides further understanding of the relations between quantum coherence and synchronisation in open quantum systems and suggests an interesting role for coherence in biomolecules, that is promoting the synchronisation of vibrational motions driven out of thermal equilibrium.

We exploit the nonlinearity arising from the spin-photon interaction in an InAs quantum dot to demonstrate phase shifts of scattered light pulses at the single-photon level. Photon phase shifts of close to 90 degrees are achieved using a charged quantum dot in a micropillar cavity. We also demonstrate a photon phase switch by using a spin-pumping mechanism through Raman transitions in an in-plane magnetic field. The experimental findings are supported by a theoretical model which explores the dynamics of the system. Our results demonstrate the potential of quantum dot-induced nonlinearities for quantum information processing.

We demonstrate homodyne detection of quantum states originating from a genuinely spatially and temporally singlemode parametric downconversion source in non-linear waveguides. By using single photon subtraction, we implement the distillation of squeezed states witnessing an improvement of 0.1 dB from an initial squeezing value of 1.62 +/- 0.01 dB, while achieving a purity of 0.58, and confirm the non-Gaussianity of the distilled state via the higher order cumulants. With this we demonstrate the source's suitability for scalable hybrid quantum network applications.

Critical to the construction of large scale quantum networks, i.e. a quantum internet, is the development of fast algorithms for managing entanglement present in the network. One fundamental building block for a quantum internet is the distribution of Bell pairs between distant nodes in the network. Here we focus on the problem of transforming multipartite entangled states into the tensor product of bipartite Bell pairs between specific nodes using only a certain class of local operations and classical communication. In particular we study the problem of deciding whether a given graph state, and in general a stabilizer state, can be transformed into a set of Bell pairs on specific vertices using only single-qubit Clifford operations, single-qubit Pauli measurements and classical communication. We prove that this problem is NP-Complete.

The complexity of experimental quantum information processing devices is increasing rapidly, requiring new approaches to control them. In this paper, we address the problems of practically modeling and controlling an integrated optical waveguide array chip, a technology expected to have many applications in telecommunications and optical quantum information processing. This photonic circuit can be electrically reconfigured, but only the output optical signal can be monitored. As a result, the conventional control methods cannot be naively applied. Characterizing such a chip is challenging for three reasons. First, there are uncertainties associated with the Hamiltonian describing the chip. Second, we expect distortions of the control voltages caused by the chip's electrical response, which cannot be directly observed. Finally, there are imperfections in the measurements caused by losses from coupling the chip externally to optical fibers. We developed a deep neural network approach to solve these problems. The architecture is designed specifically to overcome the aforementioned challenges using a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)-based network as the central component. The Hamiltonian is estimated as a blackbox, while the rules of quantum mechanics such as state evolution is embedded in the structure as a whitebox. The resulting overall graybox model of the chip shows good performance both quantitatively in terms of the mean square error and qualitatively in terms of the predicted waveforms. We use this neural network to solve a classical and a quantum control problem. In the classical application we find a control sequence to approximately realize a time-dependent output power distribution. For the quantum application we obtain the control voltages to realize a target set of quantum gates. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to other systems that can only be probed indirectly.