Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

A significant hurdle towards realization of practical and scalable quantum computing is to protect the quantum states from inherent noises during the computation. In physical implementation of quantum circuits, a long-distance interaction between two qubits is undesirable since, it can be interpreted as a noise. Therefore, multiple quantum technologies and quantum error correcting codes strongly require the interacting qubits to be arranged in a nearest neighbor (NN) fashion. The current literature on converting a given quantum circuit to an NN-arranged one mainly considered chained qubit topologies or Linear Nearest Neighbor (LNN) topology. However, practical quantum circuit realizations, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), may not have an LNN topology. To address this gap, we consider an arbitrary qubit topology. We present an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for achieving minimal logical depth while guaranteeing the nearest neighbor arrangement between the interacting qubits. We substantiate our claim with studies on diverse network topologies and prominent quantum circuit benchmarks.

We derive the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics from epistemic principles. A key assumption is that a physical theory that relies on entities or distinctions that are unknowable in principle gives rise to wrong predictions. An epistemic formalism is developed, where concepts like individual and collective knowledge are used, and knowledge may be actual or potential. The physical state $S$ corresponds to the collective potential knowledge. The state $S$ is a subset of a state space $\mathcal{S}=\{Z\}$, such that $S$ always contains several elements $Z$, which correspond to unattainable states of complete potential knowledge of the world. The evolution of $S$ cannot be determined in terms of the individual evolution of the elements $Z$, unlike the evolution of an ensemble in classical phase space. The evolution of $S$ is described in terms of sequential time $n\in \mathbf{\mathbb{N}}$, which is updated according to $n\rightarrow n+1$ each time potential knowledge changes. In certain experimental contexts $C$, there is initial knowledge at time $n$ that a given series of properties $P,P',\ldots$ will be observed within a given time frame, meaning that a series of values $p,p',\ldots$ of these properties will become known. At time $n$, it is just known that these values belong to predefined, finite sets $\{p\},\{p'\},\ldots$. In such a context $C$, it is possible to define a complex Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}_{C}$ on top of $\mathcal{S}$, in which the elements are contextual state vectors $\bar{S}_{C}$. Born's rule to calculate the probabilities to find the values $p,p',\ldots$ is derived as the only generally applicable such rule. Also, we can associate a self-adjoint operator $\bar{P}$ with eigenvalues $\{p\}$ to each property $P$ observed within $C$. These operators obey $[\bar{P},\bar{P}']=0$ if and only if the precise values of $P$ and $P'$ are simultaneoulsy knowable.

Angle-resolved (AR) RABBIT measurements offer a high information content measurement scheme, due to the presence of multiple, interfering, ionization channels combined with a phase-sensitive observable in the form of angle and time-resolved photoelectron interferograms. In order to explore the characteristics and potentials of AR-RABBIT, a perturbative 2-photon model is developed; based on this model, example AR-RABBIT results are computed for model and real systems, for a range of RABBIT schemes. These results indicate some of the phenomena to be expected in AR-RABBIT measurements, and suggest various applications of the technique in photoionization metrology.

This study analyzed the scar-like localization in the time-average of a timeevolving wavepacket on the desymmetrized stadium billiard. When a wavepacket is launched along the orbits, it emerges on classical unstable periodic orbits as a scar in the stationary states. This localization along the periodic orbit is clarified through the semiclassical approximation. It essentially originates from the same mechanism of a scar in stationary states: the piling up of the contribution from the classical actions of multiply repeated passes on a primitive periodic orbit. To create this enhancement, several states are required in the energy range, which is determined by the initial wavepacket.

We construct a linear system non-local game which can be played perfectly using a limit of finite-dimensional quantum strategies, but which cannot be played perfectly on any finite-dimensional Hilbert space, or even with any tensor-product strategy. In particular, this shows that the set of (tensor-product) quantum correlations is not closed. The constructed non-local game provides another counterexample to the "middle" Tsirelson problem, with a shorter proof than our previous paper (though at the loss of the universal embedding theorem). We also show that it is undecidable to determine if a linear system game can be played perfectly with a limit of finite-dimensional quantum strategies.

An optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle can exhibit both librational and translational vibrations due to orientational and translational confinements of the optical tweezer, respectively. Usually, the frequency of its librational mode in a linearly-polarized optical tweezer is much larger than the frequency of its translational mode. Because of the frequency mismatch, the intrinsic coupling between librational and translational modes is very weak in vacuum. Here we propose a scheme to couple its librational and center-of-mass modes with an optical cavity mode. By adiabatically eliminating the cavity mode, the beam splitter Hamiltonian between librational and center-of-mass modes can be realized. We find that high-fidelity quantum state transfer between the librational and translational modes can be achieved with practical parameters. Our work may find applications in sympathetic cooling of multiple modes and quantum information processing.

Within the recent reformulation of quantum mechanics where a potential function is not required, we show how to reconstruct the potential so that a correspondence with the standard formulation could be established. However, severe restriction is placed by the correspondence on the kinematics of such problems.

We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.

The uncertainty relation is a fundamental limit in quantum mechanics and is of great importance to quantum information processing as it relates to quantum precision measurement. Due to interactions with the surrounding environment, a quantum system will unavoidably suffer from decoherence. Here, we investigate the dynamic behaviors of the entropic uncertainty relation of an atom-cavity interacting system under a bosonic reservoir during the crossover between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes. Specifically, we explore the dynamic behavior of the entropic uncertainty relation for a pair of incompatible observables under the reservoir-induced atomic decay effect both with and without quantum memory. We find that the uncertainty dramatically depends on both the atom-cavity and the cavity-reservoir interactions, as well as the correlation time, $\tau$, of the structured reservoir. Furthermore, we verify that the uncertainty is anti-correlated with the purity of the state of the observed qubit-system. We also propose a remarkably simple and efficient way to reduce the uncertainty by utilizing quantum weak measurement reversal. Therefore our work offers a new insight into the uncertainty dynamics for multi-component measurements within an open system, and is thus important for quantum precision measurements.

We establish the equivalence between the loss of coherence due to mixing in a quantum system and the loss of information after performing a projective measurement. Subsequently, it is demonstrated that the quantum discord, a measure of correlation for the bipartite system $\rho_{Alice\leftarrow Bob}$, is identical to the minimum difference (over all projectors {|i><i|}) between local coherence (LQICC monotone) on Bob side and coherence of the reduced density matrix $\rho^B$.

We introduce a rigorous, physically appealing, and practical way to measure distances between exchange-only correlations of interacting many-electron systems, which works regardless of their size and inhomogeneity. We show that this distance captures fundamental physical features such as the periodicity of atomic elements, and that it can be used to effectively and efficiently analyze the performance of density functional approximations. We suggest that this metric can find useful applications in high-throughput materials design.

Light endowed with orbital angular momentum, commonly termed optical vortex light, has an azimuthal phase indexed by the orbital quantum number $l$. In contrast to the two basis states of the optical spin angular momentum, the interest in the information content of optical vortex beams is centred on the assumption that $\lvert{l}\rangle{}$ forms a countably infinite set of basis states. The recent experimental observation that group velocity is inversely proportional to $l$ provides a theoretical basis for a practical measure of information transfer. This Letter sets an upper bound on that measure.

Detailed analysis of the system of four interacting ultra-cold fermions confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap is performed. The analysis is done in the framework of a simple variational ansatz for the many-body ground state and its predictions are confronted with the results of numerically exact diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. Short discussion on the role of the quantum statistics, i.e. Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures is also presented. It is concluded that the variational ansatz, although seemed to be oversimplified, gives surprisingly good predictions of many different quantities for mixtures of equal as well as different mass systems. The result may have some experimental importance since it gives quite simple and validated method for describing experimental outputs.

We study the problem of distinguishing maximally entangled quantum states by using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A question of fundamental interest is whether any three maximally entangled states in $\mathbb{C}^d\otimes\mathbb{C}^d (d\geq 4)$ are distinguishable by LOCC. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to consider the generalized Bell states. And we prove that any three generalized Bell states in $\mathbb{C}^d\otimes\mathbb{C}^d (d\geq 4)$ are locally distinguishable.

We consider Pauli--Dirac fermion submitted to an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is showed that the propagator of the neutral Dirac particle with an anomalous magnetic moment in an external linear magnetic field is the causal Green function $S^{c}(x_{b},x_{a})$ of the Pauli--Dirac equation. The corresponding Green function is calculated via path integral method in global projection, giving rise to the exact eigenspinors expressions. The neutral particle creation probability corresponding to our system is analyzed, which is obtained as function of the introduced field $B'$ and the additional spin magnetic moment $\mu$.

Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide a useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak vales was questioned. Although measuring weak value requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system.

The coherence time of a quantum system is affected by its interaction with the environment. To reduce the decoherence rate $T_2^{-1}$, every improvement that reduces the pure dephasing rate $T_\varphi^{-1}$ is limited by the longitudinal relaxation of the population, $(2T_1)^{-1}$. We show theoretically that a two-level system ultrastrongly coupled to a cavity mode can be used as a quantum memory. When the vacuum degeneracy is lifted, there is a strong suppression of the longitudinal relaxation rate. To preserve the coherence from pure dephasing, we prove it is possible to apply dynamical decoupling. We use an auxiliary atomic level to store and retrieve quantum information.

A filtering problem for a class of quantum systems disturbed by a classical stochastic process is investigated in this paper. The classical disturbance process, which is assumed to be described by a linear stochastic differential equation, is modeled by a quantum cavity model. Then the hybrid quantum-classical system is described by a combined quantum system consisting of two quantum cavity subsystems. Quantum filtering theory and a quantum extended Kalman filter method are employed to estimate the states of the combined quantum system. An estimate of the classical stochastic process is derived from the estimate of the combined quantum system. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed methods are illustrated by numerical results.

In the Feynman-Kac[1] path integral approach the eigenvalues of a quantum system can be computed using Wiener measure which uses Brownian particle motion. In our previous work[2-3] on such systems we have observed that the Wiener process numerically converges slowly for dimensions greater than two because almost all trajectories will escape to infinity[4]. One can speed up this process by using a Generalized Feynman-Kac (GFK) method[5] in which the new measure associated with the trial function is stationary, so that the convergence rate becomes much faster. We thus achieve an example of Importance Sampling and in the present work we apply it to the Feynman-Kac(FK) path integrals for the ground and first few excited state energies for He to speed up the convergence rate. We calculate the path integrals using space averaging rather than the time averaging as done in the past. The best previous calculations from Variational computations report precisions of Hartrees, whereas in most cases our path integral results obtained for the ground and first excited states of He are lower than these results by about Hartrees or more.

We consider sequences of random quantum channels defined using the Stinespring formula with Haar-distributed random orthogonal matrices. For any fixed sequence of input states, we study the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of the outputs through tensor powers of random channels. We show that the input states achieving minimum output entropy are tensor products of maximally entangled states (Bell states) when the tensor power is even. This phenomenon is completely different from the one for random quantum channels constructed from Haar-distributed random unitary matrices, which leads us to formulate some conjectures about the regularized minimum output entropy.