Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

Trapped ions are among the most promising candidates for performing quantum information processing tasks. Recently, it was demonstrated how the properties of geometric phases can be used to implement an entangling two qubit phase gate with significantly reduced operation time while having a built-in resistance against certain types of errors (Palmero et. al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 022328 (2017)). In this article, we investigate the influence of both quantum and thermal fluctuations on the geometric phase in the Markov regime. We show that additional environmentally induced phases as well as a loss of coherence result from the non-unitary evolution, even at zero temperature. We connect these effects to the associated dynamical and geometrical phases. This suggests a strategy to compensate the detrimental environmental influences and restore some of the properties of the ideal implementation. Our main result is a strategy for zero temperature to construct forces for the geometric phase gate which compensate the dissipative effects and leave the produced phase as well as the final motional state identical to the isolated case. We show that the same strategy helps also at finite temperatures. Furthermore, we examine the effects of dissipation on the fidelity and the robustness of a two qubit phase gate against certain error types.

Quantum cycles in established heat engines can be modeled with various quantum systems as working substances. For example, a heat engine can be modeled with an infinite potential well as the working substance to determine the efficiency and work done. However, in this method, the relationship between the quantum observables and the physically measurable parameters i.e., the efficiency and work done is not well understood from the quantum mechanics approach. A detailed analysis is needed to link the thermodynamic variables (on which the efficiency and work done depends) with the uncertainty principle for better understanding. Here, we present the connection of the sum uncertainty relation of position and momentum operators with thermodynamic variables in the quantum heat engine model. We are able to determine the upper and lower bounds on the efficiency of the heat engine through the uncertainty relation.

We formally prove the existence of an enduring incongruence pervading the orthodox interpretation of the Bell inequality and explain how to rationally avoid it with a natural assumption justified by explicit reference to a mathematical property of Bell's probabilistic model. Although the amendment does not alter the relevance of the theorem regarding local realism, it brings back Bell theorem from the realm of philosophical discussions about counterfactual conditionals to the concrete experimental arena.

Reversible entanglement transfer between light and matter is a crucial requisite for the ongoing developments of quantum information technologies. Quantum networks and their envisioned applications, e.g., secure communications beyond direct transmission, distributed quantum computing or enhanced sensing, rely on entanglement distribution between nodes. Although entanglement transfer has been demonstrated, a current roadblock is the limited efficiency of this process that can compromise the scalability of multi-step architectures. Here we demonstrate the efficient transfer of heralded single-photon entanglement into and out-of two quantum memories based on large ensembles of cold cesium atoms. We achieve an overall storage-and-retrieval efficiency of 85% together with a preserved suppression of the two-photon component of about 10% of the value for a coherent state. Our work constitutes an important capability that is needed towards large scale networks and increased functionality.

The complexity of many-body quantum wave functions is a central aspect of several fields of physics and chemistry where non-perturbative interactions are prominent. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have proven to be a flexible tool to approximate quantum many-body states in condensed matter and chemistry problems. In this work we introduce a neural-network quantum state ansatz to model the ground-state wave function of light nuclei, and approximately solve the nuclear many-body Schr\"odinger equation. Using efficient stochastic sampling and optimization schemes, our approach extends pioneering applications of ANNs in the field, which present exponentially-scaling algorithmic complexity. We compute the binding energies and point-nucleon densities of $A\leq 4$ nuclei as emerging from a leading-order pionless effective field theory Hamiltonian. We successfully benchmark the ANN wave function against more conventional parametrizations based on two- and three-body Jastrow functions, and virtually-exact Green's function Monte Carlo results.

Collateralized debt obligation (CDO) has been one of the most commonly used structured financial products and is intensively studied in quantitative finance. By setting the asset pool into different tranches, it effectively works out and redistributes credit risks and returns to meet the risk preferences for different tranche investors. The copula models of various kinds are normally used for pricing CDOs, and the Monte Carlo simulations are required to get their numerical solution. Here we implement two typical CDO models, the single-factor Gaussian copula model and Normal Inverse Gaussian copula model, and by applying the conditional independence approach, we manage to load each model of distribution in quantum circuits. We then apply quantum amplitude estimation as an alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for CDO pricing. We demonstrate the quantum computation results using IBM Qiskit. Our work addresses a useful task in finance instrument pricing, significantly broadening the application scope for quantum computing in finance.

Given a class of $q$-local Hamiltonians, is it possible to find a simple variational state whose energy is a finite fraction of the ground state energy in the thermodynamic limit? Whereas product states often provide an affirmative answer in the case of bosonic (or qubit) models, we show that Gaussian states fail dramatically in the fermionic case, like for the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) models. This prompts us to propose a new class of wavefunctions for SYK models inspired by the variational coupled cluster algorithm. We introduce a static ("0+0D") large-$N$ field theory to study the energy, two-point correlators, and entanglement properties of these states. Most importantly, we demonstrate a finite disorder-averaged approximation ratio of $r \approx 0.62$ between the variational and ground state energy of SYK for $q=4$. Moreover, the variational states provide an exact description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a related two-flavor SYK model.

Suppose we want to implement a unitary $U$, for instance a circuit for some quantum algorithm. Suppose our actual implementation is a unitary $\tilde{U}$, which we can only apply as a black-box. In general it is an exponentially-hard task to decide whether $\tilde{U}$ equals the intended $U$, or is significantly different in a worst-case norm. In this paper we consider two special cases where relatively efficient and lightweight procedures exist for this task.

First, we give an efficient procedure under the assumption that $U$ and $\tilde{U}$ (both of which we can now apply as a black-box) are either equal, or differ significantly in only one $k$-qubit gate, where $k=O(1)$ (the $k$ qubits need not be contiguous). Second, we give an even more lightweight procedure under the assumption that $U$ and $\tilde{U}$ are Clifford circuits which are either equal, or different in arbitrary ways (the specification of $U$ is now classically given while $\tilde{U}$ can still only be applied as a black-box). Both procedures only need to run $\tilde{U}$ a constant number of times to detect a constant error in a worst-case norm. We note that the Clifford result also follows from earlier work of Flammia and Liu, and da Silva, Landon-Cardinal, and Poulin.

In the Clifford case, our error-detection procedure also allows us efficiently to learn (and hence correct) $\tilde{U}$ if we have a small list of possible errors that could have happened to $U$; for example if we know that only $O(1)$ of the gates of $\tilde{U}$ are wrong, this list will be polynomially small and we can test each possible erroneous version of $U$ for equality with $\tilde{U}$.

Fast moving classical variables can generate quantum mechanical behavior. We demonstrate how this can happen in a model. The key point is that in classically (ontologically) evolving systems one can still define a conserved quantum energy. For the fast variables, the energy levels are far separated, such that one may assume these variables to stay in their ground state. This forces them to be entangled, so that, consequently, the slow variables are entangled as well. The fast variables could be the vacuum fluctuations caused by unknown super heavy particles. The emerging quantum effects in the light particles are expressed by a Hamiltonian that can have almost any form. The entire system is ontological, and yet allows one to generate interference effects in computer models. This seemed to lead to an unsolvable paradox, which is now resolved: exactly what happens in our models if we run a quantum interference experiment in a classical computer is explained. The restriction that very fast variables stay predominantly in their ground state appears to be due to smearing of the physical states in the time direction, preventing their direct detection. Discussions are added of the emergence of quantum mechanics, and the ontology of an EPR/Bell Gedanken experiment.

Quantification of coherence lies at the heart of quantum information processing and fundamental physics. Exact evaluation of coherence measures generally needs a full reconstruction of the density matrix, which becomes intractable for large-scale multipartite systems. Here, we propose a systematic theoretical approach to efficiently estimating lower and upper bounds of coherence in multipartite states. Under the stabilizer formalism, the lower bound is determined by the spectrum estimation method with a small number of measurements and the upper bound is determined by a single measurement. We verify our theory with a four-qubit optical quantum system.We experimentally implement various multi-qubit entangled states, including the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, the cluster state, and the W state, and show how their coherence are efficiently inferred from measuring few observables.

In a recent work we have shown that all solutions to the Weyl equation and a special class of solutions to the Dirac equation are degenerate, in the sense that they remain unaltered under the influence of a wide variety of different electromagnetic fields. In the present article our previous work is significantly extended, providing a wide class of degenerate solutions to the Dirac equation for massless particles. The electromagnetic fields corresponding to these solutions are calculated, giving also some examples regarding both spatially constant electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic waves. Further, some general forms of solutions to the Weyl equation are presented and the corresponding electromagnetic fields are calculated. Based on these results, a method for fully controlling the quantum state of Weyl particles through appropriate electromagnetic fields is proposed. Finally, the transition from degenerate to non-degenerate solutions as the particles acquire mass is discussed.

We consider Gaussian quantum circuits supplemented with non-Gaussian input states and derive sufficient conditions for efficient classical strong simulation of these circuits. In particular, we generalise the stellar representation of continuous-variable quantum states to the multimode setting and relate the stellar rank of the input non-Gaussian states, a recently introduced measure of non-Gaussianity, to the cost of evaluating classically the output probability densities of these circuits. Our results have consequences for the strong simulability of a large class of near-term continuous-variable quantum circuits.

Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is promising to show quantum advantage on near-term noisy-intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers. One central problem of VQE is the effect of noise, especially the physical noise on realistic quantum computers. We study systematically the effect of noise for the VQE algorithm, by performing numerical simulations with various local noise models, including the amplitude damping, dephasing, and depolarizing noise. We show that the ground state energy will deviate from the exact value as the noise probability increase and normally noise will accumulate as the circuit depth increase. We build a noise model to capture the noise in a real quantum computer. Our numerical simulation is consistent with the quantum experiment results on IBM Quantum computers through Cloud. Our work sheds new light on the practical research of noisy VQE. The deep understanding of the noise effect of VQE may help to develop quantum error mitigation techniques on near team quantum computers.

We show how one can deterministically generate photonic matrix product states with high bond and physical dimensions with an atomic array if one has access to a Rydberg-blockade mechanism. We develop both a quantum gate and an optimal control approach to universally control the system and analyze the photon retrieval efficiency of atomic arrays. Comprehensive modeling of the system shows that our scheme is capable of generating a large number of entangled photons. We further develop a multi-port photon emission approach that can efficiently distribute entangled photons into free space in several directions, which can become a useful tool in future quantum networks.

Motivated by the parton picture of high energy quantum chromodynamics, we develop a single-particle digitization strategy for the efficient quantum simulation of relativistic scattering processes in a $d+1$ dimensional scalar $\phi^4$ field theory. We work out quantum algorithms for initial state preparation, time evolution and final state measurements. We outline a non-perturbative renormalization strategy in this single-particle framework.

It is commonly believed that models defined on a closed one-dimensional manifold cannot give rise to topological order. Here we construct frustration-free Hamiltonians which possess both symmetry protected topological order (SPT) on the open chain {\it and} multiple ground state degeneracy (GSD) that is unrelated to global symmetry breaking on the closed chain. Instead of global symmetry breaking, there exists a {\it local} symmetry operator that commutes with the Hamiltonian and connects the multiple ground states, reminiscent of how the topologically distinct ground states of the toric code are connected by various winding operators. Our model solved on an open chain demonstrates symmetry fractionalization as an indication of SPT order and on a general graph the GSD can be shown to scale with the first Betti number - a topological invariant that counts the number of independent cycles or one dimensional holes of the graph.

We focus on two types of coherent states, the coherent states of multi graviton states and the coherent states of giant graviton states, in the context of gauge/gravity correspondence. We conveniently use a phase shift operator and its actions on the superpositions of these coherent states. We find $N$-state Schrodinger cat states which approach the one-row Young tableau states, with fidelity between them asymptotically reaches 1 at large $N$. The quantum Fisher information of these states is proportional to the variance of the excitation energy of the underlying states, and characterizes the localizability of the states in the angular direction in the phase space. We analyze the correlation and entanglement between gravitational degrees of freedom using different regions of the phase space plane in bubbling AdS. The correlation between two entangled rings in the phase space plane is related to the area of the annulus between the two rings. We also analyze two types of noisy coherent states, which can be viewed as interpolated states that interpolate between a pure coherent state in the noiseless limit and a maximally mixed state in the large noise limit.

Quantum computing is a promising paradigm to solve computationally intractable problems. Various companies such as, IBM, Rigetti and D-Wave offer quantum computers using a cloud-based platform that possess several interesting features. These factors motivate a new threat model. To mitigate this threat, we propose two flavors of QuPUF: one based on superposition, and another based on decoherence. Experiments on real IBM quantum hardware show that the proposed QuPUF can achieve inter-die Hamming Distance(HD) of 55% and intra-HD as low as 4%, as compared to ideal cases of 50% and 0% respectively. The proposed QuPUFs can also be used as a standalone solution for any other application.

Notions of circuit complexity and cost play a key role in quantum computing and simulation where they capture the (weighted) minimal number of gates that is required to implement a unitary. Similar notions also become increasingly prominent in high energy physics in the study of holography. While notions of entanglement have in general little implications for the quantum circuit complexity and the cost of a unitary, in this note, we discuss a simple such relationship when both the entanglement of a state and the cost of a unitary take small values, building on ideas on how values of entangling power of quantum gates add up. This bound implies that if entanglement entropies grow linearly in time, so does the cost. The implications are two-fold: It provides insights into complexity growth for short times. In the context of quantum simulation, it allows to compare digital and analog quantum simulators. The main technical contribution is a continuous-variable small incremental entangling bound.

We propose the gentle measurement principle (GMP) as one of the principles at the foundation of quantum mechanics. It states that if a set of states can be distinguished with high probability, they can be distinguished by a measurement that leaves the states almost invariant, including correlation with a reference system. While GMP is satisfied in both classical and quantum theories, we show, within the framework of general probabilistic theories, that it imposes strong restrictions on the law of physics. First, the measurement uncertainty of a pair of observables cannot be significantly larger than the preparation uncertainty. Consequently, the strength of the CHSH nonlocality cannot be maximal. The parameter in the stretched quantum theory, a family of general probabilistic theories that includes the quantum theory, is also limited. Second, the conditional entropy defined in terms of a data compression theorem satisfies the chain inequality. Not only does it imply information causality and Tsirelson's bound, but it singles out the quantum theory from the stretched one. All these results show that GMP would be one of the principles at the heart of quantum mechanics.