Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

We investigate the photon pumping effect in a topological model consisting of a periodically driven spin-1/2 coupled to a quantum cavity mode out of the adiabatic limit. In the strong-drive adiabatic limit, a quantized frequency conversion of photons is expected as the temporal analog of the Hall current. We numerically establish a novel photon pumping phenomenon in the experimentally accessible nonadiabatic driving regime for a broad region of the parameter space. The photon frequency conversion efficiency exhibits strong fluctuations and high efficiency that can reach up 80% of the quantized value for commensurate frequency combinations. We link the pumping properties to the delocalization of the corresponding Floquet states which display multifractal behavior as the result of hybridization between localized and delocalized sectors. Finally we demonstrate that the quantum coherence properties of the initial state are preserved during the frequency conversion process in both the strong and ultra-weak-drive limit.

Computing the distribution of permanents of random matrices has been an outstanding open problem for several decades. In quantum computing, "anti-concentration" of this distribution is an unproven input for the proof of hardness of the task of boson-sampling. We study permanents of random i.i.d. complex Gaussian matrices, and more broadly, submatrices of random unitary matrices. Using a hybrid representation-theoretic and combinatorial approach, we prove strong lower bounds for all moments of the permanent distribution. We provide substantial evidence that our bounds are close to being tight and constitute accurate estimates for the moments. Let $U(d)^{k\times k}$ be the distribution of $k\times k$ submatrices of $d\times d$ random unitary matrices, and $G^{k\times k}$ be the distribution of $k\times k$ complex Gaussian matrices. (1) Using the Schur-Weyl duality (or the Howe duality), we prove an expansion formula for the $2t$-th moment of $|Perm(M)|$ when $M$ is drawn from $U(d)^{k\times k}$ or $G^{k\times k}$. (2) We prove a surprising size-moment duality: the $2t$-th moment of the permanent of random $k\times k$ matrices is equal to the $2k$-th moment of the permanent of $t\times t$ matrices. (3) We design an algorithm to exactly compute high moments of the permanent of small matrices. (4) We prove lower bounds for arbitrary moments of permanents of matrices drawn from $G^{ k\times k}$ or $U(k)$, and conjecture that our lower bounds are close to saturation up to a small multiplicative error. (5) Assuming our conjectures, we use the large deviation theory to compute the tail of the distribution of log-permanent of Gaussian matrices for the first time. (6) We argue that it is unlikely that the permanent distribution can be uniquely determined from the integer moments and one may need to supplement the moment calculations with extra assumptions to prove the anti-concentration conjecture.

It is well known that a universal set of gates for classical computation augmented with the Hadamard gate results in universal quantum computing. While this requires the addition of a genuine quantum element to the set of passive classical gates, here we ask the following: can the same result be attained by adding a quantum control unit while keeping the circuit itself completely classical? In other words, can we get universal quantum computation by coherently controlling classical operations? In this work we provide an affirmative answer to this question, by considering a computational model that consists of $2n$ target bits together with a set of classical gates, controlled by log$(2n+1)$ ancillary qubits. We show that this model is equivalent to a quantum computer operating on $n$ qubits. Furthermore, we show that even a primitive computer that is capable of implementing only SWAP gates, can be lifted to universal quantum computing, if aided with an appropriate quantum control of logarithmic size. Our results thus exemplify the information processing power brought forth by the quantum control system.

We develop a workflow to use current quantum computing hardware for solving quantum many-body problems, using the example of the fermionic Hubbard model. Concretely, we study a four-site Hubbard ring that exhibits a transition from a product state to an intrinsically interacting ground state as hopping amplitudes are changed. We locate this transition and solve for the ground state energy with high quantitative accuracy using a variational quantum algorithm executed on an IBM quantum computer. Our results are enabled by a variational ansatz that takes full advantage of the maximal set of commuting $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetries of the problem and a Lanczos-inspired error mitigation algorithm. They are a benchmark on the way to exploiting near term quantum simulators for quantum many-body problems.

ZX-calculus is graphical language for quantum computing which usually focuses on qubits. In this paper, we generalise qubit ZX-calculus to qudit ZX-calculus in any finite dimension by introducing suitable generators, especially a carefully chosen triangle node. As a consequence we obtain a set of rewriting rules which can be seen as a direct generalisation of qubit rules, and a normal form for any qudit vectors. Based on the qudit ZX-calculi, we propose a graphical formalism called qufinite ZX-calculus as a unified framework for all qudit ZX-calculi, which is universal for finite quantum theory due to a normal form for matrix of any finite size. We would expect a reconstruction of finite quantum theory within the framework of qufinite ZX-calculus which focuses on compositionality without resorting to any probability theory or sum structures.

The modern search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) began with the seminal publications of Cocconi & Morrison (1959) and Schwartz & Townes (1961), who proposed to search for narrow-band signals in the radio spectrum, and for optical laser pulses. Over the last six decades, more than one hundred dedicated search programs have targeted these wavelengths; all with null results. All of these campaigns searched for classical communications, that is, for a significant number of photons above a noise threshold; with the assumption of a pattern encoded in time and/or frequency space. I argue that future searches should also target quantum communications. They are preferred over classical communications with regards to security and information efficiency, and they would have escaped detection in all previous searches. The measurement of Fock state photons or squeezed light would indicate the artificiality of a signal. I show that quantum coherence is feasible over interstellar distances, and explain for the first time how astronomers can search for quantum transmissions sent by ETI to Earth, using commercially available telescopes and receiver equipment.

Single-photon superradiance can emerge when a collection of identical emitters are spatially separated by distances much less than the wavelength of the light they emit, and is characterized by the formation of a superradiant state that spontaneously emits light with a rate that scales linearly with the number of emitters. This collective phenomena has only been demonstrated in a few nanomaterial systems, all requiring temperatures below 10K. Here, we rationally design a single colloidal nanomaterial that hosts multiple (nearly) identical emitters that are impervious to the fluctuations which typically inhibit room temperature superradiance in other systems such as molecular aggregates. Specifically, by combining molecular dynamics, atomistic electronic structure calculations, and model Hamiltonian methods, we show that the faces of a heterostructure nanocuboid mimic individual quasi-2D nanoplatelets and can serve as the robust emitters required to realize superradiant phenomena at room temperature. Leveraging layer-by-layer colloidal growth techniques to synthesize a nanocuboid, we demonstrate single-photon superfluorescence via single-particle time-resolved photoluminescence measurements at room temperature. This robust observation of both superradiant and subradiant states in single nanocuboids opens the door to ultrafast single-photon emitters and provides an avenue to entangled multi-photon states via superradiant cascades.

Topological data analysis is a rapidly developing area of data science where one tries to discover topological patterns in data sets to generate insight and knowledge discovery. In this project we use quantum walk algorithms to discover features of a data graph on which the walk takes place. This can be done faster on quantum computers where all paths can be explored using superposition. We begin with simple walks on a polygon and move up to graphs described by higher dimensional meshes. We use insight from the physics description of quantum walks defined in terms of probability amplitudes to go from one site on a graph to another distant site and show how this relates to the Feynman propagator or Kernel in the physics terminology. Our results from quantum computation using IBM's Qiskit quantum computing software were in good agreement with those obtained using classical computing methods.

Nonlinear damping, a force of friction that depends on the amplitude of motion, plays an important role in many electrical, mechanical and even biological oscillators. In novel technologies such as carbon nanotubes, graphene membranes or superconducting resonators, the origin of nonlinear damping is sometimes unclear. This presents a problem, as the damping rate is a key figure of merit in the application of these systems to extremely precise sensors or quantum computers. Through measurements of a superconducting circuit, we show that nonlinear damping can emerge as a direct consequence of quantum fluctuations and the conservative nonlinearity of a Josephson junction. The phenomenon can be understood and visualized through the flow of quasi-probability in phase space, and accurately describes our experimental observations. Crucially, the effect is not restricted to superconducting circuits: we expect that quantum fluctuations or other sources of noise give rise to nonlinear damping in other systems with a similar conservative nonlinearity, such as nano-mechanical oscillators or even macroscopic systems.

We introduce a protocol to observe p-wave interactions in ultracold fermionic atoms loaded in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Our scheme uses specific motionally excited band states to form an orbital subspace immune to band relaxation. A laser dressing is applied to reduce the differential kinetic energy of the orbital states and make their dispersion highly isotropic. When combined with a moderate increase of the scattering volume by a Feshbach resonance, the effect of p-wave interactions between the orbitals can be observed from the system dynamics on realistic timescales. By considering the evolution of ferromagnetic product states, we further explore parameter regimes where collective enhancement of p-wave physics facilitated by a many-body gap enables us to map the complex extended Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian of the system to a simple one-axis twisting model. Experimental protocols to probe the resulting many-body dynamics, state preparation, and detection are presented, including the effects of particle loss, spin-orbit coupling, and doping.

We analyze the divisibility properties of generalized Pauli dynamical maps. Using the results for image non-increasing dynamical maps, we formulate the conditions for the underlying evolution to satisfy specific non-Markovianity criteria. For the qubit evolution, we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for P and CP-divisibility of the associated, in general noninvertible, Pauli dynamical maps. Finally, we analyze the divisibility degree for mixtures of noninvertible phase-damping channels. For P-divisible maps, we propose a legitimate time-local generator with all temporarily infinite decoherence rates.

We consider the chiral model of twisted bilayer graphene introduced by Tarnopolsky-Kruchkov-Vishwanath (TKV). TKV have proved that for inverse twist angles $\alpha$ such that the effective Fermi velocity at the moir\'e $K$ point vanishes, the chiral model has a perfectly flat band at zero energy over the whole Brillouin zone. By a formal expansion, TKV found that the Fermi velocity vanishes at $\alpha \approx .586$. In this work we prove the Fermi velocity vanishes at $\alpha \approx .586$, and put rigorous minimum and maximum bounds on the location of this zero, by rigorously justifying TKV's formal expansion of the Fermi velocity over a sufficiently large interval of $\alpha$ values. The idea of the proof is to project the TKV Hamiltonian onto a finite dimensional subspace, and then expand the Fermi velocity in terms of explicitly computable linear combinations of modes in the subspace, while controlling the error. The proof relies on two assumptions which can be checked numerically: a bound below on the smallest eigenvalue of a positive semi-definite, Hermitian $81 \times 81$ matrix which is essentially the square of the projected Hamiltonian, and an assumption on the validity of the negative value of a real 18th order polynomial approximating the numerator of the Fermi velocity when evaluated at a specific value of $\alpha$. Since these assumptions can be verified up to high precision using standard numerical methods, together with TKV's work our result proves existence of at least one perfectly flat band of the chiral model.

Quantum coherences, correlations and collective effects can be harnessed to the advantage of quantum batteries. Here, we introduce a feasible structure engineering scheme that is applicable to spin-based open quantum batteries. Our scheme, which builds solely upon a modulation of spin energy gaps, allows engineered quantum batteries to exploit spin-spin correlations for mitigating environment-induced aging. As a result of this advantage, an engineered quantum battery can preserve relatively more energy as compared with its non-engineered counterpart over the course of the storage phase. Particularly, the excess in stored energy is independent of system size. This implies a scale-invariant passive protection strategy, which we demonstrate on an engineered quantum battery with staggered spin energy gaps. Our findings establish structure engineering as a useful route for advancing quantum batteries, and bring new perspectives on efficient quantum battery designs.

Twist-untwist protocols for quantum metrology consist of a serial application of: 1. unitary nonlinear dynamics (e.g., spin squeezing or Kerr nonlinearity), 2. parameterized dynamics $U(\phi)$ (e.g., a collective rotation or phase space displacement), 3. time reversed application of step 1. Such protocols are known to produce states that allow Heisenberg scaling for experimentally accessible estimators of $\phi$ even when the nonlinearities are applied for times much shorter than required to produce Schr\"{o}dinger cat states. In this work, we prove that twist-untwist protocols provide the lowest estimation error among quantum metrology protocols that utilize two calls to a weakly nonlinear evolution and a readout involving only measurement of a spin operator $\vec{n}\cdot \vec{J}$, asymptotically in the number of particles. We consider the following physical settings: all-to-all interactions generated by one-axis twisting $J_{z}^{2}$ (e.g., interacting Bose gases), constant finite range spin-spin interactions of distinguishable or bosonic atoms (e.g., trapped ions or Rydberg atoms, or lattice bosons). In these settings, we further show that the optimal twist-untwist protocols asymptotically achieve $85\%$ and $92\%$ of the respective quantum Cram\'{e}r-Rao bounds. We show that the error of a twist-untwist protocol can be decreased by a factor of $L$ without an increase in the noise of the spin measurement if the twist-untwist protocol can be noiselessly iterated as an $L$ layer quantum alternating operator ansatz.

We provide an explicit expression for the second-order perturbative solution of a single trapped-ion interacting with a laser field in the strong excitation regime. From the perturbative analytical solution, based on a matrix method and a final normalization of the perturbed solutions, we show that the probability to find the ion in its excited state fits well with former results.

The {\it exchange} interaction arising from the particle indistinguishability is of central importance to physics of many-particle quantum systems. Here we study analytically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement induced by this interaction in an isolated system, namely, an ideal Fermi gas confined in a chaotic cavity, which evolves unitarily from a non-Gaussian pure state. We find that the breakdown of the quantum-classical correspondence of particle motion, via dramatically changing the spatial structure of many-body wavefunction, leads to profound changes of the entanglement structure. Furthermore, for a class of initial states, such change leads to the approach to thermal equilibrium everywhere in the cavity, with the well-known Ehrenfest time in quantum chaos as the thermalization time. Specifically, the quantum expectation values of various correlation functions at different spatial scales are all determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In addition, by using the reduced density matrix (RDM) and the entanglement entropy (EE) as local probes, we find that the gas inside a subsystem is at equilibrium with that outside, and its thermal entropy is the EE, even though the whole system is in a pure state. As a by-product of this work, we provide an analytical solution supporting an important conjecture on thermalization, made and numerically studied by Garrison and Grover in: Phys. Rev. X \textbf{8}, 021026 (2018), and strengthen its statement.

We investigate the quantum thermodynamic cycle of a quantum heat engine carrying out an Otto thermodynamic cycle. We use the thermal properties of a moving heat bath with relativistic velocity with respect to the cold bath. As a working medium, we use a two-level system and a harmonic oscillator that interact with a moving heat bath and a static cold bath. In the current work, the quantum heat engine is studied in the high and low temperatures regime. Using quantum thermodynamics and the theory of open quantum system we obtain the total produced work, the efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power. The maximum efficiency of the Otto quantum heat engine depends only on the ratio of the minimum and maximum energy gaps. On the contrary, the efficiency at maximum power and the extracted work decreases with the velocity since the motion of the heat bath has an energy cost for the quantum heat engine. Furthermore, the efficiency at maximum power depends on the nature of the working medium.

We study the relations of the positive frequency mode functions of Dirac field in 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime covered with Rindler and Kasner coordinates, and describe the explicit form of the Minkowski vacuum state with the quantum states in Kasner and Rindler regions, and analytically continue the solutions. As a result, we obtain the correspondence of the positive frequency mode functions in Kasner region and Rindler region in a unified manner which derives vacuum entanglement.

The Wigner function is a quantum analogue of the classical joined distribution of position and momentum. As such is should be a good tool to study quantum-classical correspondence. In this paper, the classical limit of the Wigner function is shown using the quantum harmonic oscillator as an example. The Wigner function is found exactly for all states. The semi-classical wavefunctions for highly excited states are used as the approach to the classical limit. Therefore, one can found the classical limit of the Wigner function for highly excited states and shown that it gives the classical microcanonical ensemble.

In a Dirac material we investigated the confining properties of massive and massless particles subjected to a potential well generated by a purely electrical potential, that is, an electric quantum dot. To achieve this in the most exhaustive way, we have worked on the aforementioned problem for charged particles with and without mass, limited to moving on a plane and whose dynamics are governed by the Dirac equation. The bound states are studied first and then the resonances, the latter by means of the Wigner time delay of the dispersion states as well as through the complex eigenvalues of the outgoing states, in order to obtain a complete picture of the confinement. One of the main results obtained and described in detail is that electric quantum dots for massless charges seem to act as sinks (or sources in the opposite direction) of resonances, while for massive particles the resonances and bound states are conserved with varying position depending on the depth of the well.