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Optical super-resolution sensing of a trapped ion's wave packet size. (arXiv:2104.07095v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We demonstrate super-resolution optical sensing of the size of the wave packet of a single trapped ion. Our method is inspired by the well known ground state depletion (GSD) technique. Here, we use a hollow beam to strongly saturate a dipole-forbidden transition around a sub-diffraction limited area at its center and observe state dependent fluorescence. By spatially scanning this laser beam over a single trapped $^{40}\mathrm{Ca}^+$ ion, we are able to distinguish the wave packet sizes of ions cooled to different temperatures. Using a depletion beam waist of $4.2(1)\,\mu$m we reach a spatial resolution which allows us to determine a wave packet size of $39(9)\,$nm for a near ground state cooled ion. This value matches an independently deduced value of $32(2)\,$nm, calculated from resolved sideband spectroscopy measurements. Finally, we discuss the ultimate resolution limits of our adapted GSD imaging technique in the view of applications to direct quantum wave packet imaging.

Categories: Journals, Physics

On quantum neural networks. (arXiv:2104.07106v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

The early definition of a quantum neural network as a new field that combines the classical neurocomputing with quantum computing was rather vague and satisfactory in the 2000s. The widespread in 2020 modern definition of a quantum neural network as a model or machine learning algorithm that combines the functions of quantum computing with artificial neural networks deprives quantum neural networks of their fundamental importance. We argue that the concept of a quantum neural network should be defined in terms of its most general function as a tool for representing the amplitude of an arbitrary quantum process. Our reasoning is based on the use of the Feynman path integral formulation in quantum mechanics. This approach has been used in many works to investigate the main problem of quantum cosmology, such as the origin of the Universe. In fact, the question of whether our Universe is a quantum computer was posed by Seth Lloyd, who gave the answer is yes, but we argue that the universe can be thought of as a quantum neural network.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Hamiltonian estimation in the Kitaev chain with tunable long-range interactions. (arXiv:2104.07120v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

With optimal control theory, we compute the maximum possible quantum Fisher information about the interaction parameter for a Kitaev chain with tunable long-range interactions in the many-particle Hilbert space. We consider a wide class of decay laws for the long-range interaction and develop rigorous asymptotic analysis for the scaling of the quantum Fisher information with respect to the number of lattice sites. In quantum metrology nonlinear many-body interactions can enhance the precision of quantum parameter estimation to surpass the Heisenberg scaling, which is quadratic in the number of lattice sites. Here for the estimation of the long-range interaction strength, we observe the Heisenberg to super-Heisenberg transition in such a $linear$ model, related to the slow decaying long-range correlations in the model. Finally, we show that quantum control is able to improve the prefactor rather than the scaling exponent of the quantum Fisher information. This is in contrast with the case where quantum control has been shown to improve the scaling of quantum Fisher information with the probe time. Our results clarify the role of quantum controls and long-range interactions in many-body quantum metrology.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum mean-square predictors of work. (arXiv:2104.07132v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

In quantum coherent systems, it is impossible to measure the work distribution without affecting the thermodynamic process itself. This is a fundamental issue and any attempt to overcome it will necessarily have shortcomings, such as negative probabilities. In this letter we show how this conundrum can be avoided by introducing the notion of predictor of work. Given stochastic outcomes for the heat exchanged with the environment (which can be measured non-invasively), the predictor is a mapping providing a guess for work involved. Using quantum Bayesian networks, we show how one can construct the optimal predictor in the mean-squared sense. Our framework casts the determination of the work distribution as a problem in statistical inference, which can be directly connected to experimental methods, as we illustrate by considering a qubit subject to an avoided crossing work protocol. As a non-trivial application, we also analyze a coherent version of the Scovil and Schulz-DuBois 3-level engine.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Generalized Discrete Truncated Wigner Approximation for Nonadiabtic Quantum-Classical Dynamics. (arXiv:2104.07139v1 [physics.chem-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics occur in a wide range of chemical reactions and femtochemistry experiments involving electronically excited states. These dynamics are hard to treat numerically as the system's complexity increases and it is thus desirable to have accurate yet affordable methods for their simulation. Here, we introduce a linearized semiclassical method, the generalized discrete truncated Wigner approximation (GDTWA), which is well-established in the context of quantum spin lattice systems, into the arena of chemical nonadiabatic systems. In contrast to traditional continuous mapping approaches, e.g. the Meyer-Miller-Stock-Thoss and the spin mappings, GDTWA samples the electron degrees of freedom in a discrete phase space, and thus forbids an unphysical unbounded growth of electronic state populations. The discrete sampling also accounts for an effective reduced but non-vanishing zero-point energy without an explicit parameter, which makes it possible to treat the identity operator and other operators on an equal footing. As numerical benchmarks on two Linear Vibronic Coupling models show, GDTWA has a satisfactory accuracy in a wide parameter regime, independently of whether the dynamics is dominated by relaxation or by coherent interactions. Our results suggest that the method can be very adequate to treat challenging nonadiabatic dynamics problems in chemistry and related fields.

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Manipulation and readout of spin states of a single-molecule magnet by a spin-polarized current. (arXiv:2104.07192v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Single-molecule memory device based on a single-molecule magnet (SMM) is one of the ultimate goals of semiconductor nanofabrication technologies. Here, we study how to manipulate and readout the SMM's spin states of stored information that characterized by the maximum and minimum average value of the $Z$-component of the SMM's spin, which are recognized as the information bits "1" and "0". We demonstrate that the switching time depends on both the sequential tunneling gap $\varepsilon_{se}$ and the spin-selection-role allowed transition-energy $\varepsilon_{trans}$, which can be tuned by the gate voltage. In particular, when the external bias voltage is turned off, in the cases of the empty-occupied and doubly-occupied ground eigenstates, the time derivative of the transport current and that of the average value of the SMM's spin states can be used to read out the SMM's spin states of stored information. Moreover, the tunneling strength of and the asymmetry of SMM-electrode coupling have a strong influence on the switching time, but that have a slight influence on the readout time that being on the order of nanoseconds. Our results suggest a SMM-based memory device, and provide fundamental insight into the electrical controllable manipulation and readout of the SMM's spin-state of stored information.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Hidden symmetries, spin and charge of artificial magnetic monopoles. (arXiv:2104.07193v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We discuss the non-Abelian artificial magnetic monopoles associated with $n$-level energy crossing in quantum systems. We found that hidden symmetries reveal themselves as observables such as spin, charge, and other physical degrees of freedom. We illustrated our results on concrete examples of two and three energy-level crossing. Our results can be useful for modeling of various phenomena in physical and biological systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

How to Teach a Quantum Computer a Probability Distribution. (arXiv:2104.07207v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Currently there are three major paradigms of quantum computation, the gate model, annealing, and walks on graphs. The gate model and quantum walks on graphs are universal computation models, while annealing plays within a specific subset of scientific and numerical computations. Quantum walks on graphs have, however, not received such widespread attention and thus the door is wide open for new applications and algorithms to emerge. In this paper we explore teaching a coined discrete time quantum walk on a regular graph a probability distribution. We go through this exercise in two ways. First we adjust the angles in the maximal torus $\mathbb{T}^d$ where $d$ is the regularity of the graph. Second, we adjust the parameters of the basis of the Lie algebra $\mathfrak{su}(d)$. We also discuss some hardware and software concerns as well as immediate applications and the several connections to machine learning.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Can Dark States Explain Vibropolaritonic Chemistry?. (arXiv:2104.07214v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Collective strong coupling between a disordered ensemble of $N$ localized molecular vibrations and a resonant optical cavity mode gives rise to 2 polariton and $N-1\gg2$ dark modes. Thus, experimental changes in thermally-activated reaction kinetics due to polariton formation appear entropically unlikely and remain a puzzle. Here we show that the overlooked dark modes, while parked at the same energy as bare molecular vibrations, are robustly delocalized across $\sim$2-3 molecules, yielding enhanced channels of vibrational cooling, concomitantly catalyzing or suppressing a chemical reaction. As an illustration, we theoretically show a 55% increase in an electron transfer rate due to enhanced product stabilization.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Oracle Separations from Complex but Easily Specified States. (arXiv:2104.07247v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

A foundational question in quantum computational complexity asks how much more useful a quantum state can be in a given task than a comparable, classical string. Aaronson and Kuperberg showed such a separation in the presence of a quantum oracle, a black box unitary callable during quantum computation. Their quantum oracle responds to a random, marked, quantum state, which is intractable to specify classically. We constrain the marked state in ways that make it easy to specify classically while retaining separations in task complexity. Our method replaces query by state complexity. Furthermore, assuming a widely believed separation between the difficulty of creating a random, complex state and creating a specified state, we propose an experimental demonstration of quantum witness advantage on near-term, distributed quantum computers. Finally, using the fact that a standard, classically defined oracle may enable a quantum algorithm to prepare an otherwise hard state in polynomial steps, we observe quantum-classical oracle separation in heavy output sampling.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Improved Weak Simulation of Universal Quantum Circuits by Correlated $L_1$ Sampling. (arXiv:2104.07250v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

Bounding the cost of classically simulating the outcomes of universal quantum circuits to additive error $\delta$ is often called weak simulation and is a direct way to determine when they confer a quantum advantage. Weak simulation of the $T$+Clifford gateset is $BQP$-complete and is expected to scale exponentially with the number $t$ of $T$ gates. We constructively tighten the upper bound on the worst-case $L_1$ norm sampling cost to next order in $t$ from $\mathcal O(\xi^t \delta^{-2})$ to $\mathcal O((\xi^t{-}\frac{2{-}\sqrt{2}}{2} t)\delta^{-2})$, where $\xi^t = 2^{\sim 0.228 t}$ is the stabilizer extent of the $t$-tensored $T$ gate magic state. We accomplish this by replacing independent $L_1$ sampling in the popular SPARSIFY algorithm used in many weak simulators with correlated $L_1$ sampling. As an aside, this result demonstrates that the minimal $L_1$ stabilizer state norm's dependence on $t$ for finite values is not multiplicative, despite the multiplicativity of its stabilizer extent. This is the first weak simulation algorithm that has lowered this bound's dependence on finite $t$ in the worst-case to our knowledge and establishes how to obtain further such reductions in $t$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Interpolation by Entanglement Breaking Channels, Random Unitary Channels and Further Generalization. (arXiv:2104.07254v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We find out a cone program for getting entanglement breaking channels as outputs of interpolation problem. Afterward, we generalize our results for getting channels that belong to a convex set as outputs of the interpolation problem.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model:Interplay of spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions. (arXiv:2104.07291v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

The interplay between the spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions on a spinful Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is studied based on an InAs nanowire subjected to a periodic gate potential along the axial direction. It is shown that a nontrivial topological phase can be achieved by regulating the confining-potential configuration. In the absence of the Zeeman field, we prove that the topology of the chain is not affected by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction due to the persisting chiral symmetry. The energies of the edge modes can be manipulated by varying the magnitude and direction of the external magnetic field.Remarkably, the joint effect of the two spin-related interactions leads to novel edge states that appear in the gap formed below the anti-crossing of the bands of an open spinful dimerized chain, and can be merged into the bulk states by tilting the magnetic-field direction.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Enhanced generation of non-degenerate photon-pairs in nonlinear metasurfaces. (arXiv:2104.07299v1 [physics.optics])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We reveal a novel regime of photon-pair generation driven by the interplay of multiple bound states in the continuum resonances in nonlinear metasurfaces. This non-degenerate photon-pair generation is derived from the hyperbolic topology of the transverse phase-matching and can enable orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the photon rate and spectral brightness, as compared to the degenerate regime. We show that the entanglement of the photon-pairs can be tuned by varying the pump polarization, which can underpin future advances and applications of ultra-compact quantum light sources.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Modelling for Quantum Error Mitigation. (arXiv:2104.07320v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

While we expect quantum computers to surpass their classical counterparts in the future, current devices are prone to high error rates and techniques to minimise the impact of these errors are indispensable. There already exists a variety of error mitigation methods addressing this quantum noise that differ in effectiveness, and scalability. But for a more systematic and comprehensible approach we propose the introduction of modelling, in particular for representing cause-effect relations as well as for evaluating methods or combinations thereof with respect to a selection of relevant criteria.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum forced oscillator via Wigner transform. (arXiv:2104.07333v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

In this paper we review the basic results concerning the Wigner transform and then we completely solve the quantum forced harmonic/inverted oscillator in such a framework; eventually, the tunnel effect for the forced inverted oscillator is discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Higher-Order Weyl-Exceptional-Ring Semimetals. (arXiv:2104.07335v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

For first-order topological semimetals, non-Hermitian perturbation can drive the Weyl nodes into Weyl exceptional rings having multiple topological structures and no Hermitian counterparts. Recently, it was discovered that higher-order Weyl semimetals, as a novel class of higher-order topological phases, can uniquely exhibit coexisting surface and hinge Fermi arcs. However, non-Hermitian higher-order topological semimetals have not yet been explored. Here, we identify a new type of topological semimetals, i.e, a higher-order topological semimetal with Weyl exceptional rings. In such a semimetal, these rings are characterized by both a spectral winding number and a Chern number. Moreover, the higher-order Weyl-exceptional-ring semimetal supports both surface and hinge Fermi-arc states, which are bounded by the projection of the Weyl exceptional rings onto the surface and hinge, respectively. Our studies open new avenues for exploring novel higher-order topological semimetals in non-Hermitian systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

PT phase transition in open quantum systems with Lindblad dynamics. (arXiv:2104.07349v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We investigate parity-time reversal (PT) phase transitions in open quantum systems and discuss a criterion of Liouvillian PT symmetry proposed recently by J. Huber, P. Kirton, S. Rotter and P. Rabl. Using the third quantization, which is a general method to solve the Lindblad equation for open quadratic systems, we show, with a proposed criterion of PT symmetry, that the eigenvalue structure of the Liouvillian clearly changes at the PT symmetry breaking point for an open 2-spin model with exactly balanced gain and loss if the total spin is large. Specially, in a PT unbroken phase, some eigenvalues are pure imaginary numbers while in a PT broken phase, all the eigenvalues are real. From this result, it is analytically shown for open quantum system including quantum jumps that the dynamics in the long time limit changes from an oscillatory to an overdamped behavior at the proposed PT symmetry breaking point. Furthermore, we show a direct relation between the criterion of Huber et al. of Liouvillian PT symmetry and dynamics of the physical quantities for quadratic bosonic systems. Our results support validity of the proposed criterion of Liouvillian PT symmetry.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Fast and robust particle shuttling for quantum science and technology. (arXiv:2104.07362v1 [quant-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

We review methods to shuttle quantum particles fast and robustly. Ideal robustness amounts to the invariance of the desired transport results with respect to deviations, noisy or otherwise, from the nominal driving protocol for the control parameters; this can include environmental perturbations. "Fast" is defined with respect to adiabatic transport times. Special attention is paid to shortcut-to-adiabaticity protocols that achieve, in faster-than-adiabatic times, the same results of slow adiabatic driving.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Studying and applying magnetic dressing with a Bell and Bloom magnetometer. (arXiv:2104.07400v1 [physics.atom-ph])

Fri, 2021-04-16 08:54

The magnetic dressing phenomenon occurs when spins precessing in a static field (holding field) are subject to an additional, strong, alternating field. It is usually studied when such extra field is homogeneous and oscillates in one direction.

We study the dynamics of spins under dressing condition in two unusual configurations. In the first instance, an inhomogeneous dressing field produces space dependent dressing phenomenon, which helps to operate the magnetometer in strongly inhomogeneous static field.

In the second instance, beside the usual configuration with static and the strong orthogonal oscillating magnetic fields, we add a secondary oscillating field, which is perpendicular to both. The system shows novel and interesting features that are accurately explained and modelled theoretically. Possible applications of these novel features are briefly discussed.

Categories: Journals, Physics