Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the arXiv.org e-print archive

Within Density Functional Theory, we have studied the interplay between vortex arrays and capillary waves in spinning prolate He-4 droplets made of several thousands of helium atoms. Surface capillary waves are ubiquitous in prolate superfluid He-4 droplets and, depending on the size and angular momentum of the droplet, they may coexist with vortex arrays. We have found that the equilibrium configuration of small prolate droplets is vortex-free, evolving towards vortex-hosting as the droplet size increases. This result is in agreement with a recent experiment [S.M. O'Connell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 215301 (2020)], where it has been disclosed that vortex arrays and capillary waves coexist in the equilibrium configuration of very large drops. Contrarily to viscous droplets executing rigid body rotation, the stability phase diagram of spinning He-4 droplets cannot be universally described in terms of dimensionless angular momentum and angular velocity variables: instead, the rotational properties of superfluid helium droplets display a clear dependence on the droplet size and the number of vortices they host.

In this paper, we study the massive Dirac equation with the presence of the Morse potential in polar coordinate. The Dirac Hamiltonian is written as two second-order differential equations in terms of two spinor wavefunctions. Since the motion of electrons in graphene is propagated like relativistic fermionic quasi-particles, then one is considered only with pseudospin symmetry for aligned spin and unaligned spin by arbitrary $k$. Next, we use the confluent Heun's function for calculating the wavefunctions and the eigenvalues. Then, the corresponding energy spectrum obtains in terms of $N$ and $k$. Afterward, we plot the graphs of the energy spectrum and the wavefunctions in terms of $k$ and $r$, respectively. Moreover, we investigate the graphene band structure by a linear dispersion relation which creates an energy gap in the Dirac points called gapped graphene. Finally, we plot the graph of the valence and conduction bands in terms of wavevectors.

In this paper we provide a detailed description of the eigenvalue $ E_{D}(x_0)\leq 0$ (respectively $ E_{N}(x_0)\leq 0$) of the self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator representing the negative Laplacian on the positive half-line with a Dirichlet (resp. Neuman) boundary condition at the origin perturbed by an attractive Dirac distribution $-\lambda \delta(x-x_0)$ for any fixed value of the magnitude of the coupling constant. We also investigate the $\lambda$-dependence of both eigenvalues for any fixed value of $x_0$. Furthermore, we show that both systems exhibit resonances as poles of the analytic continuation of the resolvent. These results will be connected with the study of the ground state energy of two remarkable three-dimensional self-adjoint operators, studied in depth in Albeverio's monograph, perturbed by an attractive $\delta$-distribution supported on the spherical shell of radius $r_0$.

We report a detailed theoretical study of a coherent macroscopic quantum-mechanical phenomenon - quantum beats of a single magnetic fluxon trapped in a two-cell SQUID of high kinetic inductance. We calculate numerically and analytically the low-lying energy levels of the fluxon, and explore their dependence on externally applied magnetic fields. The quantum dynamics of the fluxon shows quantum beats originating from its coherent quantum tunneling between the SQUID cells. We analyze the experimental setup based on a three-cell SQUID, allowing for time-resolved measurements of quantum beats of the fluxon.

Graphs are topological spaces that include broader objects than discretized manifolds, making them interesting playgrounds for the study of quantum phases not realized by symmetry breaking. In particular they are known to support anyons of an even richer variety than the two-dimensional space. We explore this possibility by building a class of frustration-free and gapped Hamiltonians based on discrete abelian gauge groups. The resulting models have a ground state degeneracy that can be either a topological invariant, an extensive quantity or a mixture of the two. For two basis of the degenerate ground states which are complementary in quantum theory, the entanglement entropy is exactly computed. The result for one basis has a constant global term, known as the topological entanglement entropy, implying long-range entanglement. On the other hand, the topological entanglement entropy vanishes in the result for the other basis. Comparisons are made with similar occurrences in the toric code. We analyze excitations and identify anyon-like excitations that account for the topological entanglement entropy. An analogy between the ground states of this system and the $\theta$-vacuum for a $U(1)$ gauge theory on a circle is also drawn.

Two-qubit gates in trapped ion quantum computers are generated by applying spin-dependent forces that temporarily entangle the internal state of the ion with its motion. Laser pulses are carefully designed to generate a maximally entangling gate between the ions while minimizing any residual entanglement between the motion and the ion. The quality of the gates suffers when actual experimental parameters differ from the ideal case. Here we improve the robustness of frequency-modulated M{\o}lmer-S{\o}rensen gates to motional mode frequency offsets by optimizing average performance over a range of systematic errors using batch optimization. We then compare this method to frequency modulated gates optimized for ideal parameters that include an analytic robustness condition. Numerical simulations show good performance up to 12 ions and the method is experimentally demonstrated on a two-ion chain.

We present a formulation of the multiconfigurational (MC) wave function symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). The method is applicable to noncovalent interactions between monomers which require a multiconfigurational description, in particular when the interacting system is strongly correlated or in an electronically excited state. SAPT(MC) is based on one- and two-particle reduced density matrices of the monomers and assumes the single-exchange approximation for the exchange energy contributions. Second-order terms are expressed through response properties from extended random phase approximation (ERPA) equations. SAPT(MC) is applied either with generalized valence bond perfect pairing (GVB) or with complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) treatment of the monomers. We discuss two model multireference systems: the H2-H2 dimer in out-of-equilibrium geometries and interaction between the argon atom and excited state of ethylene. In both cases SAPT(MC) closely reproduces benchmark results. Using the C2H4-Ar complex as an example, we examine second-order terms arising from negative transitions in the linear response function of an excited monomer. We demonstrate that the negative-transition terms must be accounted for to ensure qualitative prediction of induction and dispersion energies and develop a procedure allowing for their computation. Factors limiting the accuracy of SAPT(MC) are discussed in comparison with other second-order SAPT schemes on a data set of small single-reference dimers.

Power storage devices are shown to increase their efficiency if they are designed by using quantum systems. We show that the average power output of a quantum battery based on a quantum interacting spin model, charged via a local magnetic field, can be enhanced with the increase of spin quantum number. In particular, we demonstrate such increment in the power output when the initial state of the battery is prepared as the ground or canonical equilibrium state of the spin-j XY model and the bilinear-biquadratic spin-j Heisenberg chain (BBH) in presence of the transverse magnetic field. Interestingly, we observe that in the case of the XY model, a trade-off relation exists between the range of interactions in which the power increases and the dimension while for the BBH model, the improvements depend on the phase in which the initial state is prepared. Moreover, we exhibit that such dimensional advantages persist even when the battery-Hamiltonian has some defects or when the initial battery-state is prepared at finite temperature.

Quantum machine learning is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing in the Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum(NISQ) era. Here we propose a quantum convolutional neural network(QCNN) inspired by convolutional neural networks(CNN), which greatly reduces the computing complexity compared with its classical counterparts, with $O((log_{2}M)^6) $ basic gates and $O(m^2+e)$ variational parameters, where $M$ is the input data size, $m$ is the filter mask size and $e$ is the number of parameters in a Hamiltonian. Our model is robust to certain noise for image recognition tasks and the parameters are independent on the input sizes, making it friendly to near-term quantum devices. We demonstrate QCNN with two explicit examples. First, QCNN is applied to image processing and numerical simulation of three types of spatial filtering, image smoothing, sharpening, and edge detection are performed. Secondly, we demonstrate QCNN in recognizing image, namely, the recognition of handwritten numbers. Compared with previous work, this machine learning model can provide implementable quantum circuits that accurately corresponds to a specific classical convolutional kernel. It provides an efficient avenue to transform CNN to QCNN directly and opens up the prospect of exploiting quantum power to process information in the era of big data.

Multipartite entanglement is an essential resource for quantum communication, quantum computing, quantum sensing, and quantum networks. The utility of a quantum state, $|\psi\rangle$, for these applications is often directly related to the degree or type of entanglement present in $|\psi\rangle$. Therefore, efficiently quantifying and characterizing multipartite entanglement is of paramount importance. In this work, we introduce a family of multipartite entanglement measures, called Concentratable Entanglements. Several well-known entanglement measures are recovered as special cases of our family of measures, and hence we provide a general framework for quantifying multipartite entanglement. We prove that the entire family does not increase, on average, under Local Operations and Classical Communications. We also provide an operational meaning for these measures in terms of probabilistic concentration of entanglement into Bell pairs. Finally, we show that these quantities can be efficiently estimated on a quantum computer by implementing a parallelized SWAP test, opening up a research direction for measuring multipartite entanglement on quantum devices.

For a system consisting of a quantum emitter coupled near threshold (band edge) to a one-dimensional continuum with a van Hove singularity in the density of states, we demonstrate general conditions such that a characteristic triple level convergence occurs directly on the threshold as the coupling $g$ is shut off. For small $g$ values the eigenvalue and norm of each of these states can be expanded in a Puiseux expansion in terms of powers of $g^{2/3}$, which suggests the influence of a third-order exceptional point. However, in the actual $g \rightarrow 0$ limit, only two discrete states in fact coalesce as the system can be reduced to a $2 \times 2$ Jordan block; the third state instead merges with the continuum. Moreover, the decay width of the resonance state involved in this convergence is significantly enhanced compared to the usual Fermi golden rule, which is consistent with the Purcell effect. However, non-Markovian dynamics due to the branch-point effect are also enhanced near the threshold. Applying a perturbative analysis in terms of the Puiseux expansion that takes into account the threshold influence, we show that the combination of these effects results in quantum emitter decay of the unusual form $1 - C t^{3/2}$ on the key timescale during which most of the decay occurs. We then present two conditions that must be satisfied at the threshold for the anomalous exceptional point to occur: the density of states must contain an inverse square-root divergence and the potential must be non-singular. We further show that when the energy of the quantum emitter is detuned from threshold, the anomalous exceptional point splits into three ordinary exceptional points, two of which appear in the complex-extended parameter space. These results provide deeper insight into a well-known problem in spontaneous decay at a photonic band edge.

State space structure of tripartite quantum systems is analyzed. In particular, it has been shown that the set of states separable across all the three bipartitions [say $\mathcal{B}^{int}(ABC)$] is a strict subset of the set of states having positive partial transposition (PPT) across the three bipartite cuts [say $\mathcal{P}^{int}(ABC)$] for all the tripartite Hilbert spaces $\mathbb{C}_A^{d_1}\otimes\mathbb{C}_B^{d_2}\otimes\mathbb{C}_C^{d_3}$ with $\min\{d_1,d_2,d_3\}\ge2$. The claim is proved by constructing state belonging to the set $\mathcal{P}^{int}(ABC)$ but not belonging to $\mathcal{B}^{int}(ABC)$. For $(\mathbb{C}^{d})^{\otimes3}$ with $d\ge3$, the construction follows from specific type of multipartite unextendible product bases. However, such a construction is not possible for $(\mathbb{C}^{2})^{\otimes3}$ since for any $n$ the bipartite system $\mathbb{C}^2\otimes\mathbb{C}^n$ cannot have any unextendible product bases [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)]. For the $3$-qubit system we, therefore, come up with a different construction.

Recent experimental advances in strongly coupled light-matter systems has sparked the development of general ab-initio methods capable of describing interacting light-matter systems from first principles. One of these methods, quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory (QEDFT), promises computationally efficient calculations for large correlated light-matter systems with the quality of the calculation depending on the underlying approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. So far no true density-functional approximation has been introduced limiting the efficient application of the theory. In this paper, we introduce the first gradient-based density functional for the QEDFT exchange-correlation energy derived from the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We benchmark this simple-to-implement approximation on small systems in optical cavities and demonstrate its relatively low computational costs for fullerene molecules up to C$_{180}$ coupled to 400,000 photon modes in a dissipative optical cavity. This work now makes first principle calculations of much larger systems possible within the QEDFT framework effectively combining quantum optics with large-scale electronic structure theory.

The three key elements of a quantum simulation are state preparation, time evolution, and measurement. While the complexity scaling of dynamics and measurements are well known, many state preparation methods are strongly system-dependent and require prior knowledge of the system's eigenvalue spectrum. Here, we report on a quantum-classical implementation of the coupled-cluster Green's function (CCGF) method, which replaces explicit ground state preparation with the task of applying unitary operators to a simple product state. While our approach is broadly applicable to a wide range of models, we demonstrate it here for the Anderson impurity model (AIM). The method requires a number of T gates that grows as $ \mathcal{O} \left(N^5 \right)$ per time step to calculate the impurity Green's function in the time domain, where $N$ is the total number of energy levels in the AIM. For comparison, a classical CCGF calculation of the same order would require computational resources that grow as $ \mathcal{O} \left(N^6 \right)$ per time step.

Devices built using circuit quantum electrodynamics architectures are one of the most popular approaches currently being pursued to develop quantum information processing hardware. Although significant progress has been made over the previous two decades, there remain many technical issues limiting the performance of fabricated systems. Addressing these issues is made difficult by the absence of rigorous numerical modeling approaches. This work begins to address this issue by providing a new mathematical description of one of the most commonly used circuit quantum electrodynamics systems, a transmon qubit coupled to microwave transmission lines. Expressed in terms of three-dimensional vector fields, our new model is better suited to developing numerical solvers than the circuit element descriptions commonly used in the literature. We present details on the quantization of our new model, and derive quantum equations of motion for the coupled field-transmon system. These results can be used in developing full-wave numerical solvers in the future. To make this work more accessible to the engineering community, we assume only a limited amount of training in quantum physics and provide many background details throughout derivations.

We propose a new quantum state reconstruction method that combines ideas from compressed sensing, non-convex optimization, and acceleration methods. The algorithm, called Momentum-Inspired Factored Gradient Descent (\texttt{MiFGD}), extends the applicability of quantum tomography for larger systems. Despite being a non-convex method, \texttt{MiFGD} converges \emph{provably} to the true density matrix at a linear rate, in the absence of experimental and statistical noise, and under common assumptions. With this manuscript, we present the method, prove its convergence property and provide Frobenius norm bound guarantees with respect to the true density matrix. From a practical point of view, we benchmark the algorithm performance with respect to other existing methods, in both synthetic and real experiments performed on an IBM's quantum processing unit. We find that the proposed algorithm performs orders of magnitude faster than state of the art approaches, with the same or better accuracy. In both synthetic and real experiments, we observed accurate and robust reconstruction, despite experimental and statistical noise in the tomographic data. Finally, we provide a ready-to-use code for state tomography of multi-qubit systems.

Using an extended Dicke model, we study the effect of the spin-orbit coupling between the singlet and the triplet molecular excitons in organic microcavities. We exactly solve the model in the strong coupling regime in the single excitation space. We calculate the polaritonic states and the optical absorption spectrum of the system and explore the spin-orbit induced splitting of the lower polariton into two branches. The effect of this splitting in the ultra strong coupling regime on the superradiant phase transition is explored using a variational approach. We find that the spin-orbit coupling pushes the system towards the superradiant phase and reduces the critical matter-light coupling required for it.

This paper reviews how a two-state, spin-one-half system transforms under rotations. It then uses that knowledge to explain how momentum-zero, spin-one-half annihilation and creation operators transform under rotations. The paper then explains how a spin-one-half field transforms under rotations. The momentum-zero spinors are found from the way spin-one-half systems transform under rotations and from the Dirac equation. Once the momentum-zero spinors are known, the Dirac equation immediately yields the spinors at finite momentum. The paper then shows that with these spinors, a Dirac field transforms appropriately under charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal.

The paper also describes how a Dirac field may be decomposed either into two 4-component Majorana fields or into a 2-component left-handed field and a 2-component right-handed field. Wigner rotations and Weinberg's derivation of the properties of spinors are also discussed.

We present a constructive proof of Floquet's theorem for the special case of unitary time evolution in quantum mechanics. The proof is straightforward and suitable for study in courses on quantum mechanics.

We investigate the conditions under which an uncontrollable background processes may be harnessed by an agent to perform a task that would otherwise be impossible within their operational framework. This situation can be understood from the perspective of resource theory: rather than harnessing 'useful' quantum states to perform tasks, we propose a resource theory of quantum processes across multiple points in time. Uncontrollable background processes fulfil the role of resources, and a new set of objects called superprocesses, corresponding to operationally implementable control of the system undergoing the process, constitute the transformations between them. After formally introducing a framework for deriving resource theories of multi-time processes, we present a hierarchy of examples induced by restricting quantum or classical communication within the superprocess - corresponding to a client-server scenario. The resulting nine resource theories have different notions of quantum or classical memory as the determinant of their utility. Furthermore, one of these theories has a strict correspondence between non-useful processes and those that are Markovian and, therefore, could be said to be a true 'quantum resource theory of non-Markovianity'.