Information located in an entanglement island in semiclassical gravity can be nonperturbatively reconstructed from distant radiation, implying a radical breakdown of effective field theory. We show that this occurs well outside of the black hole stretched horizon. We compute the island associated to large-angular momentum Hawking modes of a four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. These modes typically fall back into the black hole but can be extracted to infinity by relativistic strings or, more abstractly, by asymptotic boundary operators constructed using the timelike tube theorem. Remarkably, we find that their island can protrude a distance of order $\sqrt{\ell_p r_{\rm hor}}$ outside the horizon. This is parametrically larger than the Planck scale $\ell_p$ and is comparable to the Bohr radius for supermassive black holes. Therefore, in principle, a distant observer can determine experimentally whether the black hole information paradox is resolved by complementarity, or by a firewall.

Author(s): Roberto Verdel, Guo-Yi Zhu, and Markus Heyl

The fission of a string connecting two charges is an astounding phenomenon in confining gauge theories. The dynamics of this process have been studied intensively in recent years, with plenty of numerical results yielding a dichotomy: the confining string can decay relatively fast or persist up to e…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 131, 230402] Published Thu Dec 07, 2023

Author(s): Fumiya Hanamura, Warit Asavanant, Seigo Kikura, Moeto Mishima, Shigehito Miki, Hirotaka Terai, Masahiro Yabuno, Fumihiro China, Kosuke Fukui, Mamoru Endo, and Akira Furusawa

Uncertainty principle prohibits the precise measurement of both components of displacement parameters in phase space. We have theoretically shown that this limit can be beaten using single-photon states, in a single-shot and single-mode setting [F. Hanamura *et al.*, Estimation of gaussian random dis…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 131, 230801] Published Thu Dec 07, 2023

Quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) is one of the popular quantum algorithms that are used to solve combinatorial optimization problems via approximations. QAOA is able to be evaluated on both physical and virtual quantum computers simulated by classical computers, with virtual ones being favored for their noise-free feature and availability. Nevertheless, performing QAOA on virtual quantum computers suffers from a slow simulation speed for solving combinatorial optimization problems which require large-scale quantum circuit simulation (QCS). In this paper, we propose techniques to accelerate QCS for QAOA using mathematical optimizations to compress quantum operations, incorporating efficient bitwise operations to further lower the computational complexity, and leveraging different levels of parallelisms from modern multi-core processors, with a study case to show the effectiveness on solving max-cut problems.

Device-independent quantum secure direct communication (DI-QSDC) is a promising primitive in quantum cryptography aimed towards addressing the problems of device imperfections and key management. However, significant effort is required to tackle practical challenges such as the distance limitation due to decohering effects of quantum channels. Here, we explore the constructive effect of non-Markovian noise to improve the performance of DI-QSDC. Considering two different environmental dynamics modeled by the amplitude damping and the dephasing channels, we show that for both cases non-Markovianty leads to a considerable improvement over Markovian dynamics in terms of three benchmark performance criteria of the DI-QSDC task. Specifically, we find that non-Markovian noise (i) enhances the protocol security measured by Bell-violation, (ii) leads to a lower quantum bit error rate, and (iii) enables larger communication distances by increasing the capacity of secret communication.

We show that the perturbation of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chain by a localized lossy defect leads to higher-order exceptional points (HOEPs). Depending on the location of the defect, third- and fourth-order exceptional points (EP3s & EP4s) appear in the space of Hamiltonian parameters. On the one hand, they arise due to the non-Abelian braiding properties of exceptional lines (ELs) in parameter space. Namely, the HOEPs lie at intersections of mutually non-commuting ELs. On the other hand, we show that such special intersections happen due to the fact that the delocalization of edge states, induced by the non-Hermitian defect, hybridizes them with defect states. These can then coalesce together into an EP3. When the defect lies at the midpoint of the chain, a special symmetry of the full spectrum can lead to an EP4. In this way, our model illustrates the emergence of interesting non-Abelian topological properties in the multiband structure of non-Hermitian perturbations of topological phases.

An overarching milestone of quantum machine learning (QML) is to demonstrate the advantage of QML over all possible classical learning methods in accelerating a common type of learning task as represented by supervised learning with classical data. However, the provable advantages of QML in supervised learning have been known so far only for the learning tasks designed for using the advantage of specific quantum algorithms, i.e., Shor's algorithms. Here we explicitly construct an unprecedentedly broader family of supervised learning tasks with classical data to offer the provable advantage of QML based on general quantum computational advantages, progressing beyond Shor's algorithms. Our learning task is feasibly achievable by executing a general class of functions that can be computed efficiently in polynomial time for a large fraction of inputs by arbitrary quantum algorithms but not by any classical algorithm. We prove the hardness of achieving this learning task for any possible polynomial-time classical learning method. We also clarify protocols for preparing the classical data to demonstrate this learning task in experiments. These results open routes to exploit a variety of quantum advantages in computing functions for the experimental demonstration of the advantage of QML.

Universality is a powerful concept, which enables making qualitative and quantitative predictions in systems with extensively many degrees of freedom. It finds realizations in almost all branches of physics, including in the realm of nonequilibrium systems. Our focus here is on its manifestations within a specific class of nonequilibrium stationary states: driven open quantum matter. Progress in this field is fueled by a number of uprising platforms ranging from light-driven quantum materials over synthetic quantum systems like cold atomic gases to the functional devices of the noisy intermediate scale quantum era. These systems share in common that, on the microscopic scale, they obey the laws of quantum mechanics, while detailed balance underlying thermodynamic equilibrium is broken due to the simultaneous presence of Hamiltonian unitary dynamics and nonunitary drive and dissipation. The challenge is then to connect this microscopic physics to macroscopic observables, and to identify universal collective phenomena that uniquely witness the breaking of equilibrium conditions, thus having no equilibrium counterparts. In the framework of a Lindblad-Keldysh field theory, we discuss on the one hand the principles delimiting thermodynamic equilibrium from driven open stationary states, and on the other hand show how unifying concepts such as symmetries, the purity of states, and scaling arguments are implemented. We then present instances of universal behavior structured into three classes: new realizations of paradigmatic nonequilibrium phenomena, including a survey of first experimental realizations; novel instances of nonequilibrium universality found in these systems made of quantum ingredients; and genuinely quantum phenomena out of equilibrium, including in fermionic systems. We also discuss perspectives for future research on driven open quantum matter.

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a hybrid quantum--classical variational algorithm that produces an upper-bound estimate of the ground-state energy of a Hamiltonian. As quantum computers become more powerful and go beyond the reach of classical brute-force simulation, it is important to assess the quality of solutions produced by them. Here we propose a dual variational quantum eigensolver (dual-VQE) that produces a lower-bound estimate of the ground-state energy. As such, VQE and dual-VQE can serve as quality checks on their solutions; in the ideal case, the VQE upper bound and the dual-VQE lower bound form an interval containing the true optimal value of the ground-state energy. The idea behind dual-VQE is to employ semi-definite programming duality to rewrite the ground-state optimization problem as a constrained maximization problem, which itself can be bounded from below by an unconstrained optimization problem to be solved by a variational quantum algorithm. When using a convex combination ansatz in conjunction with a classical generative model, the quantum computational resources needed to evaluate the objective function of dual-VQE are no greater than those needed for that of VQE. We simulated the performance of dual-VQE on the transverse-field Ising model, and found that, for the example considered, while dual-VQE training is slower and noisier than VQE, it approaches the true value with error of order $10^{-2}$.

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) enables two parties to establish a common secret key that is information-theoretically secure by transmitting random bits that are encoded as qubits and sent over a quantum channel, followed by classical information processing steps known as information reconciliation and key extraction. Transmission of information over a quantum channel introduces errors that are generally considered to be due to the adversary's tempering with the quantum channel and needs to be corrected using classical communication over an (authenticated) public channel. Commonly used error-correcting codes in the context of QKD include cascade codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, and more recently polar codes. In this work, we explore the applicability of designing of a polar code encoder based on a channel reliability sequence. We show that the reliability sequence can be derived and used to design an encoder independent of the choice of decoder. We then implement our design and evaluate its performance against previous implementations of polar code encoders for QKD as well as other typical error-correcting codes. A key advantage of our approach is the modular design which decouples the encoder and decoder design and allows independent optimization of each. Our work leads to more versatile polar code-based error reconciliation in QKD systems that would result in deployment in a broader range of scenarios.

Having previously been the subject of decades of semiconductor research, cadmium arsenide has now reemerged as a topological material, realizing ideal three-dimensional Dirac points at the Fermi level. These topological Dirac points lead to a number of extraordinary transport phenomena, including strong quantum oscillations, large magnetoresistance, ultrahigh mobilities, and Fermi velocities exceeding graphene. The large mobilities persist even in thin films and nanowires of cadmium arsenide, suggesting the involvement of topological surface states. However, computational studies of the surface states in this material are lacking, in part due to the large 80-atom unit cell. Here we present the computed Fermi arc surface states of a cadmium arsenide thin film, based on a tight-binding model derived directly from the electronic structure. We show that despite the close proximity of the Dirac points, the Fermi arcs are very long and straight, extending through nearly the entire Brillouin zone. The shape and spin properties of the Fermi arcs suppress both back- and side- scattering at the surface, which we show by explicit integrals over the phase space. The introduction of a small symmetry-breaking term, expected in a strong electric field, gaps the electronic structure, creating a weak topological insulator phase that exhibits similar transport properties. Crucially, the mechanisms suppressing scattering in this material differ from those in other topological materials such as Weyl semimetals and topological insulators, suggesting a new route for engineering high-mobility devices based on Dirac semimetal surface states.

Bias triangles represent features in stability diagrams of Quantum Dot (QD) devices, whose occurrence and property analysis are crucial indicators for spin physics. Nevertheless, challenges associated with quality and availability of data as well as the subtlety of physical phenomena of interest have hindered an automatic and bespoke analysis framework, often still relying (in part) on human labelling and verification. We introduce a feature extraction framework for bias triangles, built from unsupervised, segmentation-based computer vision methods, which facilitates the direct identification and quantification of physical properties of the former. Thereby, the need for human input or large training datasets to inform supervised learning approaches is circumvented, while additionally enabling the automation of pixelwise shape and feature labeling. In particular, we demonstrate that Pauli Spin Blockade (PSB) detection can be conducted effectively, efficiently and without any training data as a direct result of this approach.

Understanding how and to what magnitude solid-state qubits couple to metallic wires is crucial to the design of quantum systems such as quantum computers. Here, we investigate the coupling between a multi-level system, or qudit, and a superconducting (SC) resonator's electromagnetic field, focusing on the interaction involving both the transition and diagonal dipole moments of the qudit. Specifically, we explore the effective dynamical (time-dependent) longitudinal coupling that arises when a solid-state qudit is adiabatically modulated at small gate frequencies and amplitudes, in addition to a static dispersive interaction with the SC resonator. For the first time, we derive Hamiltonians describing the longitudinal multi-level interactions in a general dispersive regime, encompassing both dynamical longitudinal and dispersive interactions. These Hamiltonians smoothly transition between their adiabatic values, where the couplings of the n-th level are proportional to the level's energy curvature concerning a qudit gate voltage, and the substantially larger dispersive values, which occur due to a resonant form factor. We provide several examples illustrating the transition from adiabatic to dispersive coupling in different qubit systems, including the charge (1e DQD) qubit, the transmon, the double quantum dot singlet-triplet qubit, and the triple quantum dot exchange-only qubit. In some of these qubits, higher energy levels play a critical role, particularly when their qubit's dipole moment is minimal or zero. For an experimentally relevant scenario involving a spin-charge qubit with magnetic field gradient coupled capacitively to a SC resonator, we showcase the potential of these interactions. They enable close-to-quantum-limited quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements and remote geometric phase gates, demonstrating their practical utility in quantum information processing.

Using a general-order many-body Green's-function method for molecules, we illustrate numerically three pathological behaviors of the Feynman-Dyson diagrammatic perturbation expansion of one-particle many-body Green's functions as electron propagators. First, the perturbation expansion of the frequency-dependent self-energy is nonconvergent at the exact self-energy in wide domains of frequency. Second, the Dyson equation with an odd-order self-energy has a qualitatively wrong shape and, as a result, most of their satellite roots are complex and nonphysical. Third, the Dyson equation with an even-order self-energy has an exponentially increasing number of roots as the perturbation order is raised, which quickly exceeds the correct number of roots. Infinite partial summation of diagrams by vertex or edge modification exacerbates these problems. Not only does the nonconvergence render higher-order perturbation theories useless for satellite roots, but it also calls into question the validity of their combined use with the ans\"{a}tze requiring the knowledge of all poles and residues. Such ans\"{a}tze include the Galitskii-Migdal formula, self-consistent Green's-function methods, Luttinger-Ward functional, and some models of the algebraic diagrammatic construction.

The Large Hadron Collider's high luminosity era presents major computational challenges in the analysis of collision events. Large amounts of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation will be required to constrain the statistical uncertainties of the simulated datasets below these of the experimental data. Modelling of high-energy particles propagating through the calorimeter section of the detector is the most computationally intensive MC simulation task. We introduce a technique combining recent advancements in generative models and quantum annealing for fast and efficient simulation of high-energy particle-calorimeter interactions.

Port-based teleportation (PBT) is a variant of quantum teleportation that, unlike the canonical protocol by Bennett et al., does not require a correction operation on the teleported state. Since its introduction by Ishizaka and Hiroshima in 2008, no efficient implementation of PBT was known. We close this long-standing gap by building on our recent results on representations of partially transposed permutation matrix algebras and mixed quantum Schur transform. We describe efficient quantum circuits for probabilistic and deterministic PBT protocols on $n$ ports of arbitrary local dimension, both for EPR and optimized resource states. We describe two constructions based on different encodings of the Gelfand-Tsetlin basis for $n$ qudits: a standard encoding that achieves $\widetilde{O}(n)$ time and $O(n\mathrm{log}(n))$ space complexity, and a Yamanouchi encoding that achieves $\widetilde{O}(n^2)$ time and $O(\mathrm{log}(n))$ space complexity, both for constant local dimension and target error. We also describe efficient circuits for preparing the optimal resource states.

A key observable in investigations into quantum systems are the $n$-body correlation functions, which provide a powerful tool for experimentally determining coherence and directly probing the many-body wavefunction. While the (bosonic) correlations of photonic systems are well explored, the correlations present in matter-wave systems, particularly for fermionic atoms, are still an emerging field. In this work, we use the unique single-atom detection properties of $^3$He* atoms to perform simultaneous measurements of the $n$-body quantum correlations, up to the fifth-order, of a degenerate Fermi gas. In a direct demonstration of the Pauli exclusion principle, we observe clear anti-bunching at all orders and find good agreement with predicted correlation volumes. Our results pave the way for using correlation functions to probe some of the rich physics associated with fermionic systems, such as d-wave pairing in superconductors.

A new perspective in terms of inverter-chain link (ICL) diagrams of quantum entanglement faithfully captures the fundamental concept of quantum teleportation and superdense coding. Here, we employ discrete phase space and ICL analyses of quantum entanglement as a resource for quantum teleportation and superdense coding. We underscore the quantum superposition principle and Hadamard transformation under a single qubit local operations. On the fundamental question posed by EPR, our result seems to lend support to the geometric nature of quantum entanglement. In concluding remarks, we discuss very briefly a bold conjecture in physics aiming to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics, namely, ER=EPR.

With the advance development in quantum science, constructing a large-scale quantum network has become a hot area of future quantum information technology. Future quantum networks promise to enable many fantastic applications and will unlock fundamentally new technologies in information security and large-scale computation. The future quantum internet is required to connect quantum information processors to achieve unparalleled capabilities in secret communication and enable quantum communication between any two points on Earth. However, the existing quantum networks are basically constructed to realize the communication between the end users in their own networks. How to bridge different independent networks to form a fully-connected quantum internet becomes a pressing challenge for future networks. Here, we demonstrate the quantum fusion of two independent networks for the first time based on multiuser entanglement swapping, to merge two 10-user networks into a larger network with 18 users in quantum correlation layer. By performing the Bell state measurement between two nonneighboring nodes, the users from different networks can establish entanglement and ultimately every pair of the 18 users are able to communicate with each other using the swapped states. Our approach opens attractive opportunities for the establishment of quantum entanglement between remote nodes in different networks, which facilitates versatile quantum information interconnects and has great application in constructing large-scale intercity quantum communication networks.

We consider the distillation of squeezing in single mode squeezed vacuum state using three different probabilistic non-Gaussian operations: photon subtraction (PS), photon addition (PA) and photon catalysis (PC). To accomplish this, we consider a practical model to implement these non-Gaussian operations and derive the Wigner characteristic function of the resulting non-Gaussian states. Our result shows that while PS and PC operations can distill squeezing, PA operations cannot. Furthermore, we delve into the success probabilities associated with these non-Gaussian operations and identify optimal parameters for the distillation of squeezing. Our current analysis holds significant relevance for experimental endeavors concerned with squeezing distillation.