In recent years, digraph induced generators of quantum dynamical semigroups have been introduced and studied, particularly in the context of unique relaxation and invariance. In this article we define the class of pair block diagonal generators, which allows for additional interaction coefficients but preserves the main structural properties. Namely, when the basis of the underlying Hilbert space is given by the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian (for example the generic semigroups), then the action of the semigroup leaves invariant the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix spaces. In this case, we explicitly compute all invariant states of the semigroup.

In order to define this class we provide a characterization of when the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation defines a proper generator when arbitrary Lindblad operators are allowed (in particular, they do not need to be traceless as demanded by the GKSL Theorem). Moreover, we consider the converse construction to show that every generator naturally gives rise to a digraph, and that under certain assumptions the properties of this digraph can be exploited to gain knowledge of both the number and the structure of the invariant states of the corresponding semigroup.

The actual gate performed on, say, a qubit in a quantum computer may depend, not just on the actual laser pulses and voltages we programmed to implement the gate, but on its {\em context} as well. For example, it may depend on what gate has just been applied to the same qubit, or on how much a long series of previous laser pulses has been heating up the qubit's environment. This paper analyzes several tests to detect such context-dependent errors (which include various types of non-Markovian errors). A key feature of these tests is that they are robust against both state preparation and measurement (SPAM) errors and gate-dependent errors. Since context-dependent errors are expected to be small in practice, it becomes important to carefully analyze the effects of statistical fluctuations and so we investigate the power and precision of our tests as functions of the number of repetitions and the length of the sequences of gates. From our tests an important quantity emerges: the logarithm of the determinant (log-det) of a probability (relative frequency) matrix $\mathcal{P}.$ For this reason, we derive the probability distribution of the log-det estimates which we then use to examine the performance of our tests for various single- and two-qubit sets of measurements and initial states. Finally, we emphasize the connection between the log-det and the degree of reversibility (the unitarity) of a context-independent operation.

We introduce a theory for the stability of a condensate in an optical lattice. We show that the understanding of the stability-to-ergodicity transition involves the fusion of monodromy and chaos theory. Specifically, the condensate can decay if a connected chaotic pathway to depletion is formed, which requires swap of seperatrices in phase-space.

Tho-photon Rabi oscillations hold potential for quantum computing and quantum information processing, because during a Rabi cycle a pair of entangled photons may be created. We theoretically investigate the onset of this phenomenon in a heterodimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot strongly coupled to a metal nanoparticle. Two-photon Rabi oscillations in this system occur due to a coherent two-photon process involving the ground-to-biexciton transition in the quantum dot. The presence of a metal nanoparticle nearby the quantum dot results in a self-action of the quantum dot via the metal nanoparticle, because the polatization state of the latter depends on the quantum state of the former. The interparticle interaction gives rise to two principal effects: (i) - enhancement of the external field amplitude and (ii) - renormalization of the quantum dot's resonance frequencies and relaxation rates of the off-diagonal density matrix elements, both depending on the populations of the quantum dot's levels. Here, we focus on the first effect, which results in interesting new features, in particular, in an increased number of Rabi cycles per pulse as compared to an isolated quantum dot and subsequent growth of the number of entangled photon pairs per pulse. We also discuss the destructive role of radiative decay of the excitonic states on two-photon Rabi oscillations for both an isolated quantum dot and a heterodimer.

We study the quantum scattering problem of three three-dimensional charged particles involving pair potentials of Coulomb attraction in the framework of the diffraction approach. We present for the first time the quantitative description of the influence of Coulomb pair excitations unified contribution in many-particle reactions.

We establish the most general class of spin-1/2 integrable Richardson-Gaudin models including an arbitrary magnetic field, returning a fully anisotropic (XYZ) model. The restriction to spin-1/2 relaxes the usual integrability constraints, allowing for a general solution where the couplings between spins lack the usual antisymmetric properties of Richardson-Gaudin models. The full set of conserved charges are constructed explicitly and shown to satisfy a set of quadratic equations, allowing for the numerical treatment of a fully anisotropic central spin in an external magnetic field. While this approach does not provide expressions for the exact eigenstates, it allows their eigenvalues to be obtained, and expectation values of local observables can then be calculated from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem.

We analytically calculate the optical emission spectrum of nanolasers and nano-LEDs based on a model of many incoherently pumped two-level emitters in a cavity. At low pump rates we find two peaks in the spectrum for large coupling strengths and numbers of emitters. We interpret the double-peaked spectrum as a signature of collective Rabi splitting, and discuss the difference between the splitting of the spectrum and the existence of two eigenmodes. We show that an LED will never exhibit a split spectrum, even though it can have distinct eigenmodes. For systems where the splitting is possible we show that the two peaks merge into a single one when the pump rate is increased. Finally, we compute the linewidth of the systems, and discuss the influence of inter-emitter correlations on the lineshape.

Waveguide-based spin-photon interfaces on the GaAs platform have emerged as a promising system for a variety of quantum information applications directly integrated into planar photonic circuits. The coherent control of spin states in a quantum dot can be achieved by applying circularly polarized laser pulses that may be coupled into the planar waveguide vertically through radiation modes. However, proper control of the laser polarization is challenging since the polarization is modified through the transformation from the far field to the exact position of the quantum dot in the nanostructure. Here we demonstrate polarization-controlled excitation of a quantum-dot electron spin and use that to perform coherent control in a Ramsey interferometry experiment. The Ramsey interference reveals a pure dephasing time of $ 2.2\pm0.1 $ ns, which is comparable to the values so far only obtained in bulk media. We analyze the experimental limitations in spin initialization fidelity and Ramsey contrast and identify the underlying mechanisms.

The sources, which generate atom-photon quantum correlations or entanglement based on quantum memory, are basic blocks for building quantum repeaters (QRs). For achieving highly entanglement-generation rates in ensemble-based QRs, spatial-, temporal- and spectral-multimode memories are needed. The previous temporal-multimode memories are based on rephrasing mechanisms in inhomogeneous-broadened media. Here, by applying a train of multi-direction write pulses into a homogeneous-broadened atomic ensemble to induce Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller-like Raman processes, we prepare up to 19 pairs of modes, namely, a spin-wave mode and a photonic time bin. Spin-wave-photon (i.e., atom-photon) entanglement is probabilistically produced in the mode pairs. As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we show that the multiplexed source using all the spin-wave modes and feed-forward-control readout increases spin-wave-photon entanglement generation rate by a factor of $\sim$18.3, compared to non-multiplexed source using the individual modes. The measured Bell parameter for the multiplexed source is $2.30\pm 0.02$ combined with a memory lifetime of $30\mu s$.

The development of quantum annealing machines (QAMs) based on superconducting qubits has progressed greatly in recent years and these machines are now widely used in both academia and commerce. On the other hand, QAMs based on semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots (QDs) appear to be still at the initial elementary research stage because of difficulty in controlling the interaction between qubits. In this paper, we review a QAM based on a semiconductor nanostructures such as floating gates (FGs) or QDs from the viewpoint of the integration of qubits. We theoretically propose the use of conventional high-density memories such as NAND flash memories for the QAM rather than the construction of a semiconductor qubit system from scratch. A large qubit system will be obtainable as a natural extension of the miniaturization of commercial-grade electronics, although further effort will likely be required to achieve high-quality qubits.

We show experimentally that a dc biased Josephson junction in series with a high-enough impedance microwave resonator emits antibunched photons. Our resonator is made of a simple micro-fabricated spiral coil that resonates at 4.4 GHz and reaches a 1.97 k$\Omega$ characteristic impedance. The second order correlation function of the power leaking out of the resonator drops down to 0.3 at zero delay, which demonstrates the antibunching of the photons emitted by the circuit at a rate of 6 $10^7$ photons per second. Results are found in quantitative agreement with our theoretical predictions. This simple scheme could offer an efficient and bright single-photon source in the microwave domain.

We explore the dynamics of long-range Kitaev chain by varying pairing interaction exponent, $\alpha$. In a finite size system, it is known that Loschmidt echo has periodic revivals for quenching to the critical point. We find that the revivals in the Loschmidt echo are connected to the energy gap at finite size system. Moreover, and contrary to expectations, for the long-range pairing case, $\alpha < 1$, the first revival time (periodicity) scales inversely with the group velocity at the gap closing point, instead of the maximum group velocity. Analyzing the effect of quenched averaging disorder shows the robustness of the first revival time against disorder. For the dynamical phase transition, the presence of disorder washes out the non-analyticities in the rate function of return probability.

Light routing and manipulation are important aspects of integrated optics. They essentially rely on beam splitters which are at the heart of interferometric setups and active routing. The most common implementations of beam splitters suffer either from strong dispersive response (directional couplers) or tight fabrication tolerances (multimode interference couplers). In this paper we fabricate a robust and simple broadband integrated beam splitter based on lithium niobate with a splitting ratio achromatic over more than 130 nm. Our architecture is based on spatial adiabatic passage, a technique originally used to transfer entirely an optical beam from a waveguide to another one that has been shown to be remarkably robust against fabrication imperfections and wavelength dispersion. Our device shows a splitting ratio of 0.52$\pm $0.03 and 0.48$\pm $0.03 from 1500\,nm up to 1630\,nm. Furthermore, we show that suitable design enables the splitting in output beams with relative phase 0 or $\pi$. Thanks to their independence to material dispersion, these devices represent simple, elementary components to create achromatic and versatile photonic circuits.

The Scattering Quantum Random Walk scheme has found success as a basis for search algorithms on highly symmetric graph structures. In this paper we examine its effectiveness at locating a specially marked vertex on square grid graphs, consisting of N$^2$ nodes. We simulate these quantum systems using classical computational methods, and find that the probability distributions that arise are very favorable for a hybrid quantum / classical algorithm. We then examine how this hybrid algorithm handles varying types of randomness in both location of the special vertex and later random obstacles placed throughout the geometry, showing that that the algorithm is resilient to both cases.

We present an optimal probabilistic protocol to distill quantum coherence. Inspired by a specific entanglement distillation protocol, our main result yields a strictly incoherent operation that produces one of a family of maximally coherent states of variable dimension from any pure quantum state. We also expand this protocol to the case where it is possible, for some initial states, to avert any waste of resources as far as the output states are concerned, by exploiting an additional transformation into a suitable intermediate state. These results provide practical schemes for efficient quantum resource manipulation.

We demonstrate many-body multifractality of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian's ground state in Fock space, for arbitrary values of the interparticle interaction. Generalized fractal dimensions unambiguously signal, even for small system sizes, the emergence of a Mott insulator, that cannot, however, be naively identified with a localized phase in Fock space. We show that the scaling of the derivative of any generalized fractal dimension with respect to the interaction strength encodes the critical point of the superfluid to Mott insulator transition, and provides an efficient way to accurately estimate its position. We further establish that the transition can be quantitatively characterized by one single wavefunction amplitude from the exponentially large Fock space.

Quantum coherence, the physical property underlying fundamental phenomena such as multi-particle interference and entanglement, has emerged as a valuable resource upon which modern technologies are founded. In general, the most prominent adversary of quantum coherence is noise arising from the interaction of the associated dynamical system with its environment. Under certain conditions, however, the existence of noise may drive quantum and classical systems to endure intriguing nontrivial effects. In this vein, here we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that when two indistinguishable non-interacting particles co-propagate through quantum networks affected by non-dissipative noise, the system always evolves into a steady state in which coherences accounting for particle indistinguishabilty perpetually prevail. Furthermore, we show that the same steady state with surviving quantum coherences is reached even when the initial state exhibits classical correlations.

Quantum steering is a kind of quantum correlations stronger than entanglement but weaker than Bell-nonlocality. In an optomechanical system pumped by squeezed light and driven in the red sideband, we study-under thermal effects-stationary Gaussian steering and its asymmetry of two mechanical modes. In the resolved sideband regime using experimentally feasible parameters, we show that Gaussian steering can be created by quantum fluctuations transfer from the squeezed light to the two mechanical modes. Moreover, one-way steering can be observed by controlling the squeezing degree or the environmental temperature. A comparative study between Gaussian steering and Gaussian R\'enyi-2 entanglement of the two considered modes shows on one hand that both steering and entanglement suffer from a sudden death-like phenomenon with early vanishing of steering in various circumstances. On the other hand, steering is found stronger than entanglement, however, remains constantly upper bounded by Gaussian R\'enyi-2 entanglement, and decays rapidly to zero under thermal noise.

An equation of motion for open quantum systems incorporating memory effects and initial correlations with the environment is presented in terms of an effective Liouville operator that solely acts on states of the system. The environment can induce memory effects via the frequency dependence of the effective Liouville and initial correlations can be mapped to a shifted frequency dependent initial state within the system. The equation of motion generalizes the well known semi-group dynamic equations. In generic systems the effective Liouville has a non-degenerate zero mode. By probability conservation one can demonstrate that a generic open system reaches, in the long time limit, a stationary state, which is independent of any initial condition.

In this survey, various generalisations of Glauber-Sudarshan coherent states are described in a unified way, with their statistical properties and their possible role in non-standard quantisations of the classical electromagnetic field. Some statistical photon-counting aspects of Perelomov SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states are emphasized.