In this paper, we consider quantum key distribution (QKD) in a quantum network with both quantum repeaters and a small number of trusted nodes. In contrast to current QKD networks with only trusted nodes and the true Quantum Internet with only quantum repeaters, such networks represent a middle ground, serving as near-future QKD networks. In this setting, QKD can be efficiently and practically deployed, while providing insights for the future true Quantum Internet. To significantly improve the key generation efficiency in such networks, we develop a new dynamic routing strategy that makes routing decisions based on the current network state, as well as evaluate various classical/quantum post-processing techniques. Using simulations, we show that our dynamic routing strategy can improve the key rate between two users significantly in settings with asymmetric trusted node placement. The post-processing techniques can also increase key rates in high noise scenarios. Furthermore, combining the dynamic routing strategy with the post-processing techniques can further improve the overall performance of the QKD network.

Photons are the elementary quantum excitations of the electromagnetic field. Quantization is usually constructed on the basis of an expansion in eigenmodes, in the form of plane waves. Since they form a basis, other electromagnetic configurations can be constructed by linear combinations. In this presentation we discuss a formulation constructed in the general formalism of bosonic Fock space, in which the quantum excitation can be constructed directly on localized pulses of arbitrary shape. Although the two formulations are essentially equivalent, the direct formulation in terms of pulses has some conceptual and practical advantages, which we illustrate with some examples. The first one is the passage of a single photon pulse through a beam splitter. The analysis of this formulation in terms of pulses in Fock space shows that there is no need to introduce "vacuum fluctuations entering through the unused port", as is often done in the literature. Another example is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. It is described as a time dependent process in the Schr\"odinger representation in Fock space. The analysis shows explicitly how the two essential ingredients of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect are the same shape of the pulses and the bosonic nature of photons. This formulation shows that all the phenomena involving linear quantum optical devices can be described and calculated on the basis of the time dependent solution of the corresponding classical Maxwell's equations for pulses, from which the quantum dynamics in Fock space can be immediately constructed.

We develop a fundamental transfer-matrix formulation of the scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves that incorporates the contribution of the evanescent waves and applies to general stationary linear media which need not be isotropic, homogenous, or passive. Unlike the traditional transfer matrices whose definition involves slicing the medium, the fundamental transfer matrix is a linear operator acting in an infinite-dimensional function space. It is given in terms of the evolution operator for a non-unitary quantum system and has the benefit of allowing for analytic calculations. In this respect it is the only available alternative to the standard Green's-function approaches to EM scattering. We use it to offer an exact solution of the outstanding EM scattering problem for an arbitrary finite collection of possibly anisotropic nonmagnetic point scatterers lying on a plane. In particular, we provide a comprehensive treatment of doublets consisting of pairs of isotropic point scatterers and study their spectral singularities. We show that identical and $\mathcal{P}\mathcal{T}$-symmetric doublets do not admit spectral singularities and cannot function as a laser unless the real part of their permittivity equals that of vacuum. This restriction does not apply to doublets displaying anti-$\mathcal{P}\mathcal{T}$-symmetry. We determine the lasing threshold for a generic anti-$\mathcal{P}\mathcal{T}$-symmetric doublet and show that it possesses a continuous lasing spectrum.

We derive new tight bipartite Bell inequalities for various scenarios. A bipartite Bell scenario (X,Y,A,B) is defined by the numbers of settings and outcomes per party, X, A and Y, B for Alice and Bob, respectively. We derive the complete set of facets of the local polytopes of (6,3,2,2), (3,3,3,2), (3,2,3,3), and (2,2,3,5). We provide extensive lists of facets for (2,2,4,4), (3,3,4,2) and (4,3,3,2). For each inequality we compute the maximum quantum violation, the resistance to noise, and the minimal symmetric detection efficiency required to close the detection loophole, for qubits, qutrits and ququarts. Based on these results, we identify scenarios which perform better in terms of visibility, resistance to noise, or both, when compared to CHSH. Such scenarios could find important applications in quantum communication.

Belief propagation (BP) is well-known as a low complexity decoding algorithm with a strong performance for important classes of quantum error correcting codes, e.g. notably for the quantum low-density parity check (LDPC) code class of random expander codes. However, it is also well-known that the performance of BP breaks down when facing topological codes such as the surface code, where naive BP fails entirely to reach a below-threshold regime, i.e. the regime where error correction becomes useful. Previous works have shown, that this can be remedied by resorting to post-processing decoders outside the framework of BP. In this work, we present a generalized belief propagation method with an outer re-initialization loop that successfully decodes surface codes, i.e. opposed to naive BP it recovers the sub-threshold regime known from decoders tailored to the surface code and from statistical-mechanical mappings. We report a threshold of 17% under independent bit-and phase-flip data noise (to be compared to the ideal threshold of 20.6%) and a threshold value of 14% under depolarizing data noise (compared to the ideal threshold of 18.9%), which are on par with thresholds achieved by non-BP post-processing methods.

Machine Learning models capable of handling the large datasets collected in the financial world can often become black boxes expensive to run. The quantum computing paradigm suggests new optimization techniques, that combined with classical algorithms, may deliver competitive, faster and more interpretable models. In this work we propose a quantum-enhanced machine learning solution for the prediction of credit rating downgrades, also known as fallen-angels forecasting in the financial risk management field. We implement this solution on a neutral atom Quantum Processing Unit with up to 60 qubits on a real-life dataset. We report competitive performances against the state-of-the-art Random Forest benchmark whilst our model achieves better interpretability and comparable training times. We examine how to improve performance in the near-term validating our ideas with Tensor Networks-based numerical simulations.

We discuss V.P. Belavkin's (2007) approach to the Schr\"odinger cat problem and show its close relation to ideas based on superselection and interaction with the environment developed by N.P. Landsman (1995). The purpose of the paper is to explain these ideas in the most simple possible context, namely: discrete time and separable Hilbert spaces, in order to make them accessible to those coming from the philosophy of science and not too happy with idiosyncratic notation and terminology and sophisticated mathematical tools. Conventional elementary mathematical descriptions of quantum mechanics take "measurement" to be a primitive concept. Paradoxes arise when we choose to consider smaller or larger systems as measurement devices in their own right, by making different and apparently arbitrary choices of location of the "Heisenberg cut". Various quantum interpretations have different resolutions of the paradox. In Belavkin's approach, the classical world around us does really exist, and it evolves stochastically and dynamically in time according to probability laws following from successive applications of the Born law. It is a collapse theory, and necessarily it is non-local. The quantum/classical distinction is determined by the arrow of time. The underlying unitary evolution of the wave-function of the universe enables the designation of a collection of beables which grows as time evolves, and which therefore can be assigned random, classical trajectories. In a slogan: the past is particles, the future is a wave. We, living in the now, are located on the cutting edge between past and future.

The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way. We survey open problems, and we show that the widespread idea that "quantum correlations are more extreme than classical physics allows" is at best highly inaccurate, through giving a concrete example of a classical correlation which satisfies all the symmetries and all the certainty relations and which exceeds the quantum correlations over a whole range of settings

We investigate the dynamics of two quantum mechanical oscillator system-bath toy models obtained by truncating to zero spatial dimensions linearized gravity coupled to a massive scalar field and scalar QED. The scalar-gravity toy model maps onto the phase damped oscillator, while the scalar QED toy model approximately maps onto an oscillator system subject to two-photon damping. The toy models provide potentially useful insights into solving for open system quantum dynamics relevant to the full scalar QED and weak gravitational field systems, in particular operational probes of the decoherence for initial scalar field system superposition states.

We analyze an engine whose working fluid consists of a single quantum particle, paralleling Szilard's construction of a classical single-particle engine. Following his resolution of Maxwell's Second Law paradox using the latter, which turned on physically instantiating the demon (control subsystem), the quantum engine's design mirrors the classically-chaotic Szilard Map that operates a thermodynamic cycle of measurement, thermal-energy extraction, and memory reset. Focusing on the thermodynamic costs to observe and control the particle and comparing these in the quantum and classical limits, we detail the thermodynamic tradeoffs behind Landauer's Principle for information-processing-induced thermodynamic dissipation in the quantum and classical regimes. In particular, and as found with the classical engine, we show that the sum of the thermodynamic costs over a cycle obeys a generalized Landauer Principle, exactly balancing energy extraction from the heat bath. Thus, the quantum engine obeys the Second Law. However, the quantum engine does so via substantially different mechanisms: classically measurement and erasure determine the thermodynamics, while in the quantum implementation the cost of partition insertion is key.

We present a new quantum adiabatic theorem that allows one to rigorously bound the adiabatic timescale for a variety of systems, including those described by unbounded Hamiltonians. Our bound is geared towards the qubit approximation of superconducting circuits, and presents a sufficient condition for remaining within the $2^n$-dimensional qubit subspace of a circuit model of $n$ qubits. The novelty of this adiabatic theorem is that unlike previous rigorous results, it does not contain $2^n$ as a factor in the adiabatic timescale, and it allows one to obtain an expression for the adiabatic timescale independent of the cutoff of the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of the circuit Hamiltonian. As an application, we present an explicit dependence of this timescale on circuit parameters for a superconducting flux qubit, and demonstrate that leakage out of the qubit subspace is inevitable as the tunnelling barrier is raised towards the end of a quantum anneal. We also discuss a method of obtaining a $2^n\times 2^n$ effective Hamiltonian that best approximates the true dynamics induced by slowly changing circuit control parameters.

The Algorithms for Lattice Fermions package provides a general code for the finite-temperature and projective auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo algorithm. The code is engineered to be able to simulate any model that can be written in terms of sums of single-body operators, of squares of single-body operators and single-body operators coupled to a bosonic field with given dynamics. The package includes five pre-defined model classes: SU(N) Kondo, SU(N) Hubbard, SU(N) t-V and SU(N) models with long range Coulomb repulsion on honeycomb, square and N-leg lattices, as well as $Z_2$ unconstrained lattice gauge theories coupled to fermionic and $Z_2$ matter. An implementation of the stochastic Maximum Entropy method is also provided. One can download the code from our Git instance at https://git.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/ALF/ALF/-/tree/ALF-2.1 and sign in to file issues.

A simple toy model is proposed that would allow conscious perceptions to be either classical (perceptions of objects without large quantum uncertainties or variances) or highly quantum (e.g., having large variances in the perceived position within a single perception), and yet for which plausible quantum states exhibiting Quantum Darwinism would lead to much higher measures for the classical perceptions.

Topological data analysis (TDA) is an emergent field of data analysis. The critical step of TDA is computing the persistent Betti numbers. Existing classical algorithms for TDA are limited if we want to learn from high-dimensional topological features because the number of high-dimensional simplices grows exponentially in the size of the data. In the context of quantum computation, it has been previously shown that there exists an efficient quantum algorithm for estimating the Betti numbers even in high dimensions. However, the Betti numbers are less general than the persistent Betti numbers, and there have been no quantum algorithms that can estimate the persistent Betti numbers of arbitrary dimensions.

This paper shows the first quantum algorithm that can estimate the (normalized) persistent Betti numbers of arbitrary dimensions. Our algorithm is efficient for simplicial complexes such as the Vietoris-Rips complex and demonstrates exponential speedup over the known classical algorithms.

A locally testable code is an error-correcting code that admits very efficient probabilistic tests of membership. Tensor codes provide a simple family of combinatorial constructions of locally testable codes that generalize the family of Reed-Muller codes. The natural test for tensor codes, the axis-parallel line vs. point test, plays an essential role in constructions of probabilistically checkable proofs.

We analyze the axis-parallel line vs. point test as a two-prover game and show that the test is sound against quantum provers sharing entanglement. Our result implies the quantum-soundness of the low individual degree test, which is an essential component of the MIP* = RE theorem. Our proof also generalizes to the infinite-dimensional commuting-operator model of quantum provers.

In the Schr{\"o}dinger picture, the state of a quantum system evolves in time and the quantum speed limit describes how fast the state of a quantum system evolves from an initial state to a final state. However, in the Heisenberg picture the observable evolves in time instead of the state vector. Therefore, it is natural to ask how fast an observable evolves in time. This can impose a fundamental bound on the evolution time of the expectation value of quantum mechanical observables. We obtain the quantum speed limit time-bound for observable for closed systems, open quantum systems and arbitrary dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of these bounds. Our results can have several applications ranging from setting the speed limit for operator growth, correlation growth, quantum thermal machines, quantum control and many body physics.

We introduce a hybrid quantum-classical variational algorithm to simulate ground-state phase diagrams of frustrated quantum spin models in the thermodynamic limit. The method is based on a cluster-Gutzwiller ansatz where the wave function of the cluster is provided by a parameterized quantum circuit whose key ingredient is a two-qubit real XY gate allowing to efficiently generate valence-bonds on nearest-neighbor qubits. Additional tunable single-qubit Z- and two-qubit ZZ-rotation gates allow the description of magnetically ordered and paramagnetic phases while restricting the variational optimization to the U(1) subspace. We benchmark the method against the J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the square lattice and uncover its phase diagram, which hosts long-range ordered Neel and columnar anti-ferromagnetic phases, as well as an intermediate valence-bond solid phase characterized by a periodic pattern of 2x2 strongly-correlated plaquettes. Our results show that the convergence of the algorithm is guided by the onset of long-range order, opening a promising route to synthetically realize frustrated quantum magnets and their quantum phase transition to paramagnetic valence-bond solids with currently developed superconducting circuit devices.

Rydberg atom arrays have recently emerged as one of the most promising platforms for quantum simulation and quantum information processing. However, as is the case for other experimental platforms, the longer-term success of the Rydberg atom arrays in implementing quantum algorithms depends crucially on their robustness to gate-induced errors. Here we show that, for an idealized biased error model based on Rydberg atom dynamics, the implementation of QSP protocols can be made error-robust, in the sense that the asymptotic scaling of the gate-induced error probability is slower than that of gate complexity. Moreover, using experimental parameters reported in the literature, we show that QSP iterates made out of up to a hundred gates can be implemented with constant error probability. To showcase our approach, we provide a concrete blueprint to implement QSP-based near-optimal Hamiltonian simulation on the Rydberg atom platform. Our protocol substantially improves both the scaling and the overhead of gate-induced errors in comparison to those protocols that implement a fourth-order product-formula.

This dissertation presents and prove the viability of a non-standard method for controlling the state of a quantum system by modifying its boundary conditions instead of relying on the action of external fields. The standard approach to quantum control bases on the use of an external field to manipulate the system. Some technological difficulties appear when controlling a quantum system in this way, due to the complications of manipulating a system made of few particles while maintaining the quantum correlations. As a consequence the systems need to be kept at very low temperatures and the interactions have to be performed very fast. The Quantum Control at the Boundary approach is radically different to the standard one. Instead of seeking the control of the quantum system by directly interacting with it through an external field, the control is achieved by manipulating the boundary conditions of the system. The spectrum of a quantum system, for instance an electron moving in a box, depends on the boundary conditions imposed on it. Hence, a modification of such boundary conditions modifies the state of the system allowing for its manipulation and, eventually, its control. This kind of interaction is weaker, which makes one to expect that it may help maintaining the quantum correlations. For showing the viability of the Quantum Control at the Boundary method, a family of boundary control systems on Quantum Circuits (a generalization of quantum grahs) is introduced. Before being able to address the problem of controllability, the problem of existence of solutions for the Schr\"odinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions is addressed. The approximate controllability of the systems under study is proven using a controllability result by T. Chambrion et al. (2009) and a stability result which constitutes another original contribution of this dissertation.

Many quantum algorithms for numerical linear algebra assume black-box access to a block-encoding of the matrix of interest, which is a strong assumption when the matrix is not sparse. Kernel matrices, which arise from discretizing a kernel function $k(x,x')$, have a variety of applications in mathematics and engineering. They are generally dense and full-rank. Classically, the celebrated fast multipole method performs matrix multiplication on kernel matrices of dimension $N$ in time almost linear in $N$ by using the linear algebraic framework of hierarchical matrices. In light of this success, we propose a block-encoding scheme of the hierarchical matrix structure on a quantum computer. When applied to many physical kernel matrices, our method can improve the runtime of solving quantum linear systems of dimension $N$ to $O(\kappa \operatorname{polylog}(\frac{N}{\varepsilon}))$, where $\kappa$ and $\varepsilon$ are the condition number and error bound of the matrix operation. This runtime is near-optimal and, in terms of $N$, exponentially improves over prior quantum linear systems algorithms in the case of dense and full-rank kernel matrices. We discuss possible applications of our methodology in solving integral equations and accelerating computations in N-body problems.