## Journals

### Randomized ancillary qubit overcomes detector-control and intercept-resend hacking of quantum key distribution. (arXiv:2210.01204v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Practical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD) have been shown to be subject to various detector side-channel attacks that compromise the promised unconditional security. Most notable is a general class of attacks adopting the use of faked-state photons as in the detector-control and, more broadly, the intercept-resend attacks. In this paper, we present a simple scheme to overcome such class of attacks: A legitimate user, Bob, uses a polarization randomizer at his gateway to distort an ancillary polarization of a phase-encoded photon in a bidirectional QKD configuration. Passing through the randomizer once on the way to his partner, Alice, and again in the opposite direction, the polarization qubit of the genuine photon is immune to randomization. However, the polarization state of a photon from an intruder, Eve, to Bob is randomized and hence directed to a detector in a different path, whereupon it triggers an alert. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that, using commercial off-the-shelf detectors, it can be made impossible for Eve to avoid triggering the alert, no matter what faked-state of light she uses.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Time-walk and jitter correction in SNSPDs at high count rates. (arXiv:2210.01271v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are a leading detector type for time correlated single photon counting, especially in the near-infrared. When operated at high count rates, SNSPDs exhibit increased timing jitter caused by internal device properties and features of the RF amplification chain. Variations in RF pulse height and shape lead to variations in the latency of timing measurements. To compensate for this, we demonstrate a calibration method that correlates delays in detection events with the time elapsed between pulses. The increase in jitter at high rates can be largely canceled in software by applying corrections derived from the calibration process. We demonstrate our method with a single-pixel tungsten silicide SNSPD and show it decreases high count rate jitter. The technique is especially effective at removing a long tail that appears in the instrument response function at high count rates. At a count rate of 11.4 MCounts/s we reduce the full width at one percent maximum level (FW1%M) by 45%. The method therefore enables certain quantum communication protocols that are rate-limited by the (FW1%M) metric to operate almost twice as fast. \c{opyright} 2022. All rights reserved.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Polariton Enhanced Free Charge Carrier Generation in Donor-Acceptor Cavity Systems by a Second-Hybridization Mechanism. (arXiv:2210.01278v1 [physics.chem-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Cavity quantum electrodynamics has been studied as a potential approach to modify free charge carrier generation in donor-acceptor heterojunctions because of the delocalization and controllable energy level properties of hybridized light-matter states known as polaritons. However, in many experimental systems, cavity coupling decreases charge separation. Here, we theoretically study the quantum dynamics of a coherent and dissipative donor-acceptor cavity system, to investigate the dynamical mechanism and further discover the conditions under which polaritons may enhance free charge carrier generation. We use open quantum system methods based on single-pulse pumping to find that polaritons have the potential to connect excitonic states and charge separated states, further enhancing free charge generation on an ultrafast timescale of several hundred femtoseconds. The mechanism involves that polaritons with proper energy levels allow the exciton to overcome the high Coulomb barrier induced by electron-hole attraction. Moreover, we propose that a second-hybridization between a polariton state and dark states with similar energy enables the formation of the hybrid charge separated states that are optically active. These two mechanisms lead to a maximum of 50% enhancement of free charge carrier generation on a short timescale. However, our simulation reveals that on the longer timescale of picoseconds, internal conversion and cavity loss dominate and suppress free charge carrier generation, reproducing the experimental results. Thus, our work shows that polaritons can affect the charge separation mechanism and promote free charge carrier generation efficiency, but predominantly on a short timescale after photoexcitation.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Qubit Mapping Toward Quantum Advantage. (arXiv:2210.01306v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Qubit Mapping is a pivotal stage in quantum compilation flow. Its goal is to convert logical circuits into physical circuits so that a quantum algorithm can be executed on real-world non-fully connected quantum devices. Qubit Mapping techniques nowadays still lack the key to quantum advantage, scalability. Several studies have proved that at least thousands of logical qubits are required to achieve quantum computational advantage. However, to our best knowledge, there is no previous research with the ability to solve the qubit mapping problem with the necessary number of qubits for quantum advantage in a reasonable time. In this work, we provide the first qubit mapping framework with the scalability to achieve quantum advantage while accomplishing a fairly good performance. The framework also boasts its flexibility for quantum circuits of different characteristics. Experimental results show that the proposed mapping method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on quantum circuit benchmarks by improving over 5% of the cost complexity in one-tenth of the program running time. Moreover, we demonstrate the scalability of our method by accomplishing mapping of an 11,969-qubit Quantum Fourier Transform within five hours.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Quark: A Gradient-Free Quantum Learning Framework for Classification Tasks. (arXiv:2210.01311v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

As more practical and scalable quantum computers emerge, much attention has been focused on realizing quantum supremacy in machine learning. Existing quantum ML methods either (1) embed a classical model into a target Hamiltonian to enable quantum optimization or (2) represent a quantum model using variational quantum circuits and apply classical gradient-based optimization. The former method leverages the power of quantum optimization but only supports simple ML models, while the latter provides flexibility in model design but relies on gradient calculation, resulting in barren plateau (i.e., gradient vanishing) and frequent classical-quantum interactions. To address the limitations of existing quantum ML methods, we introduce Quark, a gradient-free quantum learning framework that optimizes quantum ML models using quantum optimization. Quark does not rely on gradient computation and therefore avoids barren plateau and frequent classical-quantum interactions. In addition, Quark can support more general ML models than prior quantum ML methods and achieves a dataset-size-independent optimization complexity. Theoretically, we prove that Quark can outperform classical gradient-based methods by reducing model query complexity for highly non-convex problems; empirically, evaluations on the Edge Detection and Tiny-MNIST tasks show that Quark can support complex ML models and significantly reduce the number of measurements needed for discovering near-optimal weights for these tasks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Quench dynamics in the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard and Dicke models. (arXiv:2210.01355v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Both the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard (JCH) and Dicke models can be thought of as idealised models of a quantum battery. In this paper we numerically investigate the charging properties of both of these models. The two models differ in how the two-level systems are contained in cavities. In the Dicke model, the $N$ two-level systems are contained in a single cavity, while in the JCH model the two-level systems each have their own cavity and are able to pass photons between them. In each of these models we consider a scenario where the two-level systems start in the ground state and the coupling parameter between the photon and the two-level systems is quenched. Each of these models display a maximum charging power that scales with the size of the battery $N$ and no super charging was found. Charging power also scales with the square root of the average number of photons per two-level system $m$ for both models. Finally, in the JCH model, the power was found to charge inversely with the square root of the photon-cavity coupling $\kappa$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Master Equation Emulation and Coherence Preservation with Classical Control of a Superconducting Qubit. (arXiv:2210.01388v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Open quantum systems are a topic of intense theoretical research. The use of master equations to model a system's evolution subject to an interaction with an external environment is one of the most successful theoretical paradigms. General experimental tools to study different open system realizations have been limited, and so it is highly desirable to develop experimental tools which emulate diverse master equation dynamics and give a way to test open systems theories. In this paper we demonstrate a systematic method for engineering specific system-environment interactions and emulating master equations of a particular form using classical stochastic noise. We also demonstrate that non-Markovian noise can be used as a resource to extend the coherence of a quantum system and counteract the adversarial effects of Markovian environments.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Distributed Merlin-Arthur Synthesis of Quantum States and Its Applications. (arXiv:2210.01389v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

The generation and verification of quantum states are fundamental tasks for quantum information processing that have recently been investigated by Irani, Natarajan, Nirkhe, Rao and Yuen [CCC 2022] and Rosenthal and Yuen [ITCS 2022] under the term \emph{state synthesis}. This paper studies this concept from the viewpoint of quantum distributed computing, and especially distributed quantum Merlin-Arthur (dQMA) protocols. We first introduce a novel task, on a line, called state generation with distributed inputs (SGDI). In this task, the goal is to generate the quantum state $U\ket{\psi}$ at the rightmost node of the line, where $\ket{\psi}$ is a quantum state given at the leftmost node and $U$ is a unitary matrix whose description is distributed over the nodes of the line. We give a dQMA protocol for SGDI and utilize this protocol to construct a dQMA protocol for the Set Equality problem studied by Naor, Parter and Yogev [SODA 2020]. Our second contribution is a technique, based on a recent work by Zhu and Hayashi [Physical Review A, 2019], to create EPR-pairs between adjacent nodes of a network without quantum communication. As an application of this technique, we prove a general result showing how to convert any dQMA protocol on an arbitrary network into another dQMA protocol where the verification stage does not require any quantum communication.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Distributed Quantum Interactive Proofs. (arXiv:2210.01390v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

The study of distributed interactive proofs was initiated by Kol, Oshman, and Saxena [PODC 2018] as a generalization of distributed decision mechanisms (proof-labeling schemes, etc.), and has received a lot of attention in recent years. In distributed interactive proofs, the nodes of an $n$-node network $G$ can exchange short messages (called certificates) with a powerful prover. The goal is to decide if the input (including $G$ itself) belongs to some language, with as few turns of interaction and as few bits exchanged between nodes and the prover as possible. There are several results showing that the size of certificates can be reduced drastically with a constant number of interactions compared to non-interactive distributed proofs. In this paper, we introduce the quantum counterpart of distributed interactive proofs: certificates can now be quantum bits, and the nodes of the network can perform quantum computation. The first result of this paper shows that by using quantum distributed interactive proofs, the number of interactions can be significantly reduced. More precisely, our result shows that for any constant~$k$, the class of languages that can be decided by a $k$-turn classical (i.e., non-quantum) distributed interactive protocol with $f(n)$-bit certificate size is contained in the class of languages that can be decided by a $5$-turn distributed quantum interactive protocol with $O(f(n))$-bit certificate size. We also show that if we allow to use shared randomness, the number of turns can be reduced to 3-turn. Since no similar turn-reduction \emph{classical} technique is currently known, our result gives evidence of the power of quantum computation in the setting of distributed interactive proofs as well.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Quantum steering in a star network. (arXiv:2210.01430v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

In this work, we will consider the star network scenario where the central party is trusted while all the edge parties (with a number of $n$) are untrusted. Network steering is defined with an $n$ local hidden state model which can be viewed as a special kind of $n$ local hidden variable model. Three different types of sufficient criteria, nonlinear steering inequality, linear steering inequality, and Bell inequality, will be constructed to verify the quantum steering in a star network. Based on the linear steering inequality, it is found that the network steering can be demonstrated even though the trusted party performs a fixed measurement.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Bound for Gaussian-state Quantum illumination using direct photon measurement. (arXiv:2210.01471v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

We present bound for quantum illumination with Gaussian state when using on-off detector or photon number resolving detector, where its performance is evaluated with signal-to-noise ratio. First, in the case of coincidence counting, the best performance is given by two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state which outperforms coherent state and classically correlated thermal (CCT) state. However coherent state can beat the TMSV state with increasing signal mean photon number when using the on-off detector. Second, the performance is enhanced by taking Fisher information approach of all counting probabilities including non-detection events. In the Fisher information approach, the TMSV state still presents the best performance but the CCT state can beat the TMSV state with increasing signal mean photon number when using the on-off detector. We also show that displaced squeezed state exhibits the best performance in the single-mode Gaussian state.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Optomechanical sideband asymmetry explained by stochastic electrodynamics. (arXiv:2210.01486v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Within the framework of stochastic electrodynamics we derive the noise spectrum of a laser beam reflected from a suspended mirror. The electromagnetic field follows Maxwell's equations and is described by a deterministic part that accounts for the laser field and a stochastic part that accounts for thermal and zero-point background fluctuations.Likewise, the mirror motion satisfies Newton's equation of motion and is composed of deterministic and stochastic parts, similar to a Langevin equation. We consider a photodetector that records the power of the field reflected from the mirror interfering with a frequency-shifted reference beam (heterodyne interferometry). We theoretically show that the power spectral density of the photodetector signal is composed of four parts: (i) a deterministic term with beat notes, (ii) shot noise, (iii) the actual heterodyne signal of the mirror motion and (iv) a cross term resulting from the correlation between measurement noise (shot noise) and backaction noise (radiation pressure shot noise). The latter gives rise to the Raman sideband asymmetry observed with ultracold atoms, cavity optomechanics and with levitated nanoparticles. Our classical theory fully reproduces experimental observations and agrees with the results obtained by a quantum theoretical treatment.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases from difference matrices. (arXiv:2210.01517v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Based on maximally entangled states, we explore the constructions of mutually unbiased bases in bipartite quantum systems. We present a new way to construct mutually unbiased bases by difference matrices in the theory of combinatorial designs. In particular, we establish $q$ mutually unbiased bases with $q-1$ maximally entangled bases and one product basis in $\mathbb{C}^q\otimes \mathbb{C}^q$ for arbitrary prime power $q$. In addition, we construct maximally entangled bases for dimension of composite numbers of non-prime power, such as five maximally entangled bases in $\mathbb{C}^{12}\otimes \mathbb{C}^{12}$ and $\mathbb{C}^{21}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{21}$, which improve the known lower bounds for $d=3m$, with $(3,m)=1$ in $\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes \mathbb{C}^{d}$. Furthermore, we construct $p+1$ mutually unbiased bases with $p$ maximally entangled bases and one product basis in $\mathbb{C}^p\otimes \mathbb{C}^{p^2}$ for arbitrary prime number $p$.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Trace class operators and tracial states in p-adic quantum mechanics. (arXiv:2210.01566v1 [math-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Within the framework of quantum mechanics over a quadratic extension of the non-Archimedean field of p-adic numbers, we provide a general definition of a quantum state relying on a general algebraic approach and on a p-adic model of probability theory. As in the standard complex case, a distinguished set of physical states are related to a notion of trace for a certain class of bounded operators and, in fact, we show that one can define a suitable space of trace class operators in the non-Archimedean setting, as well. The analogies, but also the several (highly non-trivial) differences, with respect to the case of standard quantum mechanics in a complex Hilbert space are analyzed.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Interaction-induced non-Hermitian topological phases from a dynamical gauge field. (arXiv:2210.01572v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

We present a minimal non-Hermitian model where a topologically nontrivial complex energy spectrum is induced by inter-particle interactions. Our model consists of a one-dimensional chain with a dynamical non-Hermitian gauge field with density dependence. The model is topologically trivial for a single particle system, but exhibits nontrivial non-Hermitian topology with a point gap when two or more particles are present in the system. We construct an effective doublon model to describe the nontrivial topology in the presence of two particles, which quantitatively agrees with the full interacting model. Our model can be realized by modulating hoppings of the Hatano-Nelson model; we provide a concrete Floquet protocol to realize the model in atomic and optical settings.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Harnessing Brillouin Interaction in Rare-earth Aluminosilicate Glass Microwires for Optoelectromechanic Quantum Transduction. (arXiv:2210.01581v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Quantum transduction, the process of converting quantum signals from one form of energy to another is a key step in harnessing different physical platforms and the associated qubits for quantum information processing. Optoelectromechanics has been one of the effective approaches to undertake transduction from optical-to-microwave signals, among others such as those using atomic ensembles, collective magnetostatic spin excitations, piezoelectricity and electro-optomechanical resonator using Silicon nitride membrane. One of the key areas of loss of photon conversion rate in optoelectromechanical method using Silicon nitride nanomembranes has been those in the electro-optic conversion. To address this, we propose the use of Brillouin interactions in a fiber mode that is allowed to be passed through a fiber taper in rare-earth Aluminium glass microwires. It suggests that we can efficiently convert a $195.57$ THz optical signal to a $325.08$ MHz microwave signal with the help of Brillouin interactions, with a whispering stimulated Brillouin scattering mode yielding a conversion efficiency of $\sim45$\%.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Exploring postselection-induced quantum phenomena with the two-time tensor formalism. (arXiv:2210.01583v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Here we present the two-time tensor formalism unifying in a general manner the standard quantum mechanical formalism with no postselection and the time-symmetrized two-state (density) vector formalism, which deals with postselected states. In the proposed approach, a quantum particle's state, called a two-time tensor, is equivalent to a joined state of two particles propagating in opposite time directions. For a general two-time tensor, we derive outcome probabilities of generalized measurements, as well as mean and weak values of Hermitian observables. We also show how the obtained expressions reduce to known ones in the special cases of no postselection and generalized two-state (density) vectors. Then we develop tomography protocols based on mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measure (SIC-POVM), allowing experimental reconstruction of an unknown single qubit two-time tensor. Finally, we employ the developed techniques for experimental tracking of qubit's time-reversal journey in a quantum teleportation protocol realized with a cloud accessible noisy superconducting quantum processor. The obtained results justify an existence of postselection-induced qubit's proper time-arrow, which is different from the time-arrow of a classical observer, and demonstrate capabilities of the two-time tensor formalism for exploring quantum phenomena brought forth by a postselection in the presence of noise.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Observation of superradiance in a phase fluctuating dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. (arXiv:2210.01586v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Despite the extensive study of matter-wave superradiance in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using its unique coherence property, the controllability of superradiant process has remained limited in the previous studies exploiting a phase-coherent condensate with isotropic contact interactions. Here, we combine tunable s-wave scattering with dipolar interactions in a BEC of $^{168}$Er atoms wherein the asymmetry and threshold of superradiance are independently controlled. By changing the s-wave scattering length near the Feshbach resonance, we tune the superradiance threshold with increasing phase fluctuations. In contrast to collective light scattering from a condensate only with contact interactions, we observe an asymmetric superradiant peak in a dipolar BEC by changing the direction of external magnetic field. This results from the anisotropic excitation spectrum induced by the dipole-dipole interaction. Our observation is expected to bring forth unprecedented application of matter-wave optics leading to controlled emission of matter wave.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Quantum communication complexity of linear regression. (arXiv:2210.01601v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

Dequantized algorithms show that quantum computers do not have exponential speedups for many linear algebra problems in terms of time and query complexity. In this work, we show that quantum computers can have exponential speedups in terms of communication complexity for some fundamental linear algebra problems. We mainly focus on solving linear regression and Hamiltonian simulation. In the quantum case, the task is to prepare the quantum state of the result. To allow for a fair comparison, in the classical case the task is to sample from the result. We investigate these two problems in two-party and multiparty models, propose near-optimal quantum protocols and prove quantum/classical lower bounds. In this process, we propose an efficient quantum protocol for quantum singular value transformation, which is a powerful technique for designing quantum algorithms. As a result, for many linear algebra problems where quantum computers lose exponential speedups in terms of time and query complexity, it is possible to have exponential speedups in terms of communication complexity.

Categories: Journals, Physics

### Long-Range QKD without Trusted Nodes is Not Possible with Current Technology. (arXiv:2210.01636v1 [quant-ph])

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Wed, 2022-10-05 12:45

A recently published patent (https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-ipsum/Case/PublicationNumber/GB2590064) has claimed the development of a novel quantum key distribution protocol purporting to achieve long-range quantum security without trusted nodes and without use of quantum repeaters. Here we present a straightforward analysis of this claim, and reach the conclusion that it is largely unfounded.

Categories: Journals, Physics