Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information science and associated emerging technologies. Photonic systems offer a large range of exploitable entanglement degrees of freedom such as frequency, time, polarization, and spatial modes. Hyperentangled photons exploit multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously to enhance the performance of quantum information protocols. Here, we report a fully guided-wave approach for generating and analyzing polarization and energy-time hyperentangled photons at telecom wavelengths. Moreover, by demultiplexing the broadband emission spectrum of the source into five standard telecom channel pairs, we demonstrate compliance with fiber network standards and improve the effective bit rate capacity of the quantum channel by one order of magnitude. In all channel pairs, we observe a violation of a generalized Bell inequality by more than 27 standard deviations, underlining the relevance of our approach.

The Markovian evolution of an open quantum system is characterized by a positive entropy pro- duction, while the global entropy gets redistributed between the system and the environment degrees of freedom. Starting from these premises, we analyze the entropy variation of an open quantum system in terms of two distinct relations: the Clausius inequality, that provides an intrinsic bound for the entropy variation in terms of the heat absorbed by the system, and an extrinsic inequality, which instead relates the former to the corresponding entropy increment of the environment. By modeling the thermalization process with a Markovian collisional model, we compare and discuss the two bounds, showing that the latter is asymptotically saturated in the limit of large interaction time. In this regime not only the reduced density matrix of the system reaches an equilibrium con- figuration, but it also factorizes from the environment degrees of freedom. This last result is proven analytically when the system-bath coupling is sufficiently strong and through numerical analysis in the weak-coupling regime.

This work reports on the pilot study, performed by INRIM, NPL and PTB, on the measurement of the g^(2)(0) parameter in the visible spectral range of a test single-photon source based on a colour centre in diamond. The development of single-photon sources is of great interest to the metrology community as well as the burgeoning quantum technologies industry. Measurement of the g^(2)(0) parameter plays a vital role in characterising and understanding single-photon emission. This comparison has been conducted by each partner individually using its own equipment at INRIM laboratories, which were responsible for the operation of the source

We study the dynamics of entanglement between two spins which is created by the coupling to a common thermal reservoir. The reservoir is a spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ Ising transverse field chain thermally excited, the two defect spins couple to two spins of the chain which can be at a macroscopic distance. In the weak-coupling and low-temperature limit the spin chain is mapped onto a bath of linearly interacting oscillators using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. We analyse the time evolution of the density matrix of the two defect spins for transient times and deduce the entanglement which is generated by the common reservoir. We discuss several scenarios for different initial states of the two spins and for varying distances.

Unambiguous quantum state discrimination, assisted by an auxiliary system, generally requires quantum correlations as a resource. A particular case of unambiguous quantum state discrimination requiring only quantum discord without entanglement was introduced by Roa \emph{et al}. [\href{https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.080401}{Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 107}, 080401 (2011)}]. Also, after the resource-theoretic formulation of quantum coherence, the transformation relations between quantum coherence and quantum correlations have been studied extensively. We propose here a protocol that requires only coherence to unambiguously discriminate nonorthogonal quantum states, and also quantify the required coherence for the optimal unambiguous quantum state discrimination strategy in some particular cases.

We present and experimentally realize a quantum algorithm for efficiently solving the following problem: given an $N\times N$ matrix $\mathcal{M}$, an $N$-dimensional vector $\textbf{\emph{b}}$, and an initial vector $\textbf{\emph{x}}(0)$, obtain a target vector $\textbf{\emph{x}}(t)$ as a function of time $t$ according to the constraint $d\textbf{\emph{x}}(t)/dt=\mathcal{M}\textbf{\emph{x}}(t)+\textbf{\emph{b}}$. We show that our algorithm exhibits an exponential speedup over its classical counterpart in certain circumstances. In addition, we demonstrate our quantum algorithm for a $4\times4$ linear differential equation using a 4-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. Our algorithm provides a key technique for solving many important problems which rely on the solutions to linear differential equations.

Distance measurements via the dipolar interaction are fundamental to the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to molecular structure determination, but they only provide information on the absolute distance $r$ and polar angle $\theta$ between spins. In this Letter, we present a protocol to also retrieve the azimuth angle $\phi$. Our method relies on measuring the nuclear precession phase after application of a control pulse with a calibrated external radio-frequency coil. We experimentally demonstrate three-dimensional positioning of individual carbon-13 nuclear spins in a diamond host crystal relative to the central electronic spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy center. The ability to pinpoint three-dimensional nuclear locations is central for realizing a nanoscale NMR technique that can image the structure of single molecules with atomic resolution.

We consider the quantum linear solver for $Ax=b$ with the circulant preconditioner $C$. The main technique is the singular value estimation (SVE) introduced in [I. Kerenidis and A. Prakash, Quantum recommendation system, in ITCS 2017]. However, some modifications of SVE should be made to solve the preconditioned linear system $C^{-1} Ax = C^{-1} b$. Moreover, different from the preconditioned linear system considered in [B. D. Clader, B. C. Jacobs, C. R. Sprouse, Preconditioned quantum linear system algorithm, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013], the circulant preconditioner is easy to construct and can be directly applied to general dense non-Hermitian cases. The time complexity depends on the condition numbers of $C$ and $C^{-1} A$, as well as the Frobenius norm $\|A\|_F$.

Recovering an unknown Hamiltonian from measurements is an increasingly important task for certification of noisy quantum devices and simulators. Recent works have succeeded in recovering the Hamiltonian of an isolated quantum system with local interactions from long-ranged correlators of a single eigenstate. Here, we show that such Hamiltonians can be recovered from local observables alone, using computational and measurement resources scaling linearly with the system size. In fact, to recover the Hamiltonian acting on each finite spatial domain, only observables within that domain are required. The observables can be measured in a Gibbs state as well as a single eigenstate; furthermore, they can be measured in a state evolved by the Hamiltonian for a long time, allowing to recover a large family of time-dependent Hamiltonians. We derive an estimate for the statistical recovery error due to approximation of expectation values using a finite number of samples, which agrees well with numerical simulations.

State-of-the art quantum simulators allow to explore static and dynamical quantum properties of strongly correlated matter. In many ways, however, it is the measurement and read-out that limits such quantum simulations. In this work, we introduce a new paradigm of experimental read-out exploiting coherent non-interacting dynamics and available measurement techniques in order to access new observables. Specifically, we present a novel tomographic reconstruction method allowing to indirectly measure second moments of quadratures of cold atomic systems of a type inaccessible to direct measurements. This is done by connecting data from different evolution times through known dynamical equations that can be efficiently kept track of. Formally, we make use of signal processing and semi-definite programming to perform a reliable reconstruction of covariance matrices of eigenmodes of phase and density fluctuation operators which describe elementary quasiparticle excitations of one-dimensional superfluids. This method gives rise to a new window into dynamical quantum simulators which, as we show, allows to predict coherent revivals in a cold atoms system based on seemingly dephased data and to study the dynamics of quasiparticle occupation numbers.

Tensor networks are powerful factorization techniques which reduce resource requirements for numerically simulating principal quantum many-body systems and algorithms. The computational complexity of a tensor network simulation depends on the tensor ranks and the order in which they are contracted. Unfortunately, computing optimal contraction sequences (orderings) in general is known to be a computationally difficult (NP-complete) task. In 2005, Markov and Shi showed that optimal contraction sequences correspond to optimal (minimum width) tree decompositions of a tensor network's line graph, relating the contraction sequence problem to a rich literature in structural graph theory. While treewidth-based methods have largely been ignored in favor of dataset-specific algorithms in the prior tensor networks literature, we demonstrate their practical relevance for problems arising from two distinct methods used in quantum simulation: multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) datasets and quantum circuits generated by the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA). We exhibit multiple regimes where treewidth-based algorithms outperform domain-specific algorithms, while demonstrating that the optimal choice of algorithm has a complex dependence on the network density, expected contraction complexity, and user run time requirements. We further provide an open source software framework designed with an emphasis on accessibility and extendability, enabling replicable experimental evaluations and future exploration of competing methods by practitioners.

A comment on a misleading statement contained in [Phys. Rev. A 97, 062115 (2018)].

We introduce a first-order quantum-phase-transition model, which exhibits giant sensitivity $\chi \propto N^2$ at the critical point. Exploiting this effect, we propose a quantum critical detector (QCD) to amplify weak input signals. The time-dynamic QCD functions by triggering a first-order dynamical quantum phase transition in a system of spins with long-range interactions coupled to a bosonic mode. We numerically demonstrate features of the dynamical quantum phase transition, which leads to a time-dependent quantum gain. We also show the linear scaling with the spin number $N$ in both the quantum gain and the corresponding signal-to-quantum noise ratio of this QCD. Our QCD can be a resource for metrology, weak signal amplification, and single photon detection.

Quantum resources can improve communication complexity problems (CCPs) beyond their classical constraints. One quantum approach is to share entanglement and create correlations violating a Bell inequality, which can then assist classical communication. A second approach is to resort solely to the preparation, transmission and measurement of a single quantum system; in other words quantum communication. Here, we show the advantages of the latter over the former in high-dimensional Hilbert space. We focus on a family of CCPs, based on facet Bell inequalities, study the advantage of high-dimensional quantum communication, and realise such quantum communication strategies using up to ten-dimensional systems. The experiment demonstrates, for growing dimension, an increasing advantage over quantum strategies based on Bell inequality violation. For sufficiently high dimensions, quantum communication also surpasses the limitations of the post-quantum Bell correlations obeying only locality in the macroscopic limit. Surprisingly, we find that the advantages are tied to the use of measurements that are not rank-one projective. We provide an experimental semi-device-independent falsification of such measurements in Hilbert space dimension six.

Treating Coulomb scattering of two free electrons in a stationary approach, we explore the momentum and spin entanglement created by the interaction. We show that a particular discretisation provides an estimate of the von Neumann entropy of the one-electron reduced density matrix from the experimentally accessible Shannon entropy. For spinless distinguishable electrons the entropy is sizeable at low energies, indicating strong momentum entanglement, and drops to almost zero at energies of the order of 10 keV when the azimutal degree of freedom is integrated out, i.e. practically no entanglement and almost pure one-electron states. If spin is taken into account, the entropy for electrons with antiparallel spins should be larger than in the parallel-spin case, since it embodies both momentum and spin entanglement. Surprisingly, this difference, as well as the deviation from the spin-less case, is extremely small for the complete scattering state. Strong spin entanglement can however be obtained by post-selecting states at scattering angle pi/2.

We characterize the operational task of environment-assisted distillation of quantum coherence under different sets of free operations when only a finite supply of copies of a given state is available. We first evaluate the one-shot assisted distillable coherence exactly, and introduce a semidefinite programming bound on it in terms of a smooth entropic quantity. We prove the bound to be tight for all systems in dimensions 2 and 3, which allows us to obtain computable expressions for the one-shot rate of distillation, establish an analytical expression for the best achievable fidelity of assisted distillation, and fully solve the problem of asymptotic zero-error assisted distillation for qubit and qutrit systems. Our characterization shows that all relevant sets of free operations in the resource theory of coherence have exactly the same power in the task of one-shot assisted coherence distillation, and furthermore resolves a conjecture regarding the additivity of coherence of assistance in dimension 3.

We study the quality of service in quantum channels. We regard the quantum channel as a queueing system, and present queueing analysis of both the classical information transmission and quantum information transmission in the quantum channel. For the former, we link the analysis to the classical queueing model, for the latter, we propose a new queueing model and investigate the limit queueing behavior. For both scenarios, we obtain tail distributions of the performance measures, i.e., backlog, delay, and throughput.

Accurate state preparation, a key requirement for quantum technology, is often carried out with external controls. In order to obtain maximum performance, the pulse shape of the controls can be derived using optimal control theory, by minimizing a suitable performance measure. Care needs to be taken when defining the performance measure for non-pure target states. Visualizing the open system dynamics on the Bloch sphere, we construct an optimization functional that seeks to independently match Bloch vector angle and length of the target state. We employ the ensuing optimization framework to maximize squeezing of an optomechanical oscillator at finite temperature and find that shaping the cavity drives can significantly speed up squeezed state preparation.

Non-destructive detection of photonic qubits will enable important applications in photonic quantum information processing and quantum communications. Here, we present an approach based on a solid-state cavity containing an ensemble of rare-earth ions. First a probe pulse containing many photons is stored in the ensemble. Then a single signal photon, which represents a time-bin qubit, imprints a phase on the ensemble that is due to the AC Stark effect. This phase does not depend on the exact timing of the signal photon, which makes the detection insensitive to the time-bin qubit state. Then the probe pulse is retrieved and its phase is detected via homodyne detection. We show that the cavity leads to a dependence of the imprinted phase on the {\it probe} photon number, which leads to a spreading of the probe phase, in contrast to the simple shift that occurs in the absence of a cavity. However, we show that this scenario still allows non-destructive detection of the signal. We discuss potential implementations of the scheme, showing that high success probability and low loss should be simultaneously achievable.

A central task in quantum information processing is to characterize quantum processes. In the realm of optical quantum information processing, this amounts to characterizing the transformations of the mode creation and annihilation operators. This transformation is unitary for linear optical systems, whereas these yield the well-known Bogoliubov transformations for systems with Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the mode operators. In this paper, we show that a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer can characterize both these kinds of evolutions for multimode systems. While it suffices to use coherent states for the characterization of linear optical systems, we additionally require single photons to characterize quadratically nonlinear optical systems.