Any two-qubit state can be represented, geometrically, as an ellipsoid with a certain size and a center located within the Bloch sphere of one of the qubits. Points of this ellipsoid represent the post-measurement states when the other qubit is measured. Based on the most demolition concept in the definition of quantum discord, we study the amount of demolition when the two post-measurement states, represented as two points on the steering ellipsoid, have the most distinguishability. We use trace distance as a measure of distinguishability and obtain the maximum distinguishability for some classes of states, analytically. Using the optimum measurement that gives the most distinguishable steered states, we extract quantum correlation of the state and compare the result with the quantum discord. It is shown that there are some important classes of states for which the most demolition happens exactly at the most distinguished steered points. Correlations gathered from the most distinguished post-measurement states provide a faithful and tight upper bound touching the quantum discord in most of the cases.

We propose here a scheme, based on the measurement of quadrature phase coherence, aimed at testing the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality in an optomechanical setting. Our setup is constituted by two optical cavities dispersively coupled to a common mechanical resonator. We show that it is possible to generate EPR-like correlations between the quadratures of the output fields of the two cavities, and, depending on the system parameters, to observe the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality.

Imaginary time evolution is a powerful tool for studying quantum systems. While it is simple to simulate with a classical computer, the time and memory requirements scale exponentially with the system size. Conversely, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum systems, but not non-unitary imaginary time evolution. We propose a hybrid, variational algorithm for simulating imaginary time evolution on a quantum computer. We use this algorithm to find the ground state energy of many-particle systems; specifically molecular Hydrogen and Lithium Hydride, finding the ground state with high probability. Our method can also be applied to general optimisation problems and quantum machine learning. As our algorithm is hybrid, suitable for error mitigation, and can exploit shallow quantum circuits, it can be implemented with current quantum computers.

Efficient, high rate photon sources with high single photon purity are essential ingredients for quantum technologies. Single photon sources based on solid state emitters such as quantum dots are very advantageous for integrated photonic circuits, but they can suffer from a high two-photon emission probability, which in cases of non-cryogenic environment cannot be spectrally filtered. Here we propose two temporal purification-by-heralding methods for using a two photon emission process to yield highly pure and efficient single photon emission, bypassing the inherent problem of spectrally overlapping bi-photon emission. We experimentally demonstrate their feasibility on the emission from a single nanocrystal quantum dot, exhibiting single photon purities exceeding 99.5%, without a significant loss of single photon efficiency. These methods can be applied for any indeterministic source of spectrally broadband photon pairs.

We present a theory predicting how the linear magnetotransport of a two-dimensional electron gas is modified by a passive electromagnetic cavity resonator where no real photons are injected nor created. For a cavity photon mode with in-plane linear polarization, the dc bulk magnetoresistivity of the 2D electron gas is anisotropic. In the regime of high filling factors of the Landau levels, the envelope of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is profoundly modified and the resistivity can be increased or reduced depending on the system parameters. In the limit of low magnetic fields, the resistivity along the cavity-mode polarization direction is enhanced in the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime. Our work shows the crucial role of virtual polariton excitations in controlling the dc charge transport properties of cavity-embedded systems.

We characterize the anisotropic differential ac-Stark shift for the Dy $626$ nm intercombination transition, induced in a far-detuned $1070$ nm optical dipole trap, and observe the existence of a "magic polarization" for which the polarizabilities of the ground and excited states are equal. From our measurements we extract both the scalar and tensorial components of the dynamic dipole polarizability for the excited state, $\alpha_E^\text{s} = 188 (12)\,\alpha_\text{0}$ and $\alpha_E^\text{t} = 34 (12)\,\alpha_\text{0}$, respectively, where $\alpha_\text{0}$ is the atomic unit for the electric polarizability. We also provide a theoretical model allowing us to predict the excited state polarizability and find qualitative agreement with our observations. Furthermore, we utilize our findings to optimize the efficiency of Doppler cooling of a trapped gas, by controlling the sign and magnitude of the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transition. The resulting initial gain of the collisional rate allows us, after forced evaporation cooling, to produce a quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensate of $^{162}$Dy with $3\times 10^4$ atoms.

Generating entanglement in a distributed scenario is a fundamental task for implementing the quantum network of the future. We here report a protocol that uses only linear optics for generating GHZ states with high fidelities in a nearby node configuration. Moreover, we analytically show that the scheme provides the highest success probability, and, then, the highest generation rate for sequential protocols. We furthermore show how to retrieve the same results using a numerical approach. Both the analytical proof and the numerical optimization represent a novelty in the field of entanglement generation in quantum networks and are tools for further investigation. Finally, we give some estimates for the generation rate in a real scenario.

A detailed account of the Kohn-Sham algorithm from quantum chemistry, formulated rigorously in the very general setting of convex analysis on Banach spaces, is given here. Starting from a Levy-Lieb-type functional, its convex and lower semi-continuous extension is regularized to obtain differentiability. This extra layer allows to rigorously introduce, in contrast to the common unregularized approach, a well-defined Kohn-Sham iteration scheme. Convergence in a weak sense is then proven. This generalized formulation is applicable to a wide range of different density-functional theories and possibly even to models outside of quantum mechanics.

We describe an optical cavity resonantly coupled to N atoms which performs the complete conversion of the single photon frequency in the absence of external driving field. Two states of this cavity couple to two transitions between three atomic levels and two input-output waveguides. The problem is reduced to the consideration of coupled 2N+1 localized and N+1 waveguide collective states of a photon and atoms and solved exactly using the Mahaux-Weidenm\"uller formalism. The conditions of complete frequency conversion are determined and the effect of cumulative action of atoms is analyzed.

As shown in Phys. Rev. A 96, 020101(R) (2017), it is possible to demonstrate that quantum particles do not move along straight lines in free space by increasing the probability of finding the particles within narrow intervals of position and momentum beyond the "either/or" limit of 0.5 using constructive quantum interference between a component localized in position and a component localized in momentum. The probability of finding the particle in a corresponding spatial interval at a later time then violates the lower bound of the particle propagation inequality which is based on the validity of Newton's first law. In this paper, the problem of localizing the two state components in their respective target intervals is addressed by introducing a set of three coefficients that describe the localization of arbitrary wavefunctions quantitatively. This characterization is applied to a superposition of Gaussians, obtaining a violation of the particle propagation inequality by more than 5 percent if the width of the Gaussian wavefunction is optimized along with the size of the position and momentum intervals. It is shown that the violation of the particle propagation inequality originates from the fundamental way in which quantum interferences relate initial position and momentum to the future positions of a particle, indicating that the violation is a fundamental feature of causality in the quantum limit.

Hybrid excitations, called polaritons, emerge in systems with strong light-matter coupling. Usually, they dominate the linear and nonlinear optical properties with applications in quantum optics. Here, we show the crucial role of the electronic component of polaritons in the magneto-transport of a cavity-embedded 2D electron gas in the ultrastrong coupling regime. We show that the linear dc resistivity is significantly modified by the coupling to the cavity even without external irradiation. Our observations confirm recent predictions of vacuum-induced modification of the resistivity. Furthermore, photo-assisted transport in presence of a weak irradiation field at sub-THz frequencies highlights the different roles of localized and delocalized states.

We derive the Schr\"{o}dinger-Newton equation as the non-relativistic limit of the Einstein-Dirac equations. Our analysis relaxes the assumption of spherical symmetry, made in earlier work in the literature, while deriving this limit. Since the spin of the Dirac field couples naturally to torsion, we generalize our analysis to the Einstein Cartan-Dirac (ECD) equations, again recovering the Schr\"{o}dinger-Newton equation.

We study high-temperature spin transport through an anisotropic Heisenberg spin chain in which integrability is broken by a single impurity close to the center of the chain. For a finite impurity strength, the level spacing statistics of this model is known to be Wigner-Dyson. Our aim is to understand if this integrability breaking is manifested in the high-temperature spin transport. We focus first on the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), where the chain is connected to spin baths that act as sources and sinks for spin excitations at the boundaries. Using a combination of open quantum system theory and matrix product operators techniques, we extract the transport properties by means of a finite-size scaling of the spin current in the NESS. Our results indicate that, despite the formation of a partial domain wall in the steady state magnetization, transport remains ballistic. We contrast this behavior with the one produced by a staggered magnetic field in the XXZ chain, for which it is known that transport is diffusive. By performing a numerical computation of the real part of the spin conductivity, we show that our findings are consistent with linear response theory. We discuss subtleties associated with the apparent vanishing of the Drude weight for our model.

We study the impact of many-body effects on the fundamental precision limits in quantum metrology. On the one hand such effects may lead to non-linear Hamiltonians, studied in the field of non-linear quantum metrology, while on the other hand they may result in decoherence processes that cannot be described using single-body noise models. We provide a general reasoning that allows to predict the fundamental scaling of precision in such models as a function of the number of atoms present in the system. Moreover, we describe a computationally efficient approach that allows for a simple derivation of quantitative bounds. We illustrate these general considerations by a detailed analysis of fundamental precision bounds in a paradigmatic atomic interferometry experiment with standard linear Hamiltonian but with both single and two-body losses taken into account---a model which is motivated by the most recent Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) magnetometry experiments. Using this example we also highlight the impact of the atom number super-selection rule on the possibility of protecting interferometric protocols against decoherence.

The generalized hyper-Ramsey resonance formula originally published in Phys. Rev. A vol 92, 023416 (2015) is derived using a Cayley-Klein spinor parametrization. The shape of the interferometric resonance and the associated composite phase-shift are reformulated including all individual laser pulse parameters. Potential robustness of signal contrast and phase-shift of the wave-function fringe pattern can now be arbitrarily explored tracking any shape distortion due to systematic effects from the probe laser. An exact and simple analytical expression describing a Ramsey's method of separated composite oscillating laser fields with quantum state control allows us to accurately simulate all recent clock interrogation protocols under various pulse defects.

Quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) is an encryption method that allows quantum computation to be performed on one party's private data with the program provided by another party, without revealing much information about the data nor about the program to the opposite party. It usually allows only two rounds of communication. It is known that information-theoretically-secure QHE for arbitrary circuits would require exponential resources, and efficient computationally-secure QHE schemes for polynomial-sized quantum circuits have been constructed. In this paper we propose an information-theoretically-secure QHE scheme suitable for quantum circuits of size polynomial in the number of data qubits. The scheme keeps the data perfectly secure, and the circuit quite secure with the help of a polynomial amount of entanglement and classical communication.

We present a new idea for a class of public key quantum money protocols where the bills are joint eigenstates of systems of commuting unitary operators. We show that this system is secure against black box attacks, and propose an implementation where our operators are obtained as Hecke operators on spaces of modular forms.

Given a finite hypergraph $H$, the associated hypergraph C*-algebra $C^*(H)$ is finitely presented by one projection for each vertex of $H$, such that each hyperedge forms a partition of unity. General hypergraph C*-algebras were first studied in the context of quantum contextuality, and there is no direct relation to graph C*-algebras. As special cases, the class of hypergraph C*-algebras comprises quantum permutation groups, maximal group C*-algebras of graph products of finite cyclic groups, and the C*-algebras associated to quantum graph homomorphism, isomorphism, and colouring.

Here, we conduct the first systematic study of aspects of hypergraph C*-algebras. We show that they coincide with the class of finite colimits of finite-dimensional commutative C*-algebras, and also with the class of C*-algebras associated to synchronous nonlocal games. We had previously shown that it is undecidable to determine whether $C^*(H)$ is nonzero for given $H$. We now show that it is also undecidable to determine whether a given $C^*(H)$ is residually finite-dimensional, and similarly whether it only has infinite-dimensional representations, and whether it has a tracial state. It follows that for each one of these properties, there is $H$ such that the question whether $C^*(H)$ has this property is independent of the ZFC axioms, assuming that these are consistent. We clarify some of the subtleties associated with such independence results in an appendix.

Quantum communication relies on the efficient generation of entanglement between remote quantum nodes, due to entanglement's key role in achieving and verifying secure communications. Remote entanglement has been realized using a number of different probabilistic schemes, but deterministic remote entanglement has only recently been demonstrated, using a variety of superconducting circuit approaches. However, the deterministic violation of a Bell inequality, a strong measure of quantum correlation, has not to date been demonstrated in a superconducting quantum communication architecture, in part because achieving sufficiently strong correlation requires fast and accurate control of the emission and capture of the entangling photons. Here we present a simple and robust architecture for achieving this benchmark result in a superconducting system.

The nonadiabatic geometric quantum computation is promising as it is robust against certain types of local noises. However, its experimental implementation is challenging due to the need of complex control on multi-level and/or multiple quantum systems. Here, we propose to implement it on a two-dimensional square superconducting qubit lattice. In the construction of our geometric quantum gates, we only use the simplest and experimentally accessible control over the qubit states of the involved quantum systems, without introducing any auxiliary state. Specifically, our scheme is achieved by parametrically tunable all-resonant interaction, which leads to high-fidelity quantum gates. Meanwhile, this simple implementation can be conveniently generalized to a composite scenario, which can further suppress the systematic error during the gate operations. In addition, universal nonadiabatic geometric quantum gates in decoherence-free subspace can also be realized based on the tunable coupling between only two transmon qubits, without consulting to multiple qubits and only using two physical qubits to encode a logical qubit. Therefore, our proposal provides a promising way of high-fidelity geometric manipulation for robust solid-state quantum computation.