Author(s): Dmitry V. Guzatov and Vasily V. Klimov

We have derived and investigated analytical expressions for the spontaneous emission radiative decay rate of an optically active (chiral) molecule placed near a chiral (bi-isotropic) triaxial nanoellipsoid, the size of which is much smaller than the wavelength. Differences in radiative decay rates o...

[Phys. Rev. A 98, 013823] Published Thu Jul 12, 2018

Author(s): Yi Zhang, Lei Zhang, and Yong-Yuan Zhu

In this paper we theoretically show that counterpart photonic Cooper pairs can be achieved in nanoscale waveguides with radiation pressure effect. We demonstrate that due to Brillouin scattering a Stokes photon and an anti-Stokes one can exchange virtual phonons, leading to an effective photon-photo...

[Phys. Rev. A 98, 013824] Published Thu Jul 12, 2018

Author(s): Saptarshi Roy, Tamoghna Das, Asutosh Kumar, Aditi Sen(De), and Ujjwal Sen

The monogamy relation for quantum correlations is not satisfied by all measures for all multiparty quantum states. We prove that an arbitrary quantum state which is nonmonogamous for negativity will become monogamous if a finite number of copies of the same state is provided. We refer to this as act...

[Phys. Rev. A 98, 012310] Published Thu Jul 12, 2018

Author(s): Srijit Dutta, Debjyoti Bhattacharjee, and Anupam Chattopadhyay

In this paper, we report efficient quantum circuits for integer multiplication using the Toom-Cook algorithm. By analyzing the recursive tree structure of the algorithm, we obtained a bound on the count of Toffoli gates and qubits. These bounds are further improved by employing reversible pebble gam...

[Phys. Rev. A 98, 012311] Published Thu Jul 12, 2018

Author(s): Hao Qin, Rupesh Kumar, Vadim Makarov, and Romain Alléaume

We propose an efficient strategy to attack a continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system, which we call homodyne detector blinding. This attack strategy takes advantage of a generic vulnerability of homodyne receivers: A bright light pulse sent on the signal port can lead to a sat...

[Phys. Rev. A 98, 012312] Published Thu Jul 12, 2018

The focus of this article is on providing compact analytical expressions for the differential number of polarization flipped signal photons constituting the signal of vacuum birefringence in the head-on collision of x-ray free electron (XFEL) and optical high-intensity laser pulses. Our results allow for unprecedented insights into the scaling of the effect with the waists and pulse durations of both laser beams, the Rayleigh range of the high-intensity beam, as well as transverse and longitudinal offsets. They account for the decay of the differential number of signal photons in the far-field as a function of the azimuthal angle measured relative to the beam axis of the probe beam in forward direction, typically neglected by conventional approximations. Moreover, they even allow us to extract an analytical expression for the angular divergence of the perpendicularly polarized signal photons. We expect our formulas to be very useful for the planning and optimization of experimental scenarios aiming at the detection of vacuum birefringence in XFEL/high-intensity laser setups, such as the one put forward at the Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields (HIBEF) at the European XFEL.

The coupled nonlinear dynamics of ultracold quantum matter and electromagnetic field modes in an optical resonator exhibits a wealth of intriguing collective phenomena. Here we study a $\Lambda$-type, three-component Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to four dynamical running-wave modes of a ring cavity, where only two of the modes are externally pumped. However, the unpumped modes play a crucial role in the dynamics of the system due to coherent back-scattering of photons. On a mean- field level we identify three fundamentally different steady-state phases with distinct characteristics in the density and spatial spin textures: a combined density and spin wave, a continuous spin spiral with a homogeneous density, and a spin spiral with a modulated density. The spin-spiral states, which are topological, are intimately related to cavity-induced spin-orbit coupling emerging beyond a critical pump power. The topologically trivial density-wave--spin-wave state has the characteristics of a supersolid with two broken continuous symmetries. The transitions between different phases are either simultaneously topological and first order, or second order. The proposed setup allows the simulation of intriguing many-body quantum phenomena by solely tuning the pump amplitudes and frequencies, with the cavity output fields serving as a built-in nondestructive observation tool.

Artificial neural networks have been recently introduced as a general ansatz to compactly represent many- body wave functions. In conjunction with Variational Monte Carlo, this ansatz has been applied to find Hamil- tonian ground states and their energies. Here we provide extensions of this method to study properties of ex- cited states, a central task in several many-body quantum calculations. First, we give a prescription that allows to target eigenstates of a (nonlocal) symmetry of the Hamiltonian. Second, we give an algorithm that allows to compute low-lying excited states without symmetries. We demonstrate our approach with both Restricted Boltzmann machines states and feedforward neural networks as variational wave-functions. Results are shown for the one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg model, and for the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. When comparing to available exact results, we obtain good agreement for a large range of excited-states energies. Interestingly, we also find that deep networks typically outperform shallow architectures for high-energy states.

Bell inequalities are an important tool in device-independent quantum information processing because their violation can serve as a certificate of relevant quantum properties. Probably the best known example of a Bell inequality is due to Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH), defined in the simplest scenario involving two dichotomic measurements, whose all key properties are well understood. While there have been many attempts to generalise it to higher-dimensional quantum systems, quite surprisingly, most of them turn out to be difficult to analyse. In particular, the maximal quantum violation---a key quantity for most device-independent applications---remains unknown except for the simplest cases. Here we propose a new generalisation of the CHSH Bell inequality which preserves several of its attractive features: the maximal quantum value can be computed analytically and can be achieved by the maximally entangled states and mutually unbiased bases. These inequalities involve $d$ measurements settings, each having $d$ outcomes for an arbitrary prime number $d\geq 3$. We then show that in the three-outcome case our Bell inequality is a self-test: it can be used to self-test the maximally entangled state of two-qutrits and three mutually unbiased bases at each site. Yet, we demonstrate that in the case of more outcomes, their maximal violation does not allow for self-testing in the standard sense, which suggests a new weak form of self-testing. The ability to certify high-dimensional MUBs makes them attractive from the device-independent cryptography point of view.

These notes are a short introduction to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We discuss: SYK and tensor models as a new class of large N quantum field theories, the near-conformal invariance in the infrared, the computation of correlation functions, generalizations of SYK, and applications to AdS/CFT and strange metals.

We study non-interacting fermionic systems dissipatively driven at their boundaries, focusing in particular on the case of a non-number-conserving Hamiltonian, which for example describes an $XY$ spin chain. We show that despite the lack of number conservation, it is possible to convert the problem of calculating the normal modes of the master equations and their corresponding rapidities, into diagonalizing simply an $L\times L$ tridiagonal bordered $2-$Toeplitz matrix, where $L$ is the size of the system. Such structure of matrix allows us to further reduce the problem into solving a scalar trigonometric non-linear equation for which we also show, in the case of an Ising chain, exact analytical explicit, and system size independent, solutions.

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can eliminate detector side channels and prevent all attacks on detectors. The future of MDI-QKD is a quantum network that provides service to many users over untrusted relay nodes. In a real quantum network, the losses of various channels are different and users are added and deleted over time. To adapt to these features, we propose a protocol that allows users to independently choose their optimal intensity settings to compensate for different channel losses. Such a protocol enables a scalable high-rate MDI-QKD network that can easily be applied for channels of different losses and allows users to be dynamically added/deleted at any time without affecting the performance of existing users.

We extend the definition of the entangled partner mode of an arbitrary mode of a scalar quantum field in a general state. Even in the case of a free field in a Gaussian state, this provides a new class of partner named spatially overlapped partner. A general formula of spatially overlapped partners is given for a free field in a $(d+1)$-dimensional curved spacetime. We analyze memory effects of the spatially entangled partner systems of a quantum field as quantum information storage for an expanding universe.

We demonstrate a compact frequency-stabilized laser at 1064 nm using Doppler-free saturation absorption spectroscopy of molecular iodine. The achieved laser frequency stability and linewidth are 5.7 10-12 (corresponding to an uncertainty of the laser frequency of 1.6 kHz) and 400 kHz, respectively. The developed frequency-stabilized laser can be used as a pump laser for wavelength conversion from visible to telecom (or vice versa) to connect quantum memories utilizing nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond at remote nodes in fiber-based quantum communication.

We study the decoherence properties of a two-level (qubit) system homogeneously coupled to an environmental many-body system S at a quantum transition (QT), considering both continuous and first-order quantum transitions (CQTs and FOQTs respectively). In particular, we consider a d-dimensional quantum Ising model as environment system S, and study the qubit-decoherence dynamics along the global quantum evolution starting from pure states of the qubit and the ground state of S. This issue is discussed within dynamic finite-size scaling (DFSS) frameworks. We analyze the DFSS of appropriate qubit-decoherence functions. At CQTs they develop power laws of the size of S, with a substantial enhancement of the rate of the qubit-decoherence dynamics with respect to the case S is in normal noncritical conditions. The enhancement of the decoherence dynamics appears much larger at FOQTs, leading to exponentially large qubit-decoherence rates.

We derive a plasmon-dressed atom picture for a single dipolar emitter coupled to a metal nanoparticle, in full analogy with cavity quantum electrodynamics and a dressed atom picture of the atom-field interaction. We obtain an anharmonic Jaynes-Cummings ladder where anharmonicity originates from the number of plasmons involved in the coupling process. We discuss the coupled system dynamics in the weak and strong coupling regimes offering a simple understanding of the energy exchange, including radiative and non radiative processes. We define the plasmon Purcell factors for each mode. Finally, we investigate the effect of leakages on the system dynamics. We propose an effective Fano Hamiltonian including plasmon leakages and discuss the link with the quasi-normal mode description.

We consider a thermal quantum harmonic oscillator weakly coupled to a heat bath at a different temperature. We analytically study the quantum heat exchange statistics between the two systems using the quantum-optical master equation. We exactly compute the characteristic function of the heat distribution and show that it verifies the Jarzynski-W\'ojcik fluctuation theorem. We further evaluate the heat probability density in the limit of long thermalization times, both in the low and high temperature regimes, and investigate its time evolution by calculating its first two cumulants.

We give two quantum algorithms for computing Kloosterman sums attached to a finite field $\mathbf{F}$ of $q$ elements. The first algorithm computes a quantum state containing, as its coefficients with respect to the standard basis, all Kloosterman sums for $\mathbf{F}$, and runs in time polynomial in $\log q$; it also handles Kloosterman sums twisted by a given multiplicative character of $\mathbf{F}$. The second algorithm computes a single Kloosterman sum to a prescribed precision, and runs in time quasi-linear in $\sqrt{q}$.

We study the quantum transport through two specific atomtronic circuits: a Y-junction and a ring-shaped condensate pierced by an effective magnetic flux. We demonstrate that for bosons, the two circuits display Andreev-like reflections. For the Y-junction, the transport depends on the coupling strength of the Y-junction. For the ring-shaped configuration, the transport crucially depends on the particle statistics. For interacting bosons, in particular, we find that the Aharonov-Bohm interference effect of the flux are absent. By breaking the translational invariance of the ring, the flux dependence is restored. A complementary view of the problem is obtained through a specific non-equilibrium quench protocol. We find that the steady-state is independent of the flux, however the actual time-dynamics depends on the flux. We compare the dynamics of the full closed system with an approximated open system approach. For all the protocols we studied, we find striking differences in the dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

Atomic magnetometry is one of the most sensitive ways to measure magnetic fields. We present a method for converting a naturally scalar atomic magnetometer into a vector magnetometer by exploiting the polarization dependence of hyperfine transitions in rubidium atoms. First, we fully determine the polarization ellipse of an applied microwave field using a self-calibrating method, i.e. a method in which the light-atom interaction provides everything required to know the field in an orthogonal laboratory frame. We then measure the direction of an applied static field using the polarization ellipse as a three-dimensional reference defined by Maxwell's equations. Although demonstrated with trapped atoms, this technique could be applied to atomic vapors, or a variety of atom-like systems.