Normalizer circuits and a Gottesman-Knill theorem for infinite-dimensional systems

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Juan Bermejo-Vega, Cedric Yen-Yu Lin, Maarten Van den Nest



Normalizer circuits [1,2] are generalized Clifford circuits that act on arbitrary finite-dimensional systems Hd1⊗...⊗Hdn with a standard basis labeled by the elements of a finite Abelian group G=Zd1×...×Zdn. Normalizer gates implement operations associated with the group G and can be of three types: quantum Fourier transforms, group automorphism gates and quadratic phase gates. In this work, we extend the normalizer formalism [1,2] to infinite dimensions, by allowing normalizer gates to act on systems of the form H⊗aZ: each factor HZ has a standard basis labeled by integers Z, and a Fourier basis labeled by angles, elements of the circle group T. Normalizer circuits become hybrid quantum circuits acting both on continuous- and discrete-variable systems. We show that infinite-dimensional normalizer circuits can be efficiently simulated classically with a generalized stabilizer formalism for Hilbert spaces associated with groups of the form Za×Tb×Zd1×...×Zdn. We develop new techniques to track stabilizer-groups based on normal forms for group automorphisms and quadratic functions. We use our normal forms to reduce the problem of simulating normalizer circuits to that of finding general solutions of systems of mixed real-integer linear equations [3] and exploit this fact to devise a robust simulation algorithm: the latter remains efficient even in pathological cases where stabilizer groups become infinite, uncountable and non-compact. The techniques developed in this paper might find applications in the study of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconducting qubits [4,5].