Matrix Product States for Lattice Field Theories

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Mari Carmen Bañuls, Krzysztof Cichy, J. Ignacio Cirac, Karl Jansen, Hana Saito


PoS(LATTICE 2013)332, arXiv:1310.4118 [hep-lat]

The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ansaetze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used testbench for lattice techniques. Using finite-size, open boundary MPS, we are able to determine the low energy states of the model in a fully non-perturbative manner and to accurately extract the mass spectrum. In this work we extend the analysis to the determination of the chiral condensate, both for massless and massive fermions. The method allows for accurate finite size and continuum limit extrapolations and produces remarkably precise results, thus showing the feasibility of these techniques for gauge theory problems.