Ground States of Fermionic lattice Hamiltonians with Permutation Symmetry

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Christina V. Kraus, Maciej Lewenstein, J. Ignacio Cirac


Phys. Rev. A. 88, 022335 (2013)

We study the ground states of lattice Hamiltonians that are invariant under permutations, in the limit where the number of lattice sites N. For spin systems, these are product states, a fact that follows directly from the quantum de Finetti theorem. For fermionic systems, however, the problem is very different, since mode operators acting on different sites do not commute, but anticommute. We construct a family of fermionic states, F, from which such ground states can be easily computed. They are characterized by few parameters whose number only depends on M, the number of modes per lattice site. We also give an explicit construction for M=1,2. In the first case, F is contained in the set of Gaussian states, whereas in the second it is not. Inspired by that construction, we build a set of fermionic variational wave functions, and apply it to the Fermi-Hubbard model in two spatial dimensions, obtaining results that go beyond the generalized Hartree-Fock theory.