Direct certification of a class of quantum simulations

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D. Hangleiter, M. Kliesch, M. Schwarz, J. Eisert



One of the main challenges in the field of quantum simulation and computation is to identify ways to certify the correct functioning of a device when a classical efficient simulation is not available. In such a situation one cannot simply classically keep track of the dynamics of the device. In this note, we discuss weak-membership notions of the certification for ground state preparations of frustration-free Hamiltonians based on simple energy measurements of local Hamiltonian terms. These considerations have applications to classically intractable analog quantum simulations: for example, using Feynman-Kitaev Hamiltonians, one can realise universal quantum computers. Our certification approach is non-interactive and thus avoids challenges arising from interactive proof systems. Moreover, our certification protocol is applicable to recent results on so-called IQP circuits aiming at the demonstration of quantum supremacy.