We present a general framework for quantum interference (QI) between multiple, fundamentally different processes. Our framework reveals the importance of shaped input wavefunctions in enabling QI, and predicts unprecedented interactions between free electrons, bound electrons, and photons: (i) the vanishing of the zero-loss peak by destructive QI when a shaped electron wavepacket couples to light, under conditions where the electron's zero-loss peak otherwise dominates; (ii) QI between free electron and atomic (bound electron) spontaneous emission processes, which can be significant even when the free electron and atom are far apart, breaking the common notion that electron and atom must be close by to significantly affect each other's processes. Our work shows that emerging quantum waveshaping techniques unlock the door to greater versatility in light-matter interactions and other quantum processes in general.

Non-equilibrium physics including many-body localization (MBL) has attracted increasing attentions, but theoretical approaches of reliably studying non-equilibrium properties remain quite limited. In this Letter, we propose a systematic approach to probe MBL phases on a digital quantum computer via the excited-state variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) and demonstrate convincing results of MBL on a quantum hardware, which we believe paves a promising way for future simulations of non-equilibrium systems beyond the reach of classical computations in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era. Moreover, the MBL probing protocol based on excited-state VQE is NISQ-friendly, as it can successfully differentiate the MBL phase from thermal phases with relatively-shallow quantum circuits, and it is also robust against the effect of quantum noises.

We propose a recipe for constructing a SIC fiducial vector in complex Hilbert space of dimension of the form $d=n^2+3$, focussing on prime dimensions $d=p$. Such structures are shown to exist in thirteen prime dimensions of this kind, the highest being $p=19603$.

The real quadratic base field $K$ (in the standard SIC terminology) attached to such dimensions has fundamental units $u_K$ of norm $-1$. Let $\mathbb{Z}_K$ denote the ring of integers of $K$, then $p\mathbb{Z}_K$ splits into two ideals $\mathfrak{p}$ and $\mathfrak{p}'$. The initial entry of the fiducial is the square $\xi^2$ of a geometric scaling factor $\xi$, which lies in one of the fields $K(\sqrt{u_K})$. Strikingly, the other $p-1$ entries of the fiducial vector are each the product of $\xi$ and the square root of a Stark unit. These Stark units are obtained via the Stark conjectures from the value at $s=0$ of the first derivatives of partial $L$ functions attached to the characters of the ray class group of $\mathbb{Z}_K$ with modulus $\mathfrak{p}\infty_1$, where $\infty_1$ is one of the real places of $K$.

Universal fault-tolerant quantum computers will require the use of efficient protocols to implement encoded operations necessary in the execution of algorithms. In this work, we show how solvers for satisfiability modulo theories (SMT solvers) can be used to automate the construction of Clifford circuits with certain fault-tolerance properties and we apply our techniques to a fault-tolerant magic-state-preparation protocol. Part of the protocol requires converting magic states encoded in the color code to magic states encoded in the surface code. Since the teleportation step involves decoding a color code merged with a surface code, we develop a decoding algorithm that is applicable to such codes.

We investigate the quantum entanglement in rapidity space of the soft gluon wave function of a quarkonium, in theories with non-trivial rapidity evolutions. We found that the rapidity evolution drastically changes the behavior of the entanglement entropy, at any given order in perturbation theory. At large $N_c$, the reduced density matrices that "resum" the leading rapidity-logs can be explicitly constructed, and shown to satisfy Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK)-like evolution equations. We study their entanglement entropy in a simplified $1+1$ toy model, and in 3D QCD. The entanglement entropy in these cases, after re-summation, is shown to saturate the Kolmogorov-Sinai bound of 1. Remarkably, in 3D QCD the essential growth rate of the entanglement entropy is found to vanish at large rapidities, a result of kinematical "quenching" in transverse space. The one-body reduction of the entangled density matrix obeys a BFKL evolution equation, which can be recast as an evolution in an emergent AdS space, at large impact-parameter and large rapidity. This observation allows the extension of the perturbative wee parton evolution at low-x, to a dual non-perturbative evolution of string bits in curved AdS$_5$ space, with manifest entanglement entropy in the confining regime.

We analyse the energy cost of building or demolishing a wall for a massless Dirac field in (1+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and the response of an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector to the generated radiation. For any smoothly-evolving wall, both the field's energy density and the detector's response are finite. In the limit of rapid wall creation or demolition, the energy density displays a delta function squared divergence. By contrast, the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector, evaluated within first-order perturbation theory, diverges only logarithmically in the duration of the wall evolution. The results add to the evidence that a localised matter system may not be as sensitive to the rapid wall creation as the local expectation values of field observables. This disparity has potential interest for quantum information preservation scenarios.

Although it is recognized that Anderson localization takes place for all states at a dimension $d$ less or equal $2$, while delocalization is expected for hopping $V(r)$ decreasing with the distance slower or as $r^{-d}$, the localization problem in the crossover regime for the dimension $d=2$ and hopping $V(r) \propto r^{-2}$ is not resolved yet. Following earlier suggestions we show that for the hopping determined by two-dimensional anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions there exist two distinguishable phases at weak and strong disorder. The first phase is characterized by ergodic dynamics and superdiffusive transport, while the second phase is characterized by diffusive transport and delocalized eigenstates with fractal dimension less than $2$. The transition between phases is resolved analytically using the extension of scaling theory of localization and verified using an exact numerical diagonalization.

In this manuscript we provide a consistent way of describing a localized non-relativistic quantum system undergoing a timelike trajectory in a background curved spacetime. Namely, using Fermi normal coordinates, we identify an inner product and canonically conjugate position and momentum operators defined in the rest space of the trajectory for each value of its proper time. This framework then naturally provides a recipe for mapping a quantum theory defined in a non-relativistic background to a theory around a timelike trajectory in curved spacetimes. This is done by reinterpreting the position and momentum operators and by introducing a local redshift factor to the Hamiltonian, which gives rise to new dynamics due to the curvature of spacetime and the acceleration of the trajectory. We then apply our formalism to particle detector models, that is, to the case where the non-relativistic quantum system is coupled to a quantum field in a curved background. This allows one to write a general definition for particle detector models which is able to recover the previous models in the literature. Our framework also allows one to estimate the regime of validity of these models, characterizing the situations where particle detectors can be used to accurately probe quantum fields.

We give a simple proof of the well known fact that the approximate eigenvalues provided by the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method are increasingly accurate upper bounds to the exact ones. To this end, we resort to the variational principle, mentioned in most textbooks on quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, and to a simple set of projection operators. We think that present approach may be suitable for an advanced course on quantum mechanics or quantum chemistry.

We examine the prospects of utilizing matter-wave Fabry-P\'{e}rot interferometers for enhanced inertial sensing applications. Our study explores such tunneling-based sensors for the measurement of accelerations in two configurations: (a) a transmission setup, where the initial wave packet is transmitted through the cavity and (b) an out-tunneling scheme with intra-cavity generated initial states lacking a classical counterpart. We perform numerical simulations of the complete dynamics of the quantum wave packet, investigate the tunneling through a matter-wave cavity formed by realistic optical potentials and determine the impact of interactions between atoms. As a consequence we estimate the prospective sensitivities to inertial forces for both proposed configurations and show their feasibility for serving as inertial sensors.

Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are used to model a variety of dynamical systems in science and engineering. Recent advances in deep learning have enabled us to solve them in a higher dimension by addressing the curse of dimensionality in new ways. However, deep learning methods are constrained by training time and memory. To tackle these shortcomings, we implement Tensor Neural Networks (TNN), a quantum-inspired neural network architecture that leverages Tensor Network ideas to improve upon deep learning approaches. We demonstrate that TNN provide significant parameter savings while attaining the same accuracy as compared to the classical Dense Neural Network (DNN). In addition, we also show how TNN can be trained faster than DNN for the same accuracy. We benchmark TNN by applying them to solve parabolic PDEs, specifically the Black-Scholes-Barenblatt equation, widely used in financial pricing theory, empirically showing the advantages of TNN over DNN. Further examples, such as the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, are also discussed.

The prosperous development of both hardware and algorithms for quantum computing (QC) potentially prompts a paradigm shift in scientific computing in various fields. As an increasingly active topic in QC, the variational quantum algorithm (VQA) leads a promising direction for solving partial differential equations on Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) devices. Although a clear perspective on the advantages of QC over classical computing techniques for specific mathematical and physical problems exists, applications of QC in computational fluid dynamics to solve practical flow problems, though promising, are still in an early stage of development. To explore QC in practical simulation of flow problems, this work applies a variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithm, namely the variational quantum linear solver (VQLS), to resolve the heat conduction equation through finite difference discretization of the Laplacian operator. Details of VQLS implementation are discussed by various test instances of linear systems. Finally, the successful statevector simulations of the heat conduction equation in one and two dimensions demonstrate the validity of the present algorithm by proof-of-concept results. In addition, the heuristic scaling for the heat conduction problem indicates that the time complexity of the present approach is logarithmically dependent on the precision {\epsilon} and linearly dependent on the number of qubits n.

Classical measurements are passive, in the sense that they do not affect the physical properties of the measured system. Normally, quantum measurements are not passive in that sense. In the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, however, we find that quantum projective measurement can be passive in a way which is impossible in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Specifically, we find that expectation value of a hermitian Hamiltonian can have an imaginary part in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space and that such an imaginary part implies a possibility to avoid quantum Zeno effect, which can physically be realized in quantum arrival experiments. The avoidance of quantum Zeno effect can also be understood as avoidance of a quantum version of gambler's fallacy, leading to the notion of passive quantum measurement that updates information about the physical system without affecting its physical properties. The arrival time probability distribution of a particle is found to be given by the flux of the probability current. Possible negative fluxes correspond to regimes at which there is no arrival at all, physically understood as regimes at which the particle departs rather than arrives.

Chemical reactions in the quantum degenerate regime are described by mixing of matterwave fields. Quantum coherence and bosonic enhancement are two unique features of many-body reactions involving bosonic reactants and products. Such collective reactions of chemicals, dubbed "super-chemistry", is an elusive goal in quantum chemistry research. Here we report the observation of coherent and collective reactive coupling between Bose condensed atoms and molecules near a Feshbach resonance. Starting from an atomic condensate, the reaction begins with a rapid formation of molecules, followed by oscillations of their populations in the equilibration process. Faster oscillations are observed in samples with higher densities, indicating bosonic enhancement. We present a quantum field model which describes the dynamics well and identifies three-body recombination as the dominant reaction process. Our findings exemplify the highly sought-after quantum many-body chemistry and offer a new paradigm for the control of quantum chemical reactions.

Based on a relationship with continuous-time random walks discovered by Igl\'oi, Turban, and Rieger [Phys. Rev. E {\bf 59}, 1465 (1999)], we derive exact lower and upper bounds on the lowest energy gap of open transverse-field Ising chains, which are explicit in the parameters and are generally valid for arbitrary sets of possibly random couplings and fields. In the homogeneous chain and in the random chain with uncorrelated parameters, both the lower and upper bounds are found to show the same finite-size scaling in the ferromagnetic phase and at the critical point, demonstrating the ability of these bounds to infer the correct finite-size scaling of the critical gap. Applying the bounds to random transverse-field Ising chains with coupling-field correlations, a model which is relevant for adiabatic quantum computing, the finite-size scaling of the gap is shown to be related to that of sums of independent random variables. We determine the critical dynamical exponent of the model and reveal the existence of logarithmic corrections at special points.

In statistical mechanics entropy is a measure of disorder obeying Boltzmann's formula $S=\log{\cal N}$, where ${\cal N}$ is the accessible phase space volume. In black hole thermodynamics one associates to a black hole an entropy Bekenstein-Hawking $S_{BH}$. It is well known that $S_{BH}$ is very large for astrophysical black holes, much larger than any collection of material objects that could have given rise to the black hole. If $S_{BH}$ is an entropy the question is thus what is the corresponding ${\cal N}$, and how come this very large phase space volume is only opened up to the universe by a gravitational collapse, which from another perspective looks like a massive loss of possibilities. I advance a hypothesis that the very large increase in entropy can perhaps be understood as an effect of classical gravity, which eventually bottoms out when quantum gravity comes into play. I compare and discuss a selection of the very rich literature around these questions.

Author(s): Xinyue Long, Wan-Ting He, Na-Na Zhang, Kai Tang, Zidong Lin, Hongfeng Liu, Xinfang Nie, Guanru Feng, Jun Li, Tao Xin, Qing Ai, and Dawei Lu

In open quantum systems, the precision of metrology inevitably suffers from the noise. In Markovian open quantum dynamics, the precision can not be improved by using entangled probes although the measurement time is effectively shortened. However, it was predicted over one decade ago that in a non-M…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 070502] Published Wed Aug 10, 2022

Author(s): Marek Kopciuch and Szymon Pustelny

Reliable tomography of a quantum state of atoms in room-temperature vapors offers interesting applications in quantum-information science. To step toward the applications, here, we theoretical investigate a technique of reconstruction of a collective density matrix of atoms in a state of a total ang…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022406] Published Wed Aug 10, 2022

Author(s): Ismail Yunus Akhalwaya, Yang-Hui He, Lior Horesh, Vishnu Jejjala, William Kirby, Kugendran Naidoo, and Shashanka Ubaru

The boundary operator is a linear operator that acts on a collection of high-dimensional binary points (simplices) and maps them to their boundaries. This boundary map is one of the key components in numerous applications, including differential equations, machine learning, computational geometry, m…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022407] Published Wed Aug 10, 2022

Author(s): Masakazu Yoshida and Gen Kimura

A general symmetric-informationally-complete (GSIC)–positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) is known to provide an optimal quantum state tomography among minimal IC POVMs with a fixed average purity. In this paper we provide a general construction of a GSIC POVM by means of a complete orthogonal bas…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022408] Published Wed Aug 10, 2022