The Decodoku project seeks to let users get hands-on with cutting-edge quantum research through a set of simple puzzle games. The design of these games is explicitly based on the problem of decoding qudit variants of surface codes. This problem is presented such that it can be tackled by players with no prior knowledge of quantum information theory, or any other high-level physics or mathematics. Methods devised by the players to solve the puzzles can then directly be incorporated into decoding algorithms for quantum computation. In this paper we give a brief overview of the novel decoding methods devised by players, and provide short postmortem for Decodoku v1.0-v4.1.

We discuss a generalization of the conditional entropy and one-way information deficit in quantum systems, based on general entropic forms. The formalism allows to consider simple entropic forms for which a closed evaluation of the associated optimization problem in qudit-qubit systems is shown to become feasible, allowing to approximate that of the quantum discord. As application, we examine quantum correlations of spin pairs in the exact ground state of finite $XY$ spin chains in a magnetic field through the quantum discord and information deficit. While these quantities show a similar behavior, their optimizing measurements exhibit significant differences, which can be understood and predicted through the previous approximations. The remarkable behavior of these quantities in the vicinity of transverse and non-transverse factorizing fields is also discussed.

Dissipation can fundamentally influence quantum many-body systems and their phase transitions in often counter-intuitive ways. For example, new universality classes emerge in driven-dissipative systems, and dissipation can generate topological effects. Open system dynamics is particularly relevant as state of the art experiments are able to engineer and control dissipation channels. Concurrently, due to the inapplicability of the framework of equilibrium statistical physics, our understanding of driven-dissipative models remains limited. Here, we explore the influence of dissipation on a paradigmatic driven-dissipative model, hosting a multicritical point and phase transitions breaking discrete and continuous symmetries. We show that already infinitesimal dissipation radically alters the model's phase diagram, resulting in rich phenomena, including a splitting of the multicritical point into two tricritical points, coexistence of phases, and relics of the continuous symmetry in rotated order parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the model's quantum fluctuations and find that the dissipation-induced tricritical points which mark the meeting between first- and second-order symmetry-breaking transitions exhibit anomalous finite fluctuations, as opposed to standard tricritical points arising in $^3He-^4He$ mixtures. Our work has direct implications for a variety of fields, including cold atoms and ions in optical cavities, circuit-quantum electrodynamics, THz light-matter systems as well as optomechanical systems.

I rebut some erroneous statements and attempt to clear up some misunderstandings in a recent set of critical remarks by Marchildon regarding the Relativistic Transactional Interpretation (RTI), showing that his negative conclusions regarding the transactional model are ill-founded.

We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the optomechanical coupling in the simplest model of two harmonic oscillators. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cram\'er-Rao inequality for the estimation and accuracy of the coupling's value. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases, where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and only prior expectations on the coupling strength are reassured. We show that this situations involve also the highest expected information losses. It is demonstrated that interaction times in the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for this type of estimation scenario. We also compare situations involving different initial photon and phonon excitations.

Quantification starts with sum and product rules that express combination and partition. These rules rest on elementary symmetries that have wide applicability, which explains why arithmetical adding up and splitting into proportions are ubiquitous. Specifically, measure theory formalises addition, and probability theory formalises inference in terms of proportions. Quantum theory rests on the same simple symmetries, but is formalised in two dimensions, not just one, in order to track an object through its binary interactions with other objects. The symmetries still require sum and product rules (here known as the Feynman rules), but they apply to complex numbers instead of real scalars, with observable probabilities being modulus-squared (known as the Born rule). The standard quantum formalism follows. There is no mystery or weirdness, just ordinary probabilistic inference.

The spectral singularity (SS) and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) have been extensively studied over the last one and half decade for different non-Hermitian potentials in non-Hermitian standard quantum mechanics (SQM) governed by Schrodinger equation. In the present work we explore these scattering features in the domain of non-Hermitian space fractional quantum mechanics (SFQM) governed by fractional Schrodinger equation which is characterized by Levy index $\alpha$ ($ 1< \alpha \leq 2$). We observe that non-Hermitian SFQM systems have more flexibility for SS and CPA and display some new features of scattering. For the delta potential $V(x)=-i\rho \delta (x-x_{0})$, $\rho > 0$, the SS energy, $E_{ss}$, is blue or red shifted with decreasing $\alpha$ depending the strength of the potential. For complex rectangular barrier in non-Hermitian SQM, it is known that the reflection and transmission amplitudes are oscillatory near the spectral singular point. It is found that these oscillations eventually develop SS in non-Hermitian SFQM. The similar features is also reported for the case of CPA phenomena from complex rectangular barrier in non-Hermitian SFQM. These observations suggest a deeper relation between scattering features of non-Hermitian SQM and non-Hermitian SFQM.

We investigate novel protocols for entanglement purification of qubit Bell pairs. Employing discrete optimization algorithms for the design of the purification circuit, we obtain shorter circuits achieving higher success rates and better final fidelities than what is currently available in the literature. We provide a software tool for analytical and numerical study of the generated purification circuits, under customizable error models. These new purification protocols pave the way to practical implementations of modular quantum computers and quantum repeaters.

We study the relation between the coherence of assistance and the regularized coherence of assistance introduced by Chitambar et al. [E. Chitambar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 070402 (2016)]. The necessary and sufficient conditions that these two quantities coincide are provided. Detailed examples are analyzed and the optimal pure state decompositions such that the coherence of assistance equals the regularized coherence of assistance are derived. Moreover, we present the protocol for obtaining the maximal relative entropy coherence, assisted by another party under local measurement and one-way communication in one copy setting.

In this paper, we analyze the evolution of quantum coherence in a two-qubit system going through the amplitude damping channel. After they have gone through this channel many times, we analyze the systems with respect to the coherence of their output states. When only one subsystem goes through the channel, frozen coherence occurs if and only if this subsystem is incoherent and an auxiliary condition is satisfied for the other subsystem. When two subsystems go through this quantum channel, quantum coherence can be frozen if and only if the two subsystems are both incoherent. We also investigate the evolution of coherence for maximally incoherent-coherent states and derive an equation for the output states after one or two subsystems have gone through the amplitude damping channel.

The Solovay-Kitaev theorem states that universal quantum gate sets can be exchanged with low overhead. More specifically, any gate on a fixed number of qudits can be simulated with error $\epsilon$ using merely $\mathrm{polylog}(1/\epsilon)$ gates from any finite universal quantum gate set $\mathcal{G}$. One drawback to the theorem is that it requires the gate set $\mathcal{G}$ to be closed under inversion. Here we show that this restriction can be traded for the assumption that $\mathcal{G}$ contains an irreducible representation of any finite group $G$. This extends recent work of Sardharwalla et al. [arXiv:1602.07963], which proved the same theorem in the case that $G$ is the Weyl group, and applies also to gates from the special linear group. Our work can be seen as partial progress towards the long-standing open problem of proving an inverse-free Solovay-Kitaev theorem [arXiv:quant-ph/0505030, arXiv:0908.0512].

We study the holographic complexity of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity using the recently proposed "complexity = volume" and "complexity = action" dualities. The model we consider has a ground state that is represented in the bulk via a so-called hyperscaling violating geometry. We calculate the action growth of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch of the corresponding black hole solution at non-zero temperature and find that, in the presence of violations of hyperscaling, there is a parametric enhancement of the action growth rate. We partially match this behavior to simple tensor network models which can capture aspects of hyperscaling violation. We also exhibit the switchback effect in complexity growth using shockwave geometries and comment on a subtlety of our action calculations when the metric is discontinuous at a null surface.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security in communication based on the laws of quantum physics. In this work, we report an implementation of quantum-secured data transmission in standard communication lines in Moscow. The experiment is realized on the basis of the already deployed urban fibre-optic communication channels with significant losses. We realize the decoy-state BB84 QKD protocol using the one-way scheme with polarization encoding for generating keys. Quantum-generated keys are then used for continuous key renewal in the hardware devices for establishing a quantum-secured VPN Tunnel. Such a hybrid approach offers possibilities for long-term protection of the transmitted data, and it is promising for integrating into the already existing information security infrastructure.

The current shift in the quantum optics community towards large-size experiments -- with many modes and photons -- necessitates new classical simulation techniques that go beyond the usual phase space formulation of quantum mechanics. To address this pressing demand we formulate linear quantum optics in the language of tensor network states. As a toy model, we extensively analyze the quantum and classical correlations of time-bin interference in a single fiber loop. We then generalize our results to more complex time-bin quantum setups and identify different classes of architectures for high-complexity and low-overhead boson sampling experiments.

Since the dawn of quantum theory, coherence was attributed as a key to understand the weirdness of fundamental concepts like the wave-particle duality and the Stern-Gerlach experiment. Recently, based on a resource theory approach, the notion of quantum coherence was revisited and a plethora of coherence quantifiers were proposed. In this work, we address this issue using the language of coherence orders, developed by the NMR community. This allowed us to investigate the role played by different subspaces of the Hilbert-Schmidt space into physical processes and quantum protocols. We found some links between decoherence and each coherence order. Moreover, we propose a sufficient and straightforward criterion to testify the usefulness of a given state for quantum enhanced phase estimation, relying on a minimal set of elements belonging to the density matrix.

A propagation method for the scattering of a quantum wave packet from a potential surface is presented. It is used to model the quantum reflection of single atoms from a corrugated (metallic) surface. Our numerical procedure works well in two spatial dimensions requiring only reasonable amounts of memory and computing time. The effects of the surface corrugation on the reflectivity are investigated via simulations with a paradigm potential. These indicate that our approach should allow for future tests of realistic, effective potentials obtained from theory in a quantitative comparison to experimental data.

We discuss the relaxation dynamics for a bosonic tunneling junction with two modes in the central potential well. We use a master equation description for ultracold bosons tunneling in the presence of noise and incoherent coupling processes into the two central modes. Whilst we cannot quantitatively reproduce the experimental data of the setup reported in [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 115}, 050601 (2015)], we find a reasonable qualitative agreement of the refilling process of the initially depleted central site. Our results may pave the way for the control of bosonic tunneling junctions by the simultaneous presence of decoherence processes and atom-atom interaction.

Quantum-resonance ratchets have been realized over the last ten years for the production of directed currents of atoms. These non-dissipative systems are based on the interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an optical standing wave potential to produce a current of atoms in momentum space. In this paper we provide a review of the important features of these ratchets with a particular emphasis on their optimization using more complex initial states. We also examine their stability close to resonance conditions of the kicking. Finally we discuss the way in which these ratchets may pave the way for applications in quantum (random) walks and matter-wave interferometry.

Quantum computations are expressed in general as quantum circuits, which are specified by ordered lists of quantum gates. The resulting specifications are used during the optimisation and execution of the expressed computations. However, the specification format makes it is difficult to verify that optimised or executed computations still conform to the initial gate list specifications: showing the computational equivalence between two quantum circuits expressed by different lists of quantum gates is exponentially complex in the worst case. In order to solve this issue, this work presents a derivation of the specification format tailored specifically for fault-tolerant quantum circuits. The circuits are considered a form consisting entirely of single qubit initialisations, CNOT gates and single qubit measurements (ICM form). This format allows, under certain assumptions, to efficiently verify optimised (or implemented) computations. Two verification methods based on checking stabiliser circuit structures are presented.

The RT formula for static spacetimes arising in the AdS/CFT correspondence satisfies inequalities that are not yet proven in the case of the HRT formula, which applies to general dynamical spacetimes. Wall's maximin construction is the only known technique for extending inequalities of holographic entanglement entropy from the static to dynamical case. We show that this method currently has no further utility when dealing with inequalities for five or fewer regions. Despite this negative result, we propose the validity of one new inequality for covariant holographic entanglement entropy for five regions. This inequality, while not maximin provable, is much weaker than many of the inequalities satisfied by the RT formula and should therefore be easier to prove. If it is valid, then there is strong evidence that holographic entanglement entropy plays a role in general spacetimes including those that arise in cosmology. Our new inequality is obtained by the assumption that the HRT formula satisfies every known balanced inequality obeyed by the Shannon entropies of classical probability distributions. This is a property that the RT formula has been shown to possess and which has been previously conjectured to hold for quantum mechanics in general.