This work provides a comprehensive method to analyze the entanglement between subsystems generated by identical particles that preserves superselection rules (SSR), i.e., particle number SSR (NSSR) for bosons and parity SSR (PSSR) for fermions. Contrary to the common belief that the quantification of identical particles' entanglement needs some special techniques, it can be treated in a fundamentally equivalent manner to the non-identical particles' entanglement, which is achieved by the combination of symmetric/exterior algebra (SEA) and microcausality. We also show that the total Hilbert space of identical particles is factorized according to the local distribution of subsystems. This formal correspondence between identical and non-identical particle systems turns out very useful to quantify the non-locality generated by identical particles, such as the maximal Bell inequality violation and the GHJW theorem of identical particles.

It has long been known that long-ranged entangled topological phases can be exploited to protect quantum information against unwanted local errors. Indeed, conditions for intrinsic topological order are reminiscent of criteria for faithful quantum error correction. At the same time, the promise of using general topological orders for practical error correction remains largely unfulfilled to date. In this work, we significantly contribute to establishing such a connection by showing that Abelian twisted quantum double models can be used for quantum error correction. By exploiting the group cohomological data sitting at the heart of these lattice models, we transmute the terms of these Hamiltonians into full-rank, pairwise commuting operators, defining commuting stabilizers. The resulting codes are defined by non-Pauli commuting stabilizers, with local systems that can either be qubits or higher dimensional quantum systems. Thus, this work establishes a new connection between condensed matter physics and quantum information theory, and constructs tools to systematically devise new topological quantum error correcting codes beyond toric or surface code models.

A longstanding problem in quantum metrology is how to extract as much information as possible in realistic scenarios with not only multiple unknown parameters, but also limited measurement data and some degree of prior information. Here we present a practical solution to this: we derive a new Bayesian multi-parameter quantum bound, construct the optimal measurement when our bound can be saturated for a single shot and consider experiments involving a repeated sequence of these measurements. Our method properly accounts for the number of measurements and the degree of prior information, and we illustrate our ideas with a qubit sensing network and a model for phase imaging, clarifying the non-asymptotic role of local and global schemes. Crucially, our technique is a powerful way of implementing quantum protocols in a wide range of practical scenarios that tools such as the Helstrom and Holevo Cram\'{e}r-Rao bounds cannot normally access.

We present the application of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) to the task of astronomical image classification using a quantum annealer built by D-Wave Systems. Morphological analysis of galaxies provides critical information for studying their formation and evolution across cosmic time scales. We compress galaxy images using principal component analysis to fit a representation on the quantum hardware. Then, we train RBMs with discriminative and generative algorithms, including contrastive divergence and hybrid generative-discriminative approaches, to classify different galaxy morphologies. The methods we compare include Quantum Annealing (QA), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs Sampling, and Simulated Annealing (SA) as well as machine learning algorithms like gradient boosted decision trees. We find that RBMs implemented on D-Wave hardware perform well, and that they show some classification performance advantages on small datasets, but they don't offer a broadly strategic advantage for this task. During this exploration, we analyzed the steps required for Boltzmann sampling with the D-Wave 2000Q, including a study of temperature estimation, and examined the impact of qubit noise by comparing and contrasting the original D-Wave 2000Q to the lower-noise version recently made available. While these analyses ultimately had minimal impact on the performance of the RBMs, we include them for reference.

The idea that non-local correlations stronger than quantum correlations between two no-signaling systems could theoretically exist is based on an incorrect statistical interpretation of the no-signaling condition. This article shows that any physically realizable no-signaling box involving local incompatible observables indeed requires to be described in a non-commutative, quantum-like language of operators -which leads to the derivation of the Tsirelson bound and then contradicts this idea.

Fracton phases exhibit striking behavior which appears to render them beyond the standard topological quantum field theory (TQFT) paradigm for classifying gapped quantum matter. Here, we explore fracton phases from the perspective of defect TQFTs and show that topological defect networks---networks of topological defects embedded in stratified 3+1D TQFTs---provide a unified framework for describing various types of gapped fracton phases. In this picture, the sub-dimensional excitations characteristic of fractonic matter are a consequence of mobility restrictions imposed by the defect network. We conjecture that all gapped phases, including fracton phases, admit a topological defect network description and support this claim by explicitly providing such a construction for many well-known fracton models, including the X-Cube and Haah's B code. To highlight the generality of our framework, we also provide a defect network construction of a novel fracton phase hosting non-Abelian fractons. As a byproduct of this construction, we obtain a generalized membrane-net description for fractonic ground states as well as an argument that our conjecture implies no type-II topological fracton phases exist in 2+1D gapped systems. Our work also sheds light on new techniques for constructing higher order gapped boundaries of 3+1D TQFTs.

The realization of a long-distance, distributed quantum network based on quantum memory nodes that are linked by photonic channels remains an outstanding challenge. We propose a quantum network node based on neutral alkali atoms coupled to nanophotonic crystal cavities that combines a long-lived memory qubit with a photonic interface at the telecom range, thereby enabling the long-distance distribution of entanglement over low loss optical fibers. We present a novel protocol for the generation of an atom-photon entangled state which uses telecom transitions between excited states of the alkali atoms. We analyze the realistic implementation of this protocol using rubidium and cesium atoms taking into account the full atomic level structure and properties of the nanophotonic crystal cavity. We find that a high fidelity entangled state can be generated with current technologies

Extensive quantum error correction is necessary in order to perform a useful computation on a noisy quantum computer. Moreover, quantum error correction must be implemented based on imperfect parity check measurements that may return incorrect outcomes or inject additional faults into the qubits. To achieve fault-tolerant error correction, Shor proposed to repeat the sequence of parity check measurements until the same outcome is observed sufficiently many times. Then, one can use this information to perform error correction. A basic implementation of this fault tolerance strategy requires $\Omega(r d^2)$ parity check measurements for a distance-d code defined by r parity checks. For some specific highly structured quantum codes, Bombin has shown that single-shot fault-tolerant quantum error correction is possible using only r measurements. In this work, we demonstrate that fault-tolerant quantum error correction can be achieved using $O(d \log(d))$ measurements for any code with distance $d \geq \Omega(n^\alpha)$ for some constant $\alpha > 0$. Moreover, we prove the existence of a sub-single-shot fault-tolerant quantum error correction scheme using fewer than r measurements. In some cases, the number of parity check measurements required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction is exponentially smaller than the number of parity checks defining the code.

Several quantum cryptographic schemes have been proposed and realized experimentally in the past. However, even with an advancement in quantum technology and escalated interest in the designing of direct secure quantum communication schemes there are not many experimental implementations of these cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we have provided a set of optical circuits for such quantum cryptographic schemes, which have not yet been realized experimentally by modifying some of our theoretically proposed secure communication schemes. Specifically, we have proposed optical designs for the implementation of two single photon and one entangled state based controlled quantum dialogue schemes and subsequently reduced our optical designs to yield simpler designs for realizing other secure quantum communication tasks, i.e., controlled deterministic secure quantum communication, quantum dialogue, quantum secure direct communication, quantum key agreement, and quantum key distribution. We have further proposed an optical design for an entanglement swapping based deterministic secure quantum communication and its controlled counterpart.

Tensor network (TN) techniques - often used in the context of quantum many-body physics - have shown promise as a tool for tackling machine learning (ML) problems. The application of TNs to ML, however, has mostly focused on supervised and unsupervised learning. Yet, with their direct connection to hidden Markov chains, TNs are also naturally suited to Markov decision processes (MDPs) which provide the foundation for reinforcement learning (RL). Here we introduce a general TN formulation of finite, episodic and discrete MDPs. We show how this formulation allows us to exploit algorithms developed for TNs for policy optimisation, the key aim of RL. As an application we consider the issue - formulated as an RL problem - of finding a stochastic evolution that satisfies specific dynamical conditions, using the simple example of random walk excursions as an illustration.

The motion of an electron in an image field and a blocking electric field is considered in semiclassical approximation. An exact analytical expression is found for the density of the energy spectrum of states. The dependence of spectral density on energy is obtained in a wide range of electric field strengths. The energy ranges with a qualitatively different structure of the spectrum are determined.

Through quantum mechanical considerations, we optimize the material response factor $|\chi|^2/\text{Im}\left[\chi \right]$, which plays a pivotal role in the fundamental limits of near-field radiative heat transfer (RHT). A comparison of the limits obtained to experimental data for select materials shows that current materials fall several orders of magnitude short of the optimized values, suggesting the possibility of significant improvement in the rate of radiative heat transfer between two bodies. This work informs material design efforts that seek to optimize RHT, as well as provides insights into the quantum origins of RHT and the theory of fundamental limits.

We demonstrate a new approach to the generation of custom entangled many-body states through reservoir engineering, using the symmetry properties of bosonic lattice systems coupled to a local squeezed reservoir. We outline an algorithm where, beginning with a desired set of squeezing correlations, one uses the symmetry to constrain the Hamiltonian and find a lattice configuration which stabilizes a pure steady state realizing these correlations. We demonstrate how to use this process to stabilize two unique pure states with non-local correlations that could be useful for quantum information applications. First, we show how drive a square lattice into a product state of entangled quadruplets of sites. Second, using a bisected system, we generate a steady state where local measurements in one half of the lattice herald a pure delocalized state in the second half.

We consider a generation of two-particle quantum states in the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion of light by a dielectric nanoparticle with $\chi^{(2)}$ response. As a particular example, we study the generation of surface plasmon-polariton pairs with an AlGaAs nanoparticle located at the silver-air interface. We show that for particular excitation geometries, N00N-states of surface plasmon-polariton pairs could be obtained. The effect can be physically interpreted as a result of quantum interference between pairs of induced sources, each emitting either signal or idler plasmon. We then relate the resulting N00N-pattern to the general symmetry properties of dyadic Green's function of a dipole emitter exciting surface waves. It renders the considered effect as a general way towards a robust generation of N00N-states of surface waves using spontaneous parametric down-conversion in $\chi^{(2)}$ nanoparticles.

Quantum annealing is a generic solver for optimization problems that uses fictitious quantum fluctuation. The most groundbreaking progress in the research field of quantum annealing is its hardware implementation, i.e., the so-called quantum annealer, using artificial spins. However, the connectivity between the artificial spins is sparse and limited on a special network known as the chimera graph. Several embedding techniques have been proposed, but the number of logical spins, which represents the optimization problems to be solved, is drastically reduced. In particular, an optimization problem including fully or even partly connected spins suffers from low embeddable size on the chimera graph. In the present study, we propose an alternative approach to solve a large-scale optimization problem on the chimera graph via a well-known method in statistical mechanics called the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation or its variants. The proposed method can be used to deal with a fully connected Ising model without embedding on the chimera graph and leads to nontrivial results of the optimization problem. We tested the proposed method with a number of partition problems involving solving linear equations and the traffic flow optimization problem in Sendai and Kyoto cities in Japan.

In this work, we generalize the graph-theoretic techniques used for the holographic entropy cone to study hypergraphs and their analogously-defined entropy cone. This allows us to develop a framework to efficiently compute entropies and prove inequalities satisfied by hypergraphs. In doing so, we discover a class of quantum entropy vectors which reach beyond those of holographic states and obey constraints intimately related to the ones obeyed by stabilizer states and linear ranks. We show that, at least up to 4 parties, the hypergraph cone is identical to the stabilizer entropy cone, thus demonstrating that the hypergraph framework is broadly applicable to the study of entanglement entropy. We conjecture that this equality continues to hold for higher party numbers and report on partial progress on this direction. To physically motivate this conjectured equivalence, we also propose a plausible method inspired by tensor networks to construct a quantum state from a given hypergraph such that their entropy vectors match.

The Siegert relation relates the electric field and intensity correlations of light, under given assumptions. After a brief history of intensity correlations, we give a derivation of the relation. Then we present an experiment, which can be easily adapted for an undergraduate setup, and that allows measuring both field and intensity correlations at the same time, thus providing a direct test of the Siegert relation. As a conclusion, we discuss typical situations where the relation fails.

An approach to quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator (DHO) is developed on the basis of a modified Bateman Lagrangian (MBL); thereby some quantum mechanical aspects of the DHO are clarified. We treat the energy operator for the DHO, in addition to the Hamiltonian operator that is determined from the MBL and corresponds to the total energy of the system. It is demonstrated that the energy eigenvalues of the DHO exponentially decrease with time and that transitions between the energy eigenstates occur in accordance with the Schr\"{o}dinger equation. Also, it is pointed out that a new critical parameter discriminates different behaviours of transition probabilities.

The main goal of this work is to provide an insight into the problem of discrimination of positive operator valued measures with rank-one effects. It is our intention to study multiple shot discrimination of such measurements, that is the case when we are able to use to unknown measurement a given number of times. Furthermore, we are interested in comparing two possible discrimination schemes: the parallel and adaptive ones. To this end we construct a pair of symmetric, information complete positive operator valued measures which can be perfectly discriminated in a two-shot adaptive scheme. On top of this we provide an explicit algorithm which allows us to find this adaptive scheme.

Coherent, optically dressed media composed of two-level atomic systems without inversion symmetry are considered as all-optically tunable sources of coherent radiation in the microwave to near-infrared domain. Here, a theoretical model and a numerical toolbox are developed to account for buildup and propagation dynamics of such low-frequency impulses in gaseous or bulk media. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and make a performance study in conditions representative for vapors of heteronuclear diatomic molecules to identify realistic experimental scenarios.