Physics

KAM-Stability for Conserved Quantities in Finite-Dimensional Quantum Systems. (arXiv:2011.04707v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We show that for any finite-dimensional quantum systems the conserved quantities can be characterized by their robustness to small perturbations: for fragile symmetries small perturbations can lead to large deviations over long times, while for robust symmetries their expectation values remain close to their initial values for all times. This is in analogy with the celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem in classical mechanics. To prove this remarkable result, we introduce a resummation of a perturbation series, which generalizes the Hamiltonian of the quantum Zeno dynamics.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Estimating expectation values using approximate quantum states. (arXiv:2011.04754v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We introduce an approximate description of an $N$-qubit state, which contains sufficient information to estimate the expectation value of any observable to a precision that is upper bounded by the ratio of a suitably-defined seminorm of the observable to the square root of the number of the system's identical preparations $M$, with no explicit dependence on $N$. We describe an operational procedure for constructing the approximate description of the state that requires, besides the quantum state preparation, only single-qubit rotations followed by single-qubit measurements. We show that following this procedure, the cardinality of the resulting description of the state grows as $3MN$. We test the proposed method on Rigetti's quantum processor unit with 12, 16 and 25 qubits for random states and random observables, and find an excellent agreement with the theory, despite experimental errors.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Single organic molecules for photonic quantum technologies. (arXiv:2011.05059v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

Isolating single molecules in the solid state has allowed fundamental experiments in basic and applied sciences. When cooled down to liquid helium temperature, certain molecules show transition lines, that are tens of megahertz wide, limited only by the excited state lifetime. The extreme flexibility in the synthesis of organic materials provides, at low costs, a wide palette of emission wavelengths and supporting matrices for such single chromophores. In the last decades, the controlled coupling to photonic structures has led to an optimized interaction efficiency with light. Molecules can hence be operated as single photon sources and as non-linear elements with competitive performance in terms of coherence, scalability and compatibility with diverse integrated platforms. Moreover, they can be used as transducers for the optical read-out of fields and material properties, with the promise of single-quanta resolution in the sensing of charges and motion. We show that quantum emitters based on single molecules hold promise to play a key role in the development of quantum science and technologies.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Quantum Preparation Games. (arXiv:2011.02216v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

A preparation game is a task whereby a player sequentially sends a number of quantum states to a referee, who probes each of them and announces the measurement result. The measurement setting in each round, as well as the final score of the game, are decided by the referee based on the past history of settings and measurement outcomes. Many experimental tasks in quantum information, such as entanglement quantification or magic state detection, can be cast as preparation games. In this paper, we introduce general methods to design $n$-round preparation games, with tight bounds on the average game scores achievable by players subject to constraints on their preparation devices. We illustrate our results by devising new adaptive measurement protocols for entanglement detection and quantification. Surprisingly, we find that the standard procedure in entanglement detection, namely, estimating $n$ times the average value of a given entanglement witness, is in general sub-optimal for detecting the entanglement of a specific quantum state. On the contrary, there exist $n$-round experimental scenarios where detecting the entanglement of a known state optimally requires adaptive measurement schemes.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Beyond the standard quantum limit of parametric amplification. (arXiv:2011.00914v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

The low-noise amplification of weak microwave signals is crucial for countless protocols in quantum information processing. Quantum mechanics sets an ultimate lower limit of half a photon to the added input noise for phase-preserving amplification of narrowband signals, also known as the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit, which is equivalent to a maximum quantum efficiency of $0.5$, can be overcome by employing nondegenerate parametric amplification of broadband signals. We show that, in principle, a maximum quantum efficiency of 1 can be reached. Experimentally, we find a quantum efficiency of $0.69 \pm 0.02$, well beyond the SQL, by employing a flux-driven Josephson parametric amplifier and broadband thermal signals. We expect that our results allow for fundamental improvements in the detection of ultraweak microwave signals.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Seamless high-Q microwave cavities for multimode circuit QED. (arXiv:2010.16382v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

Multimode cavity quantum electrodynamics ---where a two-level system interacts simultaneously with many cavity modes---provides a versatile framework for quantum information processing and quantum optics. Due to the combination of long coherence times and large interaction strengths, one of the leading experimental platforms for cavity QED involves coupling a superconducting circuit to a 3D microwave cavity. In this work, we realize a 3D multimode circuit QED system with single photon lifetimes of $2$ ms and cooperativities of $0.5-1.5\times10^9$ across 9 modes of a novel seamless cavity. We demonstrate a variety of protocols for universal single-mode quantum control applicable across all cavity modes, using only a single drive line. We achieve this by developing a straightforward flute method for creating monolithic superconducting microwave cavities that reduces loss while simultaneously allowing control of the mode spectrum and mode-qubit interaction. We highlight the flexibility and ease of implementation of this technique by using it to fabricate a variety of 3D cavity geometries, providing a template for engineering multimode quantum systems with exceptionally low dissipation. This work is an important step towards realizing hardware efficient random access quantum memories and processors, and for exploring quantum many-body physics with photons.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Optical coherence transfer mediated by free electrons. (arXiv:2010.14948v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We investigate theoretically the quantum-coherence properties of the cathodoluminescence (CL) emission produced by a temporally modulated electron beam. Specifically, we consider the quantum-optical correlations of CL from electrons that are previously shaped by a laser field. The main prediction here is the presence of phase correlations between the emitted CL field and the electron-modulating laser, even though the emission intensity and spectral profile are independent of the electron state. In addition, the coherence of the CL field extends to harmonics of the laser frequency. Since electron beams can be focused to below one Angstrom, their ability to transfer optical coherence could enable ultra precise excitation, manipulation, and spectroscopy of nanoscale quantum systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Satellite-based Distribution of Hybrid Entanglement. (arXiv:2010.10882v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

Heterogeneous quantum networks consisting of mixed-technologies - Continuous Variable (CV) and Discrete Variable (DV) - will become ubiquitous as global quantum communication matures. Hybrid quantum-entanglement between CV and DV modes will be a critical resource in such networks. A leading candidate for such hybrid quantum entanglement is that between Schr\"odinger-cat states and photon-number states. In this work, we explore the use of Two-Mode Squeezed Vacuum (TMSV) states, distributed from satellites, as a teleportation resource for the re-distribution of our candidate hybrid entanglement pre-stored within terrestrial quantum networks. We determine the loss conditions under which teleportation via the TMSV resource outperforms direct-satellite distribution of the hybrid entanglement, in addition to quantifying the advantage of teleporting the DV mode relative to the CV mode. Our detailed calculations show that under the loss conditions anticipated from Low-Earth-Orbit, DV teleportation via the TMSV resource will always provide for significantly improved outcomes, relative to other means for distributing hybrid entanglement within heterogeneous quantum networks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Dispersive readout of Majorana qubits. (arXiv:2009.00027v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We analyze a readout scheme for Majorana qubits based on dispersive coupling to a resonator. We consider two variants of Majorana qubits: the Majorana transmon and the Majorana box qubit. In both cases, the qubit-resonator interaction can produce sizeable dispersive shifts in the MHz range for reasonable system parameters, allowing for submicrosecond readout with high fidelity. For Majorana transmons, the light-matter interaction used for readout manifestly conserves Majorana parity, which leads to a notion of quantum nondemolition (QND) readout that is stronger than for conventional charge qubits. In contrast, Majorana box qubits only recover an approximately QND readout mechanism in the dispersive limit where the resonator detuning is large. We also compare dispersive readout to longitudinal readout for the Majorana box qubit. We show that the latter gives faster and higher fidelity readout for reasonable parameters, while having the additional advantage of being manifestly QND, and so may prove to be a better readout mechanism for these systems.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Geometric aspects of analog quantum search evolutions. (arXiv:2008.07675v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We use geometric concepts originally proposed by Anandan and Aharonov to show that the Farhi-Gutmann time optimal analog quantum search evolution between two orthogonal quantum states is characterized by unit efficiency dynamical trajectories traced on a projective Hilbert space. In particular, we prove that these optimal dynamical trajectories are the shortest geodesic paths joining the initial and the final states of the quantum evolution. In addition, we verify they describe minimum uncertainty evolutions specified by an uncertainty inequality that is tighter than the ordinary time-energy uncertainty relation. We also study the effects of deviations from the time optimality condition from our proposed Riemannian geometric perspective. Furthermore, after pointing out some physically intuitive aspects offered by our geometric approach to quantum searching, we mention some practically relevant physical insights that could emerge from the application of our geometric analysis to more realistic time-dependent quantum search evolutions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible extensions of our work to the geometric analysis of the efficiency of thermal trajectories of relevance in quantum computing tasks.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Qudits and high-dimensional quantum computing. (arXiv:2008.00959v4 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

Qudit is a multi-level computational unit alternative to the conventional 2-level qubit. Compared to qubit, qudit provides a larger state space to store and process information, and thus can provide reduction of the circuit complexity, simplification of the experimental setup and enhancement of the algorithm efficiency. This review provides an overview of qudit-based quantum computing covering a variety of topics ranging from circuit building, algorithm design, to experimental methods. We first discuss the qudit gate universality and a variety of qudit gates including the pi/8 gate, the SWAP gate, and the multi-level-controlled gate. We then present the qudit version of several representative quantum algorithms including the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, and the phase estimation algorithm. Finally we discuss various physical realizations for qudit computation such as the photonic platform, iron trap, and nuclear magnetic resonance.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Sufficient conditions for adiabaticity in open quantum systems. (arXiv:2007.15138v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

The adiabatic approximation exhibits wide applicability in quantum mechanics, providing a simple approach for nontransitional dynamics in quantum systems governed by slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonians. However, the standard adiabatic theorem is specifically derived for closed quantum systems. In a realistic open system scenario, the inevitable system-reservoir interaction must be taken into account, which strongly impacts the generalization of the adiabatic behavior. In this paper, we introduce sufficient conditions for the adiabatic approximation in open quantum systems. These conditions are simple yet general, providing a suitable instrument to investigate adiabaticity for arbitrary initial mixed states evolving under time local master equations. We first illustrate our results by showing that the adiabatic approximation for open systems is compatible with the description of quantum thermodynamics at thermal equilibrium, where irreversible entropy production is vanishing. We also apply our sufficient conditions as a tool in quantum control, evaluating the adiabatic behavior for the Hamiltonians of both the Deutsch algorithm and the Landau-Zener model under decoherence.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Systems of random variables and the Free Will Theorem. (arXiv:2007.13229v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

The title refers to the Free Will Theorem by Conway and Kochen whose flashy formulation is: if experimenters possess free will, then so do particles. In more modest terms, the theorem says that individual pairs of spacelike separated particles cannot be described by deterministic systems provided their mixture is the same for all choices of measurement settings. We reformulate and generalize the Free Will Theorem theorem in terms of systems of random variables, and show that the proof is based on two observations: (1) some compound systems are contextual (non-local), and (2) any deterministic system with spacelike separated components is non-signaling. The contradiction between the two is obtained by showing that a mixture of non-signaling deterministic systems, if they exist, is always noncontextual. The "experimenters' free will" (independence) assumption is not needed for the proof: it is made redundant by the assumption (1) above, critical for the proof. We next argue that the reason why an individual pair of particles is not described by a deterministic system is more elementary than in the Free Will Theorem. A system, contextual or not and deterministic or not, includes several choices of settings, each of which can be factually used without changing the system. An individual pair of particles can only afford a single realization of random variables for a single choice of settings. With this conceptualization, the "free will of experimenters" cannot be even meaningfully formulated, and the choice between the determinism and "free will of particles" becomes arbitrary and inconsequential.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Generation, Characterization and Manipulation of Quantum Correlations in Electron Beams. (arXiv:2007.12128v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

Entanglement engineering plays a central role in quantum-enhanced technologies, with potential physical platforms that outperform their classical counterparts. However, free electrons remain largely unexplored despite their great capacity to encode and manipulate quantum information, due in part the lack of a suitable theoretical framework. Here we link theoretical concepts from quantum information to available free-electron sources. Specifically, we consider the interactions among electrons propagating near the surface of a polariton-supporting medium, and study the entanglement induced by pair-wise coupling. These correlations depend on controlled interaction interval and the initial electron bandwidth. We show that long interaction times of broadband electrons extend their temporal coherence. This in turn is revealed through a widened Hong-Ou-Mandel peak, and associated with an increased entanglement entropy. We then introduce a discrete basis of electronic temporal-modes, and discriminate between them via coincidence detection with a shaped probe. This paves the way for ultrafast quantum information transfer by means of free electrons, rendering the large alphabet that they span in the time domain accessible.

Categories: Journals, Physics

Composable Security for Multipartite Entanglement Verification. (arXiv:2004.07679v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

arXiv.org: Quantum Physics - Thu, 2020-11-12 23:23

We present a composably secure protocol allowing $n$ parties to test an entanglement generation resource controlled by a possibly dishonest party. The test consists only in local quantum operations and authenticated classical communication once a state is shared among them and provides composable security, namely it can be used as a secure subroutine by $n$ honest parties within larger communication protocols to test if a source is sharing quantum states that are at least $\epsilon$-close to the GHZ state. This claim comes on top of previous results on multipartite entanglement verification where the security was studied in the usual game-based model. Here, we improve the protocol to make it more suitable for practical use in a quantum network and we study its security in the Abstract Cryptography framework to highlight composability issues and avoid hidden assumptions. This framework is a top-to-bottom theory that makes explicit any piece of information that each component (party or resource) gets at every time-step of the protocol. Moreover any security proof, which amounts to showing indistinguishability between an ideal resource having the desired security properties (up to local simulation) and the concrete resource representing the protocol, is composable for free in this setting. This allows us to readily compose our basic protocol in order to create a composably secure multi-round protocol enabling honest parties to obtain a state close to a GHZ state or an abort signal, even in the presence of a noisy or malicious source. Our protocol can typically be used as a subroutine in a Quantum Internet, to securely share a GHZ state among the network before performing a communication or computation protocol.

Categories: Journals, Physics
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