We demonstrate that light quanta of well defined characteristics can be generated in a coupled two-level system of three atoms. The quantum nature of light is controlled by the entanglement structure, discord, and monogamy of the system which leads to sub and superradiant behavior as well as sub-Poissonian statistics, at lower temperatures. Two distinct phases with different entanglement characteristics are observed with uniform radiation in one case and the other displaying highly focused and anisotropic radiation in far field regime. At higher temperatures, sub and superradiant light is found to persist in the absence of entanglement but with non-zero quantum discord, showing bunching of photons. It is shown that the radiation intensity can be a precise estimator of the inter-atomic distance of coupled two-level atomic systems. Our investigation shows for the first time, the three body correlation in the form of `monogamy score' controlling sub and superradiant nature of radiation intensity.

Out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs) have received considerable recent attention as qualitative witnesses of information scrambling in many-body quantum systems. Theoretical discussions of OTOCs typically focus on closed systems, raising the question of their suitability as scrambling witnesses in realistic open systems. We demonstrate empirically that the nonclassical negativity of the quasiprobability distribution (QPD) behind the OTOC is a more sensitive witness for scrambling than the OTOC itself. Nonclassical features of the QPD evolve with timescales that are robust with respect to decoherence and are immune to false positives caused by decoherence. To reach this conclusion, we numerically simulate spin-chain dynamics and three measurement protocols (the interferometric, quantum-clock, and weak-measurement schemes) for measuring OTOCs. We target experiments based on quantum-computing hardware such as superconducting qubits and trapped ions.

We investigate the ground state phase diagram of square ice -- a U(1) lattice gauge theory in two spatial dimensions -- using gauge invariant tensor network techniques. By correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement diagnostics, we characterize its phases and the transitions between them, finding good agreement with previous studies. We study the entanglement properties of string excitations on top of the ground state, and provide direct evidence of the fact that the latter are described by a conformal field theory. Our results pave the way to the application of tensor network methods to confining, two-dimensional lattice gauge theories, to investigate their phase diagrams and low-lying excitations.

We investigate a quantum battery made of N two-level systems, which is charged by an optical mode via an energy-conserving interaction. We quantify the fraction E(N) of energy stored in the B battery that can be extracted in order to perform thermodynamic work. We first demonstrate that E(N) is highly reduced by the presence of correlations between the charger and the battery or B between the two-level systems composing the battery. We then show that the correlation-induced suppression of extractable energy, however, can be mitigated by preparing the charger in a coherent optical state. We conclude by proving that the charger-battery system is asymptotically free of such locking correlations in the N \to \infty limit.

Given a quantum gate circuit, how does one execute it in a fault-tolerant architecture with as little overhead as possible? In this paper, we discuss strategies for surface-code quantum computing on small, intermediate and large scales. They are strategies for space-time trade-offs, going from slow computations using few qubits to fast computations using many qubits. Our schemes are based on surface-code patches, which not only feature a low space cost compared to other surface-code schemes, but are also conceptually simple, simple enough that they can be described as a tile-based game with a small set of rules. Therefore, no knowledge of quantum error correction is necessary to understand the schemes in this paper, but only the concepts of qubits and measurements. As an example, assuming a physical error rate of $10^{-4}$ and a code cycle time of 1 $\mu$s, a classically intractable 100-qubit quantum computation with a $T$ count of $10^8$ and a $T$ depth of $10^6$ can be executed in 4 hours using 55,000 qubits, in 22 minutes using 120,000 qubits, or in 1 second using 330,000,000 qubits.

Quantum nonlocality is usually associated with entangled states by their violations of Bell-type inequalities. However, even unentangled systems, whose parts may have been prepared separately, can show nonlocal properties. In particular, a set of product states is said to exhibit "quantum nonlocality without entanglement" if the states are locally indistinguishable, i.e. it is not possible to optimally distinguish the states by any sequence of local operations and classical communication. Here, we present a stronger manifestation of this kind of nonlocality in multiparty systems through the notion of local irreducibility. A set of multiparty orthogonal quantum states is defined to be locally irreducible if it is not possible to locally eliminate one or more states from the set while preserving orthogonality of the postmeasurement states. Such a set, by definition, is locally indistinguishable, but we show that the converse doesn't always hold. We provide the first examples of orthogonal product bases on $\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d}$ for $d=3,4$ that are locally irreducible in all bipartitions, where the construction for $d=3$ achieves the minimum dimension necessary for such product states to exist. The existence of such product bases implies that local implementation of a multiparty separable measurement may require entangled resources across all bipartitions.

One of the most widely used chiroptical spectroscopic methods for studying chiral molecules is Raman optical activity; however, the chiral Raman optical activity signal is extremely weak. Here, we theoretically examine enhanced chiral signals in a system with strongly prepared molecular coherence. We show that the enhanced chiral signal due to strong molecular coherence is up to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the spontaneous Raman optical activity. We discuss several advantages of studying the heterodyned signal obtained by combining the anti-Stokes signal with a local oscillator. The heterodyning allows direct measurement of the ratio of the chiral and achiral parameters. Taking advantage of the molecular coherence and heterodyne detection, the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique opens up a new potential application for investigation of biomolecular chirality.

We propose a low-complexity near-optimal wavelength allocation technique for quantum key distribution access networks that rely on wavelength division multiple access. Such networks would allow users to send quantum and classical signals simultaneously on the same optical fiber infrastructure. Users can be connected to the access network via optical wireless or wired links. We account for the background noise present in the environment, as well as the Raman noise generated by classical channels, and calculate the secret key generation rate for quantum channels in the finite-key setting. This allows us to examine the feasibility of such systems in realistic scenarios when the secret key exchange needs to be achieved in a limited time scale. Our numerical results show that, by proper choice of system parameters for this noisy system, it is possible to exchange a secret key in tens of seconds. Moreover, our proposed algorithm can enhance the key rate of quantum channels, especially in high noise and/or high loss regimes of operation.

Coherent superpositions are one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and are vital for any quantum mechanical device to outperform the classically achievable. Generically, superpositions are verified in interference experiments, but despite their longstanding central role we know very little about how to extract the number of coherently superposed amplitudes from a general interference pattern. A fundamental issue is that performing a phase-sensitive measurement is as challenging as creating a coherent superposition, so that assuming a perfectly implemented measurement for verification of quantum coherence is hard to justify. In order to overcome this issue, we construct a coherence certifier derived from simple statistical properties of an interference pattern, such that any imperfection in the measurement can never over-estimate the number of coherently superposed amplitudes. We numerically test how robust this measure is to under-estimating the coherence in the case of imperfect state preparation or measurement, and find it to be very resilient in both cases.

In the present work, we present different two-body potentials which have oscillatory shapes with magnetic interactions. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained for one of those problems using Nikiforov-Uvarov method.

Historically, most of the quantum mechanical results have originated in one dimensional model potentials. However, Von-Neumann's Bound states in the Continuum (BIC) originated in specially constructed, three dimensional, oscillatory, central potentials. One dimensional version of BIC has long been attempted, where only quasi-exactly-solvable models have succeeded but not without instigating degeneracy in one dimension. Here, we present an exactly solvable bottomless exponential potential barrier $V(x)=-V_0[\exp(2|x|/a)-1]$ which for $E<V_0$ has a continuum of non-square-integrable, definite-parity, degenerate states. In this continuum, we show a surprising presence of discrete energy, square-integrable, definite-parity, non-degenerate states. For $E>V_0$, there is again a continuum of complex scattering solutions $\psi(x)$ whose real and imaginary parts though solutions of Schr{\"o}dinger equation yet their parities cannot be ascertained as $C\psi(x)$ is also a solution where $C$ is an arbitrary complex non-real number.

This is a review of the geometry of quantum states using elementary methods and pictures. Quantum states are represented by a convex body, often in high dimensions. In the case of n-qubits, the dimension is exponentially large in n. The space of states can be visualized, to some extent, by its simple cross sections: Regular simplexes, balls and hyper-octahedra. When the dimension gets large there is a precise sense in which the space of states resembles, almost in every direction, a ball. The ball turns out to be a ball of rather low purity states. We also address some of the corresponding, but harder, geometric properties of separable and entangled states and entanglement witnesses.

It has been known for some time that, for nonrelativistic Coulomb scattering, the terms in the Born series of second and higher order diverge when using the standard method of calculation. In this paper we take the matrix elements between square-integrable wavepacket state vectors. We reproduce the Rutherford cross section from the first-order contribution. We find that the second-order contribution is finite and negligible compared to the first-order contribution, away from the forward direction. At first order, the contribution to the amplitude in the forward direction is found to be finite and physically reasonable. We comment on how a similar procedure applied to the divergences of quantum field theories might render them finite.

We discuss real time evolution for the quantum Ising model in one spatial dimension with $N_s$ sites. In the limit where the nearest neighbor interactions $J$ in the spatial directions are small, there is a simple physical picture where qubit states can be interpreted as approximate particle occupations. Using exact diagonalization, for initial states with one or two particles, we show that for small $J$, discrete Bessel functions provide very accurate expressions for the evolution of the occupancies corresponding to initial states with one and two particles. Boundary conditions play an important role when the evolution time is long enough. We discuss a Trotter procedure to implement the evolution on existing quantum computers and discuss the error associated with the Trotter step size. We discuss the effects of gate and measurement errors on the evolution of one and two particle states using 4 and 8 qubits circuits approximately corresponding to existing or near term quantum computers.

The Wigner-Yanase skew information was proposed to quantify the information contained in quantum states with respect to a conserved additive quantity, and it was later extended to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations. Recently, the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations have been recognized as valid resource measures for the resource theory of asymmetry, and their properties have been investigated from a resource-theoretic perspective. The Wigner-Yanse-Dyson skew informations have been further generalized to a class called metric-adjusted skew informations, and this general family of skew informations have also been found to be valid asymmetry motonones. Here, we analyze this general family of the skew informations from an operational point of view by utilizing the fact that they are valid asymmetry resource monotones. We show that such an approach allows for clear physical meanings as well as simple proofs of some of the basic properties of the skew informations. Notably, we constructively prove that any type of skew information cannot be superadditive, where the violation of the superadditivity had been only known for a specific class of skew informations with numerical counterexamples. We further show a weaker version of superadditivity relation applicable to the general class of the skew informations, which proves a conjecture proposed in Ref. [Cai et al., J. Phys. A, 41, 135301 (2008)] as a special case.

We investigate an original family of quantum distinguishability problems, where the goal is to perfectly distinguish between $M$ quantum states that become identical under a completely decohering map. Similarly, we study distinguishability of $M$ quantum channels that cannot be distinguished when one is restricted to decohered input and output states. The studied problems arise naturally in the presence of a superselection rule, allow one to quantify the amount of information that can be encoded in phase degrees of freedom (coherences), and are related to time-energy uncertainty relation. We present a collection of results on both necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of $M$ perfectly distinguishable states (channels) that are classically indistinguishable.

The no-cloning property of quantum mechanics allows unforgeability of quantum banknotes and credit cards. Quantum credit card protocols involve a bank, a client and a payment terminal, and their practical implementation typically relies on encoding information on weak coherent states of light. Here, we provide a security proof in this practical setting for semi-device-independent quantum money with classical verification, involving an honest bank, a dishonest client and a potentially untrusted terminal. Our analysis uses semidefinite programming in the coherent state framework and aims at simultaneously optimizing over the noise and losses introduced by a dishonest party. We discuss secure regimes of operation in both fixed and randomized phase settings, taking into account experimental imperfections. Finally, we study the evolution of protocol security in the presence of a decohering optical quantum memory and identify secure credit card lifetimes for a specific configuration.

We explore a driven three-level $V$-system coupled to an environment with dynamics governed by the Lindblad master equation. We perform a transformation into superoperator space, which brings the Lindblad equation into a Schr\"{o}dinger-like, thus allowing us to obtain an exact analytical solution for the time-dependence of the density matrix in a closed form. We demonstrate a regime for continuous lasing without inversion for driving with a continuous wave laser. We show a mechanism for achieving superluminal, negative, and vanishing light pulse group velocities and provide a range of physical parameters for realizing these regimes experimentally.

We study effects of perturbation Hamiltonian to quantum spin systems which can include quenched disorder. Model-independent inequalities are derived, using an additional artificial disordered perturbation. These inequalities enable us to prove that the variance of the perturbation Hamiltonian density vanishes in the infinite volume limit even if the artificial perturbation is switched off. This theorem is applied to spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena in a disordered classical spin model, a quantum spin model without disorder and a disordered quantum spin model.

Quantum metrology exploits quantum correlations in specially prepared entangled or other non-classical states to perform measurements that exceed the standard quantum limit. Typically though, such states are hard to engineer, particularly when larger numbers of resources are desired. As an alternative, this paper aims to establish quantum jump metrology which is based on generalised sequential measurements as a general design principle for quantum metrology and discusses how to exploit open quantum systems to obtain a quantum enhancement. By analysing a simple toy model, we illustrate that parameter-dependent quantum feedback can indeed be used to exceed the standard quantum limit without the need for complex state preparation.