The advantage of quantum metrology has been experimentally demonstrated for phase estimations where the dynamics are commuting. General noncommuting dynamics, however, can have distinct features. For example, the direct sequential scheme, which can achieve the Heisenberg scaling for the phase estimation under commuting dynamics, can have even worse performances than the classical scheme under noncommuting dynamics. Here we realize a scalable optimally controlled sequential scheme, which can achieve the Heisenberg precision under general noncommuting dynamics. We also present an intuitive geometrical framework for the controlled scheme and identify sweet spots in time at which the optimal controls used in the scheme can be pre-fixed without adaptation, which simplifies the experimental protocols significantly. We successfully implement the scheme up to eight controls in an optical platform, demonstrate a precision near the Heisenberg limit. Our work opens the avenue for harvesting the power of quantum control in quantum metrology, and provides a control-enhanced recipe to achieve the Heisenberg precision under general noncommuting dynamics.

Quantum thermodynamics aims at investigating both the emergence and the limits of the laws of thermodynamics from a quantum mechanical microscopic approach. In this scenario, thermodynamic processes with no heat exchange, namely, adiabatic transformations, can be implemented through quantum evolutions in closed systems, even though the notion of a closed system is always an idealization and approximation. Here, we first theoretically discuss thermodynamic adiabatic processes in open quantum systems, which evolve non-unitarily under decoherence due to its interaction with its surrounding environment. From a general approach for adiabatic non-unitary evolution, we establish heat and work in terms of the underlying Liouville superoperator governing the quantum dynamics. As a consequence, we derive the conditions that an adiabatic open-system quantum dynamics implies in the absence of heat exchange, providing a connection between quantum and thermal adiabaticity. Moreover, we determine families of decohering systems exhibiting the same maximal heat exchange, which imply in classes of thermodynamic adiabaticity in open systems. We then approach the problem experimentally using a hyperfine energy-level quantum bit of an Ytterbium $^{171}$Yb$^+$ trapped ion, which provides a work substance for thermodynamic processes, allowing for the analysis of heat and internal energy throughout a controllable engineered dynamics.

In the present study, we developed a fabrication process of an electrically driven single-photon LED based on InP QDs emitting in the red spectral range, the wavelength of interest coinciding with the high efficiency window of Si APDs. A deterministic lithography technique allowed for the pre-selection of a suitable QD, here exclusively operated under electrical carrier injection. The final device was characterized under micro-electroluminescence in direct current, as well as in pulsed excitation mode. In particular, under pulsed excitation of one device, single-photon emission of a spectral line, identified as an exciton, has been observed with $g^{(2)}_\mathrm{raw}(0)=0.42\pm0.02$, where the non-zero $g^{(2)}$-value is mainly caused by background contribution in the spectrum and re-excitation processes due to the electrical pulse length. The obtained results constitute an important step forward in the fabrication of electrically driven single-photon sources, where deterministic lithography techniques can be used to sensibly improve the device performances. In principle, the developed process can be extended to any desired emitter wavelength above $600\,\mathrm{nm}$ up to the telecom bands.

We compare a conventional Mach-Zehnder light-pulse atom interferometer based on diffractive mirrors with one that uses specular reflection. In contrast to diffractive mirrors that generate a symmetric configuration, specular mirrors realized, for example, by evanescent fields lead under the influence of gravity to an asymmetric geometry. In such an arrangement the interferometer phase contains nonrelativistic signatures of proper time.

We theoretically study prospects and limitations of a new route towards macroscopic scale laser refrigeration based on exciplex-mediated frequency up-conversion in gas filled hollow-core fibres. Using proven quantum optical rate equations we model the dynamics of a dopant-buffer gas mixture filling an optically pumped waveguide. In the particular example of alkali-noble gas mixtures, recent high pressure gas cell setup experiments have shown that efficient kinetic energy extraction cycles appear via the creation of transient exciplex excited electronic bound states. The cooling cycle consists of absorption of lower energy laser photons during collisions followed by blue-shifted spontaneous emission on the atomic line of the alkali atoms. For any arbitrary dopant-buffer gas mixture, we derive scaling laws for cooling power, cooling rates and temperature drops with varying input laser power, dopant and buffer gas concentration, fibre geometry and particularities of the exciplex ground and excited state potential landscapes.

We develop a theory for cavity cooling of the center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanoparticle through coherent scattering into an optical cavity. We analytically determine the full coupled Hamiltonian for the nanoparticle, cavity, and free electromagnetic field. By tracing out the latter, we obtain a Master Equation for the cavity and the center of mass motion, where the decoherence rates ascribed to recoil heating, gas pressure, and trap displacement noise are calculated explicitly. Then, we benchmark our model by reproducing published experimental results for three-dimensional cooling. Finally, we use our model to demonstrate the possibility of ground-state cooling along each of the three motional axes. Our work illustrates the potential of cavity-assisted coherent scattering to reach the quantum regime of levitated nanomechanics.

The ability of an eavesdropper (Eve) to perform an intercept-resend attack on a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) receiver by precisely controlling the incidence angle of an attack laser has been previously demonstrated. However, such an attack could be ineffective in the presence of atmospheric turbulence due to beam wander and spatial mode aberrations induced by the air's varying index of refraction. We experimentally investigate the impact turbulence has on Eve's attack on a free-space polarization-encoding QKD receiver by emulating atmospheric turbulence with a spatial light modulator. Our results identify how well Eve would need to compensate for turbulence to perform a successful attack by either reducing her distance to the receiver, or using beam wavefront correction via adaptive optics. Furthermore, we use an entanglement-breaking scheme to find a theoretical limit on the turbulence strength that hinders Eve's attack.

We study a quantum system composed of three interacting qubits, each coupled to a different thermal reservoir. We show how to engineer it in order to build a quantum device that is analogous to an electronic bipolar transistor. We outline how the interaction among the qubits plays a crucial role for the appearance of the effect, also linking it to the characteristics of system-bath interactions that govern the decoherence and dissipation mechanism of the system. By comparing with previous proposals, the model considered here extends the regime of parameters where the transistor effect shows up and its robustness with respect to small variations of the coupling parameters. Moreover, our model appears to be more realistic and directly connected in terms of potential implementations to feasible setups in the domain of quantum spin chains and molecular nanomagnets.

Previous theoretical works showed that all pure two-qubit entangled states can generate one bit of local randomness and can be self-tested through the violation of proper Bell inequalities. We report an experiment in which nearly pure partially entangled states of photonic qubits are produced to investigate these tasks in a practical scenario. We show that small deviations from the ideal situation make low entangled states impractical to self-testing and randomness generation using the available techniques. Our results show that in practice lower entanglement implies lower randomness generation, recovering the intuition that maximally entangled states are better candidates for deviceindependent quantum information processing.

Quantum random-access look-up of a string of classical bits is a necessary ingredient in several important quantum algorithms. In some cases, the cost of such quantum random-access memory (qRAM) is the limiting factor in the implementation of the algorithm. In this paper we study the cost of fault-tolerantly implementing a qRAM. We construct generic families of circuits which function as a qRAM, and analyze their resource costs when embedded in a surface code.

Continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on static graphs provide efficient methods for search and sampling as well as a model for universal quantum computation. We consider an extension of CTQWs to the case of dynamic graphs, in which an ordered sequence of graphs governs free evolution of the quantum walk. We then consider how perfect state transfer during the quantum walk can be used to design dynamic graphs that implement a universal set of quantum logic gates. We give explicit examples for a complete logical basis, and we validate implementations using numerical simulations for quantum teleportation and addition circuits. Finally, we discuss the potential for realizing CTQWs on dynamic graphs using actively controlled quantum optical waveguides.

As an emerging channel resource for modern optics, big data, internet traffic and quantum technologies, twisted photons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been extended their applicable boundary in different media, such as optical fiber and atmosphere. Due to the extreme condition of loss and pressure, underwater transmission of twisted photons has not been well investigated yet. Especially, single-photon tests were all limited at a level of a few meters, and it is in practice unclear what will happen for longer transmission distances. Here we experimentally demonstrate the transmission of single-photon twisted light over an underwater channel up to 55 meters, which reach a distance allowing potential real applications. For different order OAM states and their superposition, a good preservation of modal structure and topological charge are observed. Our results for the first time reveal the real transmission performance of twisted photons in a long-distance regime, representing a step further towards OAM-based underwater quantum communication.

This book is an attempt to help students transform all of the concepts of quantum mechanics into concrete computer representations, which can be constructed, evaluated, analyzed, and hopefully understood at a deeper level than what is possible with more abstract representations. It was written for a Master's and PhD lecture given yearly at the University of Basel, Switzerland. The goal is to give a language to the student in which to speak about quantum physics in more detail, and to start the student on a path of fluency in this language. On our journey we approach questions such as: -- You already know how to calculate the energy eigenstates of a single particle in a simple one-dimensional potential. How can such calculations be generalized to non-trivial potentials, higher dimensions, and interacting particles? -- You have heard that quantum mechanics describes our everyday world just as well as classical mechanics does, but have you ever seen an example where such behavior is calculated in detail and where the transition from classical to quantum physics is evident? -- How can we describe the internal spin structure of particles? How does this internal structure couple to the particles' motion? -- What are qubits and quantum circuits, and how can they be assembled to simulate a future quantum computer?

We demonstrate that in a standard thermo-electric nanodevice the current and heat flows are not only dictated by the temperature and potential gradient, but also by the external action of a local quantum observer that controls the coherence of the device. Depending on how and where the observation takes place, the direction of heat and particle currents can be independently controlled. In fact, we show that the current and heat flow in a quantum material can go against the natural temperature and voltage gradients. Dynamical quantum observation offers new possibilities for the control of quantum transport far beyond classical thermal reservoirs. Through the concept of local projections, we illustrate how we can create and directionality control the injection of currents (electronic and heat) in nanodevices. This scheme provides novel strategies to construct quantum devices with application in thermoelectrics, spintronic injection, phononics, and sensing among others. In particular, highly efficient and selective spin injection might be achieved by local spin projection techniques.

The implementation of quantum networks involving quantum memories and photonic channels without the need for cryogenics would be a major technological breakthrough. Nitrogen-vacancy centers have excellent spin properties even at room temperature, but phonon-induced broadening makes it challenging to interface these spins with photons at non-cryogenic temperatures. Inspired by recent progress in achieving ultra-high mechanical quality factors, we propose that this challenge can be overcome by spin-opto-mechanical transduction. We quantify the coherence of the interface by calculating the indistinguishability of the emitted photons and describe promising paths towards experimental implementation.

An interesting aspect of antiferromagnetic quantum spin ladders, with complete dimer coverings, is that the wave function can be recursively generated by estimating the number of coverings in the valence bond basis, which follow the fabled Fibonacci sequence. In this work, we derive generalized forms of this sequence for multi-legged and doped quantum spin ladders, which allow the corresponding dimer-covered state to be recursively generated. We show that these sequences allow for estimation of physically and information-theoretically relevant quantities in large spin lattices without resorting to complex numerical methods. We apply the formalism to calculate the valence bond entanglement entropy, which is an important figure of merit for studying cooperative phenomena in quantum spin systems with SU(2) symmetry. We show that introduction of doping may mitigate, within the quarters of entanglement entropy, the dichotomy between odd- and even- legged quantum spin ladders.

Dirac particle represents a fundamental constituent of our nature. Simulation of Dirac particle dynamics by a controllable quantum system using quantum walks will allow us to investigate the non-classical nature of dynamics in its discrete form. In this work, starting from a modified version of one-spatial dimensional general inhomogeneous split-step discrete quantum walk we derive an effective Hamiltonian which mimics a single massive Dirac particle dynamics in curved $(1+1)$ space-time dimension coupled to $U(1)$ gauge potential---which is a forward step towards the simulation of the unification of electromagnetic and gravitational forces in lower dimension and at the single particle level. Implementation of this simulation scheme in simple qubit-system has been demonstrated. We show that the same Hamiltonian can represent $(2+1)$ space-time dimensional Dirac particle dynamics when one of the spatial momenta remains fixed. We also discuss how we can include $U(N)$ gauge potential in our scheme, in order to capture other fundamental force effects on the Dirac particle. The emergence of curvature in the two-particle split-step quantum walk has also been investigated while the particles are interacting through their entangled coin operations.

Established methods for characterizing quantum information processes do not capture non-Markovian (history-dependent) behaviors that occur in real systems. These methods model a quantum process as a fixed map on the state space of a predefined system of interest. Such a map averages over the system's environment, which may retain some effect of its past interactions with the system and thus have a history-dependent influence on the system. Although the theory of non-Markovian quantum dynamics is currently an active area of research, a systematic characterization method based on a general representation of non-Markovian dynamics has been lacking.

In this article we present a systematic method for experimentally characterizing the dynamics of open quantum systems. Our method, which we call quantum process identification (QPI), is based on a general theoretical framework which relates the (non-Markovian) evolution of a system over an extended period of time to a time-local (Markovian) process involving the system and an effective environment. In practical terms, QPI uses time-resolved tomographic measurements of a quantum system to construct a dynamical model with as many dynamical variables as are necessary to reproduce the evolution of the system. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that QPI can be used to characterize qubit operations with non-Markovian errors arising from realistic dynamics including control drift, coherent leakage, and coherent interaction with material impurities.

In stochastic modeling, there has been a significant effort towards finding predictive models that predict a stochastic process' future using minimal information from its past. Meanwhile, in condensed matter physics, matrix product states (MPS) are known as a particularly efficient representation of 1D spin chains. In this Letter, we associate each stochastic process with a suitable quantum state of a spin chain. We then show that the optimal predictive model for the process leads directly to an MPS representation of the associated quantum state. Conversely, MPS methods offer a systematic construction of the best known quantum predictive models. This connection allows an improved method for computing the quantum memory needed for generating optimal predictions. We prove that this memory coincides with the entanglement of the associated spin chain across the past-future bipartition.

The Schur transform is a unitary operator that block diagonalizes the action of the symmetric and unitary groups on an $n$ fold tensor product $V^{\otimes n}$ of a vector space $V$ of dimension $d$. Bacon, Chuang and Harrow \cite{BCH07} gave a quantum algorithm for this transform that is polynomial in $n$, $d$ and $\log\epsilon^{-1}$, where $\epsilon$ is the precision. In a footnote in Harrow's thesis \cite{H05}, a brief description of how to make the algorithm of \cite{BCH07} polynomial in $\log d$ is given using the unitary group representation theory (however, this has not been explained in detail anywhere. In this article, we present a quantum algorithm for the Schur transform that is polynomial in $n$, $\log d$ and $\log\epsilon^{-1}$ using a different approach. Specifically, we build this transform using the representation theory of the symmetric group and in this sense our technique can be considered a "dual" algorithm to \cite{BCH07}. A novel feature of our algorithm is that we construct the quantum Fourier transform over the so called \emph{permutation modules}, which could have other applications.