We revisit the representation of generalized quantum observables by establishing a geometric picture in terms of their positive operator-valued measures (POVMs). This leads to a clear geometric interpretation of Born's rule by introducing the concept of contravariant operator-valued measures. Our approach is applied to the theory of array detectors, which is a challenging task as the finite dimensionality of the POVM substantially restricts the available information about quantum states. Our geometric technique allows for a direct estimation of expectation values of different observables, which are typically not accessible with such detection schemes. In addition, we also demonstrate the applicability of our method to quantum-state reconstruction with unbalanced homodyne detection.

Supersolids are characterized by the counter-intuitive coexistence of superfluid and crystalline order. Here we study a supersolid phase emerging in the steady state of a driven-dissipative system. We consider a transversely pumped Bose-Einstein condensate trapped along the axis of a ring cavity and coherently coupled to a pair of degenerate counter-propagating cavity modes. Above a threshold pump strength the interference of photons scattered into the two cavity modes results in an emergent superradiant lattice, which spontaneously breaks the continuous translational symmetry towards a periodic atomic pattern. The crystalline steady state inherits the superfluidity of the Bose-Einstein condensate, thus exhibiting genuine properties of a supersolid. A gapless collective Goldstone mode correspondingly appears in the superradiant phase, which can be non-destructively monitored via the relative phase of the two cavity modes on the cavity output. Despite cavity-photon losses the Goldstone mode remains undamped, indicating the robustness of the supersolid phase.

Effective and unrestricted engineering of atom-photon interactions requires precise spatially-resolved control of light beams. The significant potential of such manipulations lies in a set of disciplines ranging from solid state to atomic physics. Here we use a Zeeman-like ac-Stark shift of a shaped laser beam to perform rotations of spins with spatial resolution in a large ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. We show that inhomogeneities of light intensity are the main source of dephasing and thus decoherence, yet with proper beam shaping this deleterious effect is strongly mitigated allowing rotations of 15 rad within one spin-precession lifetime. Finally, as a particular example of a complex manipulation enabled by our scheme, we demonstrate a range of collapse-and-revival behaviours of a free-induction decay signal by imprinting comb-like patterns on the atomic ensemble.

Complex integrated circuits require multiple wiring layers. In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing, these layers are robustly separated by amorphous dielectrics. These dielectrics would dominate energy loss in superconducting integrated circuits. Here we demonstrate a procedure that capitalizes on the structural benefits of inter-layer dielectrics during fabrication and mitigates the added loss. We separate and support multiple wiring layers throughout fabrication using SiO$_2$ scaffolding, then remove it post-fabrication. This technique is compatible with foundry level processing and the can be generalized to make many different forms of low-loss multi-layer wiring. We use this technique to create freestanding aluminum vacuum gap crossovers (airbridges). We characterize the added capacitive loss of these airbridges by connecting ground planes over microwave frequency $\lambda/4$ coplanar waveguide resonators and measuring resonator loss. We measure a low power resonator loss of $\sim 3.9 \times 10^{-8}$ per bridge, which is 100 times lower than dielectric supported bridges. We further characterize these airbridges as crossovers, control line jumpers, and as part of a coupling network in gmon and fuxmon qubits. We measure qubit characteristic lifetimes ($T_1$'s) in excess of 30 $\mu$s in gmon devices.

Author(s): F. V. Potemkin, E. I. Mareev, and E. O. Smetanina

We demonstrate that using spatially divergent incident femtosecond 1240-nm laser pulses in water leads to an efficient supercontinuum generation in filaments. Optimal conditions were found when the focal plane is placed 100–400μm before the water surface. Under sufficiently weak focusing conditions ...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 033801] Published Thu Mar 01, 2018

Author(s): Ryan I. Moodie, Kyle E. Ballantine, and Jonathan Keeling

As recently realized experimentally [Nature (London) **543**, 87 (2017)], one can engineer models with continuous symmetries by coupling two cavity modes to trapped atoms via a Raman pumping geometry. Considering specifically cases where internal states of the atoms couple to the cavity, we show an exte...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 033802] Published Thu Mar 01, 2018

A laser-based setup can be used to perform x-ray spectroscopy with a precision rivaling that of experiments at large-scale synchrotron facilities.

[Physics] Published Thu Mar 01, 2018

Categories: Physics

The development of quantum information platforms such as quantum computers and quantum simulators that will rival classical Turing computations are typically viewed as a threat to secure data transmissions and therefore to crypto-systems and financial markets in general. We propose to use such platforms as a proof-of-work protocol for blockchain technology, which underlies cryptocurrencies providing a way to document the transactions in a permanent decentralised public record and to be further securely and transparently monitored. We reconsider the basis of blockchain encryption and suggest to move from currently used proof-of-work schemes to the proof-of-work performed by analog Hamiltonian optimisers. This approach has a potential to significantly increase decentralisation of the existing blockchains and to help achieve faster transaction times, therefore, removing the main obstacles for blockchain implementation. We discuss the proof-of-work protocols for a few most promising optimiser platforms: quantum annealing hardware based on D-wave simulators and a new class of gain-dissipative simulators.

Multi-qubit parity measurements are essential to quantum error correction. Current realizations of these measurements often rely on ancilla qubits, a method that is sensitive to faulty two-qubit gates and which requires significant experimental overhead. We propose a hardware-efficient multi-qubit parity measurement exploiting the bifurcation dynamics of a parametrically driven nonlinear oscillator. This approach takes advantage of the resonator's parametric oscillation threshold which is a function of the joint parity of dispersively coupled qubits, leading to high-amplitude oscillations for one parity subspace and no oscillation for the other. We present analytical and numerical results for two- and four-qubit parity measurements with high-fidelity readout preserving the parity eigenpaces. Moreover, we discuss a possible realization which can be readily implemented with the current circuit QED experimental toolbox. These results could lead to significant simplifications in the experimental implementation of quantum error correction, and notably of the surface code.

Although skeptical of the prohibitive power of no-hidden-variables theorems, John Bell was himself responsible for the two most important ones. I describe some recent versions of the lesser known of the two (familar to experts as the "Kochen-Specker theorem") which have transparently simple proofs. One of the new versions can be converted without additional analysis into a powerful form of the very much better known "Bell's Theorem", thereby clarifying the conceptual link between these two results of Bell.

New time-dependent treatment of tunneling from localized state to continuum is proposed. It does not use the Laplace transform (Green's function's method) and can be applied for time-dependent potentials, as well. This approach results in simple expressions describing dynamics of tunneling to Markovian and non-Markovian reservoirs in the time-interval $-\infty<t<\infty$. It can provide a new outlook for tunneling in the negative time region, illuminating the origin of the time's arrow problem in quantum mechanics. We also concentrate on singularity at $t=0$, which affects the perturbative expansion of the evolution operator. In addition, the decay to continuum in periodically modulated tunneling Hamiltonian is investigated. Using our results, we extend the Tien-Gordon approach for periodically driven transport, to oscillating tunneling barriers.

Symmetries have a crucial role in today's physics. In this thesis, we are mostly concerned with time reversal invariance (T-symmetry). A physical system is time reversal invariant if its underlying laws are not sensitive to the direction of time. There are various accounts of time reversal transformation resulting in different views on whether or not a given theory in physics is time reversal invariant. With a focus on quantum mechanics, I describe the standard account of time reversal and compare it with my alternative account, arguing why it deserves serious attention. Then, I review three known ways to T-violation in quantum mechanics, and explain two unique experiments made to detect it in the neutral K and B mesons.

We propose Fisher information as a measure of similarity of input particle states in a measurement basis, in which we infer the quantum interference of particles by the Fisher information. Interacting bosonic and fermionic particles by beam-splitting type operations, i.e., a 50:50 beam splitter and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we observe the relation between the similarity of the input particle states and the Fisher information which is derived by counting the number of particles in one of the output modes. For the Fisher information of an input state parameter in a 50:50 beam splitter, we obtain that the Fisher information is proportional to the similarity of the input particle states without discriminating the class of the particles, which is utilized to reproduce the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip with bosonic and fermionic particles. For the Fisher information of a phase parameter in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, however, the relation is transformed with discriminating the class of the particles such that we can devise a scenario to infer an unknown input state parameter via the Fisher information. We extend the scenario of inferring a parameter to detect two-particle entanglement.

Integrated optics Green Machines enable better communication in photon-starved environments, but fabrication inconsistencies induce unpredictable internal phase errors, making them difficult to construct. We describe and experimentally demonstrate a new method to compensate for arbitrary phase errors by deriving a convex error space and implementing an algorithm to learn a unique codebook of codewords corresponding to each matrix.

We examine the emergence of chaos in a non-linear model derived from a semiquantum Hamiltonian describing the coupling between a classical field and a quantum system. The latter corresponds to a bosonic version of a BCS-like Hamiltonian, and possesses stable and unstable regimes. The dynamics of the whole system is shown to be strongly influenced by the quantum subsystem. In particular, chaos is seen to arise in the vicinity of a quantum critical case, which separates the stable and unstable regimes of the bosonic system.

The dynamics and thermal equilibrium of spin waves (magnons) in a quantum ferromagnet as well as the macroscopic magnetisation are investigated. Thermal noise due to an interaction with lattice phonons and the effects of spatial correlations in the noise are considered. We first present a Markovian master equation approach with analytical solutions for any homogeneous spatial correlation function of the noise. We find that spatially correlated noise increases the decay rate of magnons with low wave vectors to their thermal equilibrium, which also leads to a faster decay of the ferromagnet's magnetisation to its steady-state value. For long correlation lengths and higher temperature we find that additionally there is a component of the magnetisation which decays very slowly, due to a reduced decay rate of fast magnons. This effect could be useful for fast and noise-protected quantum or classical information transfer and magnonics. We further compare ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviour in noisy environments and find qualitatively similar behaviour in Ohmic but fundamentally different behaviour in super-Ohmic environments.

Interferometry is a paradigm for most precision measurements. Using $N$ uncorrelated particles, the achievable precision for a two-mode (two-path) interferometer is bounded by the standard quantum limit (SQL), $1/\sqrt{N}$, due to the discrete (quanta) nature of individual measurements. Despite being a challenging benchmark, the SQL has been approached in a number of systems, including the LIGO and today's best atomic clocks. One way to beat the SQL is to use entangled particles such that quantum noises from individual particles cancel out, leading to the Heisenberg limit of $\sim1/N$ in the optimal case. Another way is to employ multi-mode interferometry, with which the achievable precision can be enhanced by $1/(M-1)$ using $M$ modes. In this work, we demonstrate an interferometric precision of $8.44^{+1.76}_{-1.29}\,$dB beyond the two-mode SQL, using a balanced spin-1 (three-mode) Dicke state containing thousands of entangled atoms, thereby reaping the benefits of both means. This input quantum state is deterministically generated by controlled quantum phase transition and exhibits close to ideal quality. Our work shines new light on the pursuit of quantum metrology beyond SQL.

It is shown that in $d$-dimensional systems, the vertex corrections beyond the random phase approximation (RPA) or GW approximation scales with the power $d-\beta-\alpha$ of the Fermi momentum if the relation between Fermi energy and Fermi momentum is $\epsilon_{\rm f}\sim p_{\rm f}^\beta$ and the interacting potential possesses a momentum-power-law of $\sim p^{-\alpha}$. The condition $d-\beta-\alpha<0$ specifies systems where RPA is exact in the high-density limit. The one-dimensional structure factor is found to be the interaction-free one in the high-density limit for contact interaction. A cancellation of RPA and vertex corrections render this result valid up to second-order in contact interaction. For finite-range potentials of cylindrical wires a large-scale cancellation appears and found to be independent of the width parameter of the wire. The proposed high-density expansion agrees with the Quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

We discuss a method based on a segmentary approximation of solutions of the Schr\"odinger by quadratic splines, for which the coefficients are determined by a variational method that does not require the resolution of complicated algebraic equations. The idea is the application of the method to one dimensional periodic potentials. We include the determination of the eigenvalues up to a given level, and therefore an approximation to the lowest energy bands. We apply the method to concrete examples with interest in physics and discussed the numerical errors.

We theoretically study non-destructive detection of ultracold molecules, using a Fabry-Perot cavity. Specifically, we consider vacuum Rabi splitting where we demonstrate the use of collective strong coupling for detection of molecules with many participating energy levels. We also consider electromagnetically induced transparency and transient response of light for the molecules interacting with a Fabry-Perot cavity mode, as a mean for non-destructive detection. We identify the parameters that are required for the detection of molecules in the cavity electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. The theoretical analysis for these processes is parametrized with realistic values of both, the molecule and the cavity. For each process, we quantify the state occupancy of the molecules interacting with the cavity and determine to what extent the population does not change during a detection cycle.