We obtain the multiple-parameter quantum Cram\'er-Rao bound for estimating the transverse Cartesian components of the centroid and separation of two incoherent optical point sources using an imaging system with finite spatial bandwidth. Under quite general and realistic assumptions on the point-spread function of the imaging system, and for weak source strengths, we show that the Cram\'er-Rao bounds for the $x$ and $y$ components of the separation are independent of the values of those components, which may be well below the conventional Rayleigh resolution limit. We also propose two linear optics-based measurement methods that approach the quantum bound for the estimation of the Cartesian components of the separation once the centroid has been located. One of the methods is an interferometric scheme that approaches the quantum bound for sub-Rayleigh separations. The other method using fiber coupling can in principle attain the bound regardless of the distance between the two sources.

Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilizing entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

Quantum discord has been studied extensively as a measure of non-classical correlations which includes entanglement as a subset. Although it is well known that non-zero discord can exist without entanglement, the origin of quantum discord is not well understood as compared to entanglement, which manifests itself more simply as inseparable higher dimensional quantum superposition. In this paper we establish the discordlike correlation of bipartite coherence and then compare it to quantum discord. Consequently, we show that the minimum of the discordlike correlation of coherence coincides with the original quantum discord. This demonstrates quantum discord as the irreducible correlated bipartite coherence. In addition, the discordlike correlated coherence is shown to admit the postulates of the quantum resource theory (QRT), although the original quantum discord is not a "good" candidate under the QRT. We also find that the relative entropy measure induced from the discordlike coherence is a well-defined coherence measure for bipartite states.

Many realizations of solid-state qubits involve couplings to leakage states lying outside the computational subspace, posing a threat to high-fidelity quantum gate operations. Mitigating leakage errors is especially challenging when the coupling strength is unknown, e.g., when it is caused by noise. Here we show that simple pulse sequences can be used to strongly suppress leakage errors for a qubit embedded in a three-level system. As an example, we apply our scheme to the recently proposed charge quadrupole (CQ) qubit for quantum dots. These results provide a solution to a key challenge for fault-tolerant quantum computing with solid-state elements.

We prove a conjectured lower bound on $\left< T_{--}(x) \right>_\psi$ in any state $\psi$ of a relativistic QFT dubbed the Quantum Null Energy Condition (QNEC). The bound is given by the second order shape deformation, in the null direction, of the geometric entanglement entropy of an entangling cut passing through $x$. Our proof involves a combination of the two independent methods that were used recently to prove the weaker Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). In particular the properties of modular Hamiltonians under shape deformations for the state $\psi$ play an important role, as do causality considerations. We study the two point function of a "probe" operator $\mathcal{O}$ in the state $\psi$ and use a lightcone limit to evaluate this correlator. Instead of causality in time we consider \emph{causality in modular time} for the modular evolved probe operators, which we constrain using Tomita-Takesaki theory as well as certain generalizations pertaining to the theory of modular inclusions. The QNEC follows from very similar considerations to the derivation of the chaos bound and the causality sum rule. We use a kind of defect Operator Product Expansion to apply the replica trick to these modular flow computations, and the displacement operator plays an important role. Our approach was inspired by the AdS/CFT proof of the QNEC which follows from properties of the Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) surface near the boundary of AdS, combined with the requirement of entanglement wedge nesting. Our methods were, as such, designed as a precise probe of the RT surface close to the boundary of a putative gravitational/stringy dual of \emph{any} QFT with an interacting UV fixed point. We also prove a higher spin version of the QNEC.

Multiphoton quantum interference underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. Consequently, the detrimental effect of photon distinguishability in multiphoton interference experiments can be catastrophic. Here, we theoretically prove that accessing the spectral properties of an arbitrary number of photons initially distinguishable in their quantum states allows the scalable restoration of quantum interference in arbitrary linear optical networks, without the need for additional filtering or post selection. Even more interestingly, we show how harnessing the full spectra of multiphoton quantum information by spectrally resolved correlation measurements enables the characterization of multiphoton networks and states, produces a wide variety of multipartite entanglement, and increases the possibilities to achieve quantum computational supremacy. Furthermore, the multiphoton interference techniques described here pave the way to a scaling-up of multiphoton interference experiments. These results are therefore of profound interest for future applications of universal spectrally resolved linear optics across fundamental science and quantum technologies with photons with experimentally different spectral properties.

Using a Bang-Bang optimal control (BB) technique, we transfer polarization from abundant high-$\gamma$ nuclei directly to singlet order. This approach is analogous to algorithmic cooling (AC) procedure used in quantum state purification. Specifically, we apply this method for enhancing the singlet order in a natural abundant $^{13}$C-$^{13}$C spin pair using a set of nine equivalent protons of an 11-spin system. Compared to the standard method not involving polarization transfer, we find an enhancement of singlet order by about three times. In addition, since the singlet magnetization is contributed by the faster relaxing protons, the recycle delay is halved. Thus effectively we observe a sensitivity enhancement by 4.2 times or a reduction in the overall experimental time by a factor of 18. We also discuss a possible extension of AC, known as heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC).

Inspired by the recent developments in the research of atom-photon quantum interface and energy-time entanglement between single photon pulses, we propose to establish the concept of a special energy-time entanglement between a single photon pulse and internal states of a single atom, which is analogous to the frequency-bin entanglement between single photon pulses. We show that this type of entanglement arises naturally in the interaction between frequency-bin entangled single photon pulse pair and a single atom, via straightforward atom-photon phase gate operations. We also discuss the properties of this type of entanglement and show a preliminary example of its potential application in quantum networking. Moreover, a quantum entanglement witness is constructed to detect such entanglement from a reasonably large set of separable states.

The simplest cosmology --- the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-Lema\^{i}tre (FRW) model --- describes a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe where the scale factor is the only dynamical parameter. Here we consider how quantized electromagnetic fields become entangled with the scale factor in a toy version of the FRW model. A system consisting of a photon, source, and detector is described in such a universe, and we find that the detection of a redshifted photon by the detector system constrains possible scale factor superpositions. Thus, measuring the redshift of the photon is equivalent to a weak measurement of the underlying cosmology. We also consider a potential optomechanical analogy system that would enable experimental exploration of these concepts. The analogy focuses on the effects of photon redshift measurement as a quantum back-action on metric variables, where the position of a movable mirror plays the role of the scale factor. By working in the rotating frame, an effective Hubble equation can be simulated with a simple free moving mirror.

In the consistent histories (CH) approach to quantum theory probabilities are assigned to histories subject to a consistency condition of negligible interference. The approach has the feature that a given physical situation admits multiple sets of consistent histories that cannot in general be united into a single consistent set, leading to a number of counter-intuitive or contrary properties if propositions from different consistent sets are combined indiscriminately. An alternative viewpoint is proposed in which multiple consistent sets are classified according to whether or not there exists any unifying probability for combinations of incompatible sets which replicates the consistent histories result when restricted to a single consistent set. A number of examples are exhibited in which this classification can be made, in some cases with the assistance of the Bell, CHSH or Leggett-Garg inequalities together with Fine's theorem. When a unifying probability exists logical deductions in different consistent sets can in fact be combined, an extension of the "single framework rule". It is argued that this classification coincides with intuitive notions of the boundary between classical and quantum regimes and in particular, the absence of a unifying probability for certain combinations of consistent sets is regarded as a measure of the "quantumness" of the system. The proposed approach and results are closely related to recent work on the classification of quasi-probabilities and this connection is discussed.

In this work we demonstrate a simple way to implement the quantum inverse scattering method to find eigenstates of spin-1/2 XXX Gaudin magnets in an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field. The procedure differs vastly from the most natural approach which would be to simply orient the spin quantisation axis in the same direction as the magnetic field through an appropriate rotation. Instead, we define a modified realisation of the rational Gaudin algebra and use the quantum inverse scattering method which allows us, within a slightly modified implementation, to build an algebraic Bethe ansatz using the same unrotated reference state (pseudovacuum) for any external field. This common framework allows us to easily write determinant expressions for certain scalar products which would be highly non-trivial in the rotated system approach.

In this paper, we examine the modification of specific nonclassical properties of the nonlinear coherent state on sphere upon perpendicular propagation through an absorptive and dispersive dielectric slab at finite temperature. For this purpose, by describing the dielectric dispersion of the slab by Lorentz model, the quadrature squeezing and the Mandel parameter are evaluated for the transmitted state. A generalization of single-mode nonlinear coherent state to the continuum-mode is considered. The degree of second-order coherence is instead calculated for a continuum nonlinear coherent state on sphere, and the quantum noise effects produced by transmission through the slab on the antibunching feature are examined. We find that near the medium resonance the detrimental effect of the loss and thermal fluctuations of the slab are not compensate with increasing the physical space curvature of the incident state.

This work investigates the influence of directional properties of decoherence on kinetics rate equations. The physical reality is understood as a chain of unitary and decoherence events. The former are quantum-deterministic, while the latter introduce uncertainty and increase entropy. For interactions of matter and antimatter, two approaches are considered: symmetric decoherence, which corresponds to conventional symmetric (CP-invariant) thermodynamics, and antisymmetric decoherence, which corresponds to antisymmetric (CPT-invariant) thermodynamics. Radiation, in its interactions with matter and antimatter, is shown to be decoherence-neutral. The symmetric and antisymmetric assumptions result in different interactions of radiation with matter and antimatter. The theoretical predictions for these differences are testable by comparing absorption (emission) of light by thermodynamic systems made of matter and antimatter. Canonical typicality for quantum mixtures is briefly discussed in the Appendix.

We present a technique to measure the amplitude of a center-of-mass (COM) motion of a two-dimensional ion crystal of $\sim$100 ions. By sensing motion at frequencies far from the COM resonance frequency, we experimentally determine the technique's measurement imprecision. We resolve amplitudes as small as 50 pm, 40 times smaller than the COM mode zero-point fluctuations. The technique employs a spin-dependent, optical-dipole force to couple the mechanical oscillation to the electron spins of the trapped ions, enabling a measurement of one quadrature of the COM motion through a readout of the spin state. We demonstrate sensitivity limits set by spin projection noise and spin decoherence due to off-resonant light scattering. When performed on resonance with the COM mode frequency, the technique demonstrated here can enable the detection of extremely weak forces ($< \,$1 yN) and electric fields ($< \,$1 nV/m), providing an opportunity to probe quantum sensing limits and search for physics beyond the standard model.

Author(s): Shih-Wei Su, Shih-Chuan Gou, Lock Yue Chew, Yu-Yen Chang, Ite A. Yu, Alexey Kalachev, and Wen-Te Liao

An all-optical method of setting a disordered password on different schemes of photonic memory is theoretically studied. While photons are regarded as ideal information carriers, it is imperative to implement such data protection on all-optical storage. However, we wish to address the intrinsic risk...

[Phys. Rev. A 95, 061805(R)] Published Fri Jun 30, 2017

Author(s): E. T. Owen, O. T. Brown, and M. J. Hartmann

In quantum lattice systems with geometric frustration, particles cannot move coherently due to destructive interference between tunneling processes. Here we show that purely local, Markovian dissipation can induce mobility and long-range first-order coherence in frustrated lattice systems that is en...

[Phys. Rev. A 95, 063851] Published Fri Jun 30, 2017

Author(s): Simon B. Jäger, Minghui Xu, Stefan Schütz, M. J. Holland, and Giovanna Morigi

We analyze the dynamics leading to radiative cooling of an atomic ensemble confined inside an optical cavity when the atomic dipolar transitions are incoherently pumped and can synchronize. Our study is performed in the semiclassical regime and assumes that cavity decay is the largest rate in the sy...

[Phys. Rev. A 95, 063852] Published Fri Jun 30, 2017

Author(s): Ellen Schelew, Rong-Chun Ge, Stephen Hughes, James Pond, and Jeff F. Young

Recent progress towards realizing quantum emitters (QEs) suitable for integration in quantum information networks stimulates the demand for a self-consistent numerical approach to describe scattering of radiatively limited QEs in complex dielectric environments. As the QE response has to be characte...

[Phys. Rev. A 95, 063853] Published Fri Jun 30, 2017