The coupling of cold atoms to the radiation field within a high-finesse optical resonator, an optical cavity, induces long-range interactions which can compete with an underlying optical lattice. The interplay between short- and long-range interactions gives rise to new phases of matter including supersolidity (SS) and density waves (DW), and interesting quantum dynamics. Here it is shown that for hard-core bosons in one dimension the ground state phase diagram and the quantum relaxation after sudden quenches can be calculated exactly in the thermodynamic limit. Remanent DW order is observed for quenches from a DW ground state into the superfluid (SF) phase below a dynamical transition line. After sufficiently strong SF to DW quenches beyond a static metastability line DW order emerges on top of remanent SF order, giving rise to a dynamically generated supersolid state.

Deterministic quantum interactions between single photons and single quantum emitters are a vital building block towards the distribution of quantum information between remote systems. Deterministic photon-atom state transfer has been demonstrated by using protocols that include active feedback or synchronized control pulses. Here we demonstrate a completely passive swap gate between the states of a single photon and a single atom. The underlying mechanism is single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) - an interference-based effect in which a photonic qubit deterministically controls the state of a material qubit encoded in the two ground states of a {\Lambda} system, and vice versa. Using a nanofiber-coupled microsphere resonator coupled to single Rb atoms we swap a photonic qubit into the atom and back, demonstrating nonclassical fidelities in both directions. Requiring no control fields or feedback protocol, the gate takes place automatically at the timescale of the atom's cavity- enhanced spontaneous emission time. Applicable to any waveguide-coupled {\Lambda} system, this scheme provides a versatile building block for the modular scaling up of quantum information processing systems.

A controlled decoherence environment is studied experimentally by free electron interaction with semiconducting and metallic plates. The results are compared with physical models based on decoherence theory to investigate the quantum-classical transition. The experiment is consistent with decoherence theory and rules out established Coulomb interaction models in favor of plasmonic excitation models. In contrast to previous decoherence experiments, the present experiment is sensitive to the onset of decoherence.

With quantum computers of significant size now on the horizon, we should understand how to best exploit their initially limited abilities. To this end, we aim to identify a practical problem that is beyond the reach of current classical computers, but that requires the fewest resources for a quantum computer. We consider quantum simulation of spin systems, which could be applied to understand condensed matter phenomena. We synthesize explicit circuits for three leading quantum simulation algorithms, employing diverse techniques to tighten error bounds and optimize circuit implementations. Quantum signal processing appears to be preferred among algorithms with rigorous performance guarantees, whereas higher-order product formulas prevail if empirical error estimates suffice. Our circuits are orders of magnitude smaller than those for the simplest classically-infeasible instances of factoring and quantum chemistry.

The quantum dynamics of initial coherent states is studied in the Dicke model and correlated with the dynamics, regular or chaotic, of their classical limit. Analytical expressions for the survival probability, i.e. the probability of finding the system in its initial state at time $t$, are provided in the regular regions of the model. The results for regular regimes are compared with those of the chaotic ones. It is found that initial coherent states in regular regions have a much longer equilibration time than those located in chaotic regions. The properties of the distributions for the initial coherent states in the Hamiltonian eigenbasis are also studied. It is found that for regular states the components with no negligible contribution are organized in sequences of energy levels distributed according to Gaussian functions. In the case of chaotic coherent states, the energy components do not have a simple structure and the number of participating energy levels is larger than in the regular cases.

We present two techniques that can greatly reduce the number of gates required for ground state preparation in quantum simulations. The first technique realizes that to prepare the ground state of some Hamiltonian, it is not necessary to implement the time-evolution operator: any unitary operator which is a function of the Hamiltonian will do. We propose one such unitary operator which can be implemented exactly, circumventing any Taylor or Trotter approximation errors. The second technique is tailored to lattice models, and is targeted at reducing the use of generic single-qubit rotations, which are very expensive to produce by distillation and synthesis fault-tolerantly. In particular, the number of generic single-qubit rotations used by our method scales with the number of parameters in the Hamiltonian, which contrasts with a growth proportional to the lattice site required by other techniques.

We study a circuit, the Josephson sampler, that embeds a real vector into an entangled state of n qubits, and optionally samples from it. We measure its fidelity and entanglement on the 16-qubit ibmqx5 chip. To assess its expressiveness, we also measure its ability to generate Haar random unitaries and quantum chaos, as measured by Porter-Thomas statistics and out-of-time-order correlation functions. The circuit requires nearest-neighbor CZ gates on a chain and is especially well suited for first-generation superconducting architectures.

We prove the following two results relating real mutually unbiased bases and representations of finite groups of odd order. Let $q$ be a power of 2 and $r$ a positive integer. Then we can find a $q^{2r}\times q^{2r}$ real orthogonal matrix $D$, say, of multiplicative order $q^{2r-1}+1$, whose $q^{2r-1}+1$ powers $D$, \dots, $D^{q^{2r-1}+1}=I$ define $q^{2r-1}+1$ mutually unbiased bases in $\mathbb{R}^{q^{2r}}$. Thus the scaled matrices $q^rD$, \dots, $q^rD^{q^{2r-1}}$ are $q^{2r-1}$ different Hadamard matrices. When we take $q=2$, we achieve the maximum number of real mutually unbiased bases in dimension $2^{2r}$ using the elements of a cyclic group. We also prove the following. Let $G$ be an arbitrary finite group of odd order $2k+1$, where $k\geq 3$. Then $G$ has a real representation $R$, say, of degree $2^{2^{k-1}}$ such that the elements $R(\sigma)$, $\sigma\in G$, define $|G|$ mutually unbiased bases in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$, where $d= 2^{2^{k-1}}$. In addition, a group of order 5 defines five real mutually unbiased bases in $\mathbb{R}^{16}$ and a group of order 3 defines three real mutually unbiased bases in $\mathbb{R}^{4}$. Thus, an arbitrary group of odd order has a faithful representation by real scaled Hadamard matrices of 2-power size.

The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity \begin{equation*} Z(X,Y)=\ln\left( e^X e^Y \right) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty z_n(X,Y), \end{equation*} where $X$ and $Y$ are not necessarily commuting, in terms of homogeneous multinomials $z_n(X,Y)$ of degree $n$. (This is essentially equivalent to computing the so-called Goldberg coefficients.) The Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate up to some fixed order $N$ by using $(N+1)\times(N+1)$ matrices. We show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward. This helps provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance we establish strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of terms in the multinomial $z_n(X,Y)$ often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the degree $n$.

We also present some closely related results for the symmetric product \begin{equation*} S(X,Y)=\ln\left( e^{X/2} e^Y e^{X/2} \right) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty s_n(X,Y). \end{equation*} Variations on these themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the series \begin{equation*} L(X,Y)=\ln\left( e^{X} e^Y e^{-X} e^{-Y}\right) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \ell_n(X,Y). \end{equation*} This type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering parallel transport around a closed curve. Several other related series are investigated.

We investigate the maximum rates for transmitting quantum information, distilling entanglement, and distributing secret keys between a sender and a receiver in a multipoint communication scenario, with the assistance of unlimited two-way classical communication involving all parties. First we consider the case where a sender communicates with an arbitrary number of receivers, so called quantum broadcast channel. Here we also provide a simple analysis in the bosonic setting where we consider quantum broadcasting through a sequence of beamsplitters. Then, we consider the opposite case where an arbitrary number of senders communicate with a single receiver, so called quantum multiple-access channel. Finally, we study the general case of all-in-all quantum communication where an arbitrary number of senders communicate with an arbitrary number of receivers. Since our bounds are formulated for quantum systems of arbitrary dimension, they can be applied to many different physical scenarios involving multipoint quantum communication.

Quantizing the electromagnetic vacuum and medium fields of two nanoparticles, we investigate the heat transfer between them. One of the particles has been considered to rotate by angular velocity $ \omega_0 $. The effect of rotation on the absorbed heat power by the rotating nanoparticle is discussed. The results for angular velocities much smaller than the relaxation frequency $ \Gamma $ of the dielectrics are in agreement with the static nanoparticles, however increasing the angular velocity $ \omega_0 $ in comparison to the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics $ (\omega_0\geqslant \Gamma) $ generates two sidebands in the spectrum of the absorbed heat power. The well-known near-field and far-field effects are studied and it is shown that the sidebands peaks in far-field are considerable in comparison to the main peak frequency of the spectrum.

To investigate the performance of quantum information tasks on networks whose topology changes in time, we study the spatial search algorithm by continuous time quantum walk to find a marked node on a random temporal network. We consider a network of $n$ nodes constituted by a time-ordered sequence of Erd\"os-R\'enyi random graphs $G(n,p)$, where $p$ is the probability that any two given nodes are connected: after every time interval $\tau$, a new graph $G(n,p)$ replaces the previous one. We prove analytically that for any given $p$, there is always a range of values of $\tau$ for which the running time of the algorithm is optimal, i.e.\ $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n})$, even when search on the individual static graphs constituting the temporal network is sub-optimal. On the other hand, there are regimes of $\tau$ where the algorithm is sub-optimal even when each of the underlying static graphs are sufficiently connected to perform optimal search on them. From this first study of quantum spatial search on a time-dependent network, it emerges that the non-trivial interplay between temporality and connectivity is key to the algorithmic performance. Moreover, our work can be extended to establish high-fidelity qubit transfer between any two nodes of the network. Overall, our findings show that one can exploit temporality to achieve optimal quantum information tasks on dynamical random networks.

Fast and reliable reset of a qubit is a key prerequisite for any quantum technology. For real world open quantum systems undergoing non-Markovian dynamics, reset implies not only purification, but in particular erasure of initial correlations between qubit and environment. Here, we derive optimal reset protocols using a combination of geometric and numerical control theory. For factorizing initial states, we find a lower limit for the entropy reduction of the qubit as well as a speed limit. The time-optimal solution is determined by the maximum coupling strength. Initial correlations, remarkably, allow for faster reset and smaller errors. Entanglement is not necessary.

In the framework of quantum information geometry we investigate the relationship between monotone metric tensors uniquely defined on the space of quantum tomograms, once the tomographic scheme chosen, and monotone quantum metrics on the space of quantum states, classified by operator monotone functions, according to Petz classification theorem. We show that different metrics can be related through a change of the tomographic map and prove that there exists a bijective relation between monotone quantum metrics associated with different operator monotone functions. Such bijective relation is uniquely defined in terms of solutions of a first order second degree differential equation for the parameters of the involved tomographic maps. We first exhibit an example of a non-linear tomographic map which connects a monotone metric with a new one which is not monotone. Then we provide a second example where two monotone metrics are uniquely related through their tomographic parameters.

We introduce an entanglement-depth criterion optimized for planar quantum squeezed (PQS) states. It is connected with the sensitivity of such states for estimating an arbitrary, not necessarily small phase. We compare numerically our criterion with the well-known extreme spin squeezing condition of S{\o}rensen and M{\o}lmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4431 (2001)] and show that our condition detects a higher depth of entanglement when both planar spin variances are squeezed below the standard quantum limit. We employ our theory to monitor the entanglement dynamics in a PQS state produced via quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements using data from a recent experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 233603 (2017)].

In this paper we study Weyl fermions in a family of G\"odel-type geometries in Einstein general relativity. We also consider that these solutions are embedded in a topological defect background. We solve the Weyl equation and find the energy eigenvalues and eigenspinors for all three cases of G\"odel-type geometries where a topological defect is passing through them. We show that the presence of a topological in these geometries contributes to modification of the spectrum of energy. The energy zero modes for all three cases of the G\"odel geometries are discussed.

Recent progress in resource theory of quantum coherence has resulted in measures to quantify coherence in quantum systems. Especially, the l1-norm and relative entropy of coherence have been shown to be proper quantifiers of coherence and have been used to investigate coherence properties in different operational tasks. Since long-lasting quantum coherence has been experimentally confirmed in a number of photosynthetic complexes, it has been debated if and how coherence is connected to the known efficiency of population transfer in such systems. In this study, we investigate quantitatively the relationship between coherence, as quantified by l1-norm and relative entropy of coherence, and efficiency, as quantified by fidelity, for population transfer between end-sites in a network of two-level quantum systems. In particular, we use the coherence averaged over the duration of the population transfer in order to carry out a quantitative comparision between coherence and fidelity. Our results show that although coherence is a necessary requirement for population transfer, there is no unique relation between coherence and the efficiency of the transfer process.

Duality of non-equilibrium work distributions between interacting 1-D bosonic and fermionic systems with short-range interactions is established. This duality results from the dynamical duality between the two classes of systems. As a special case, the work distribution of the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas is identical to that of a free fermionic system. In the classical limit, the work distributions of arbitrary 1-D systems converge to that of the 1-D classical ideal gas, although their elementary excitations (quasi-particles) obey different statistics, e.g. the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac and the fractional statistics. We also represent numerical results of the work distributions of various systems, which are consistent with our main results.

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a method for tensorizing neural networks based upon an efficient way of approximating scale invariant quantum states, the Multi-scale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA). We employ MERA as a replacement for linear layers in a neural network and test this implementation on the CIFAR-10 dataset. The proposed method outperforms factorization using tensor trains, providing greater compression for the same level of accuracy and greater accuracy for the same level of compression. We demonstrate MERA-layers with 3900 times fewer parameters and a reduction in accuracy of less than 1% compared to the equivalent fully connected layers.

We show how the spin independent scattering of two initially distant qubits, say, in distinct traps or in remote sites of a lattice, can be used to implement an entangling quantum gate between them. The scattering takes place under 1D confinement for which we consider two different scenarios: a 1D wave-guide and a tight-binding lattice. We consider models with contact-like interaction between two fermionic or two bosonic particles. A qubit is encoded in two distinct spins (or other internal) states of each particle. Our scheme enables the implementation of a gate between two qubits which are initially too far to interact directly, and provides an alternative to photonic mediators for the scaling of quantum computers. Fundamentally, an interesting feature is that "identical particles" (e.g., two atoms of the same species) and the 1D confinement, are both necessary for the action of the gate. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of our scheme, the degree of control required to initialize the wave-packets momenta, and show how the quality of the gate is affected by momentum distributions and initial distance. In a lattice, the control of quasi-momenta is naturally provided by few local edge impurities in the lattice potential.