The initial entanglement shared between inertial and accelerated observers degrades due to the influence of the Unruh effect. Here, we show that the Unruh effect can be completely eliminated by the technique of partial measurement. The lost entanglement could be entirely retrieved or even amplified, which is dependent on whether the optimal strength of reversed measurement is \emph{state-independent} or \emph{state-dependent}. Our work provides a novel and unexpected method to recover the lost entanglement under Unruh decoherence and exhibits the ability of partial measurement as an important technique in relativistic quantum information.

In this paper we propose a scheme to model the phonon analog of optical elements, including a polarizing beam splitter, a half- wave plate, and a quarter- wave plate, as well as an implementation of CNOT and Pauli gates, by using two atoms confined in a 2D plane. The internal states of the atoms are taken to be Rydberg circular states. Using this model we can manipulate the motional state of the atom, with possible applications in optomechanical integrated circuits for quantum information processing and quantum simulation. Towards this aim, we study the interaction of two trapped atoms with two circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams, in such a way that the beams illuminate selectively only one of the atoms.

The classical-input quantum-output (cq) wiretap channel is a communication model involving a classical sender $X$, a legitimate quantum receiver $B$, and a quantum eavesdropper $E$. The goal of a private communication protocol that uses such a channel is for the sender $X$ to transmit a message in such a way that the legitimate receiver $B$ can decode it reliably, while the eavesdropper $E$ learns essentially nothing about which message was transmitted. The $\varepsilon $-one-shot private capacity of a cq wiretap channel is equal to the maximum number of bits that can be transmitted over the channel, such that the privacy error is no larger than $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$. The present paper provides a lower bound on the $\varepsilon$-one-shot private classical capacity, by exploiting the recently developed techniques of Anshu, Devabathini, Jain, and Warsi, called position-based coding and convex splitting. The lower bound is equal to a difference of the hypothesis testing mutual information between $X$ and $B$ and the "alternate" smooth max-information between $X$ and $E$. The one-shot lower bound then leads to a non-trivial lower bound on the second-order coding rate for private classical communication over a memoryless cq wiretap channel.

A simple procedure for obtaining superpositions of macroscopically distinct states is proposed and analyzed. We find that a thermal equilibrium state can be converted into such a state when a single global measurement of a macroscopic observable, such as the total magnetization, is made. This method is valid for systems with macroscopic degrees of freedom and finite (including zero) temperature. The superposition state is obtained with a high (low) probability when the measurement is made with a high (low) resolution. We find that this method is feasible in an experiment.

Lately, much attention has been given to quantum algorithms that solve pattern recognition tasks in machine learning. Many of these quantum machine learning algorithms try to implement classical models on large-scale universal quantum computers that have access to non-trivial subroutines such as Hamiltonian simulation, amplitude amplification and phase estimation. We approach the problem from the opposite direction and analyse a distance-based classifier that is realised by a simple quantum interference circuit. After state preparation, the circuit only consists of a Hadamard gate as well as two single-qubit measurements, and computes the distance between data points in quantum parallel. We demonstrate the proof-of-principle using the IBM Quantum Experience and analyse the performance of the classifier with numerical simulations, showing that it classifies surprisingly well for simple benchmark tasks.

In quantum cryptography, device-independent (DI) protocols can be certified secure without requiring assumptions about the inner workings of the devices used to perform the protocol. In order to display nonlocality, which is an essential feature in DI protocols, the device must consist of at least two separate components sharing entanglement. This raises a fundamental question: how much entanglement is needed to run such DI protocols? We present a two-device protocol for DI random number generation (DIRNG) which produces approximately $n$ bits of randomness starting from $n$ pairs of arbitrarily weakly entangled qubits. We also consider a variant of the protocol where $m$ singlet states are diluted into $n$ partially entangled states before performing the first protocol, and show that the number $m$ of singlet states need only scale sublinearly with the number $n$ of random bits produced. Operationally, this leads to a DIRNG protocol between distant laboratories that requires only a sublinear amount of quantum communication to prepare the devices.

Performing a faithful transfer of an unknown quantum state is a key challenge for enabling quantum networks. The realization of networks with a small number of quantum links is now actively pursued, which calls for an assessment of different state transfer methods to guide future design decisions. Here, we theoretically investigate quantum state transfer between two distant qubits, each in a cavity, connected by a waveguide, e.g., an optical fiber. We evaluate the achievable success probabilities of state transfer for two different protocols: standard wave packet shaping and adiabatic passage. The main loss sources are transmission losses in the waveguide and absorption losses in the cavities. While special cases studied in the literature indicate that adiabatic passages may be beneficial in this context, it remained an open question under which conditions this is the case and whether their use will be advantageous in practice. We answer these questions by providing a full analysis, showing that state transfer by adiabatic passage -- in contrast to wave packet shaping -- can mitigate the effects of undesired cavity losses, far beyond the regime of coupling to a single waveguide mode and the regime of lossless waveguides, as was proposed so far. Furthermore, we show that the photon arrival probability is in fact bounded in a trade-off between losses due to non-adiabaticity and due to coupling to off-resonant waveguide modes. We clarify that neither protocol can avoid transmission losses and discuss how the cavity parameters should be chosen to achieve an optimal state transfer.

The Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH) provides a way to understand how an isolated quantum mechanical system can be approximated by a thermal density matrix. We find a class of operators in (1+1)-$d$ conformal field theories, consisting of quasi-primaries of the identity module, which satisfy the hypothesis only at the leading order in large central charge. In the context of subsystem ETH, this plays a role in the deviation of the reduced density matrices, corresponding to a finite energy density eigenstate from its hypothesized thermal approximation. The universal deviation in terms of the square of the trace-square distance goes as the 8th power of the subsystem fraction and is suppressed by powers of inverse central charge ($c$). Furthermore, the non-universal deviations from subsystem ETH are found to be proportional to the heavy-light-heavy structure constants which are typically exponentially suppressed in $\sqrt{h/c}$, where $h$ is the conformal scaling dimension of the finite energy density state. We also examine the effects of the leading finite size corrections.

The nuclear spin in the vicinity of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center possesses of long coherence time and convenient manipulation assisted by the strong hyperfine interaction with the NV center. It is suggested for the subsequent quantum information storage and processing after appropriate initialization. However, current experimental schemes are either sensitive to the inclination and magnitude of the magnetic field or require thousands of repetitions to achieve successful realization. Here, we propose polarizing a 13C nuclear spin in the vicinity of an NV center via a dark state. We demonstrate theoretically that it is robust to polarize various nuclear spins with different hyperfine couplings and noise strengths.

We investigate a weak version of subsystem eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for a two-dimensional large central charge conformal field theory by comparing the local equivalence of high energy state and thermal state of canonical ensemble. We evaluate the single-interval R\'enyi entropy and entanglement entropy for a heavy primary state in short interval expansion. We verify the results of R\'enyi entropy by two different replica methods. We find nontrivial results at the eighth order of short interval expansion, which include an infinite number of higher order terms in the large central charge expansion. We then evaluate the relative entropy of the reduced density matrices to measure the difference between the heavy primary state and thermal state of canonical ensemble, and find that the aforementioned nontrivial eighth order results make the relative entropy unsuppressed in the large central charge limit. By using Pinsker's and Fannes-Audenaert inequalities, we can exploit the results of relative entropy to yield the lower and upper bounds on trace distance of the excited-state and thermal-state reduced density matrices. Our results are consistent with subsystem weak ETH, which requires the above trace distance is of power-law suppression by the large central charge. However, we are unable to pin down the exponent of power-law suppression. As a byproduct we also calculate the relative entropy to measure the difference between the reduced density matrices of two different heavy primary states.

Recently, the concept on `forgeable quantum messages' in arbitrated quantum signature schemes was introduced by T. Kim et al. [Phys. Scr., 90, 025101 (2015)], and it has been shown that there always exists such a forgeable quantum message for every known arbitrated quantum signature scheme with four quantum encryption operators and the specific two rotation operators. We first extend the result to the case of any two unitary rotation operators, and then consider the forgeable quantum messages in the schemes with four quantum encryption operators and three or more rotation operators. We here present a necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a forgeable quantum message, and moreover, by employing the condition, show that there exists an arbitrated quantum signature scheme which contains no forgeable quantum message-signature pairs.

In this work, we study the quantum entanglement and compute entanglement entropy in de Sitter space for a bipartite quantum field theory driven by axion originating from ${\bf Type~ IIB}$ string compactification on a Calabi Yau three fold (${\bf CY^3}$) and in presence of ${\bf NS5}$ brane. For this compuation, we consider a spherical surface ${\bf S}^2$, which divide the spatial slice of de Sitter (${\bf dS_4}$) into exterior and interior sub regions. We also consider the initial choice of vaccum to be Bunch Davies state. First we derive the solution of the wave function of axion in a hyperbolic open chart by constructing a suitable basis for Bunch Davies vacuum state using Bogoliubov transformation. We then, derive the expression for density matrix by tracing over the exterior region. This allows us to compute entanglement entropy and R$\acute{e}$nyi entropy in $3+1$ dimension. Further we quantify the UV finite contribution of entanglement entropy which contain the physics of long range quantum correlations of our expanding universe. Finally, our analysis compliments the necessary condition for the violation of Bell's inequality in primordial cosmology due to the non vanishing entanglement entropy for axionic Bell pair.

We analyze Vaidman's three-path interferometer with weak path marking [Phys. Rev. A 87, 052104 (2013)] and find that common sense yields correct statements about the particle's path through the interferometer. This disagrees with the original claim that the particles have discontinuous trajectories at odds with common sense. In our analysis, "the particle's path" has operational meaning as acquired by a path-discriminating measurement. For a quantum-mechanical experimental demonstration of the case, one should perform a single-photon version of the experiment by Danan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240402 (2013)] with unambiguous path discrimination. We present a detailed proposal for such an experiment.

Quantum versions of de Finetti's theorem are powerful tools, yielding conceptually important insights into the security of key distribution protocols or tomography schemes and allowing to bound the error made by mean-field approaches. Such theorems link the symmetry of a quantum state under the exchange of subsystems to negligible quantum correlations and are well understood and established in the context of distinguishable particles. In this work, we derive a de Finetti theorem for finite sized Majorana fermionic systems. It is shown, much reflecting the spirit of other quantum de Finetti theorems, that a state which is invariant under certain permutations of modes loses most of its anti-symmetric character and is locally well described by a mode separable state. We discuss the structure of the resulting mode separable states and establish in specific instances a quantitative link to the quality of Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum systems. We hint at a link to generalized Pauli principles for one-body reduced density operators. Finally, building upon the obtained de Finetti theorem, we generalize and extend the applicability of Hudson's fermionic central limit theorem.

For a quantum chain or wire, it is challenging to control or even alter the bulk properties or behaviors, for instance the response to external fields, by tuning solely the boundaries. This is expected, since the correlations usually decay exponentially, and do not transfer the physics at the boundaries to the bulk. In this work, we construct a quantum spin-$1/2$ chain of finite size, termed as controllable spin wire (CSW), in which we have $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ (Ising) interactions with a transverse field in the bulk, and the $\hat{S}^{x} \hat{S}^{z}$ and $\hat{S}^{z} \hat{S}^{z}$ couplings with a canted field on the boundaries. The Hamiltonians on the boundaries, dubbed as tuning Hamiltonians (TH's), bear the same form as the effective Hamiltonians emerging in the so-called "quantum entanglement simulator" (QES) that is originally proposed for mimicking infinite models. We show that tuning the TH's can trigger surprising controlling phenomena of the bulk properties, including the degeneracy of energy/entanglement spectrums, and the response to the magnetic field in the bulk. The CSW could potentially serve as the basic building blocks of quantum devices for quantum sensing, quantum memories, or quantum computers. The CSW contains only nearest-neighboring spin-$1/2$ interactions, and could be realized in future experiments with atoms/ions coupled with artificial quantum circuits or dots.

We describe general features of thermal correlation functions in quantum systems, with specific focus on the fluctuation-dissipation type relations implied by the KMS condition. These end up relating correlation functions with different time ordering and thus should naturally be viewed in the larger context of out-of-time-ordered (OTO) observables. In particular, eschewing the standard formulation of KMS relations where thermal periodicity is combined with time-reversal to stay within the purview of Schwinger-Keldysh functional integrals, we show that there is a natural way to phrase them directly in terms of OTO correlators. We use these observations to construct a natural causal basis for thermal n-point functions in terms of fully nested commutators. We provide several general results which can be inferred from cyclic orbits of permutations, and exemplify the abstract results using a quantum oscillator as an explicit example.

The ordinary time-dependent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics, that describes the interaction of a stationary system with a time-dependent perturbation, predicts that the transition probabilities induced by the perturbation are symmetric with respect to the initial an final states. Here we extend time-dependent perturbation theory into the non-Hermitian realm and consider the transitions in a stationary Hermitian system, described by a self-adjoint Hamiltonian $\hat{H}_0$, induced by a time-dependent non-Hermitian interaction $f(t) \hat{P}$. In the weak interaction (perturbative) limit, the transition probabilities generally turn out to be {\it asymmetric} for exchange of initial and final states. In particular, for a temporal shape $f(t)$ of the perturbation with one-sided Fourier spectrum, i.e. with only positive (or negative) frequency components, transitions are fully unidirectional, a result that holds even in the strong interaction regime. Interestingly, we show that non-Hermitian perturbations can be tailored to be transitionless, i.e. the perturbation leaves the system unchanged as if the interaction had not occurred at all, regardless the form of $\hat{H}_0$ and $\hat{P}$. As an application of the results, we discuss asymmetric (chiral) behavior of dynamical encircling of an exceptional point in a two- and three-level system.

An unstable quantum state generally decays following an exponential law, as environmental decoherence is expected to prevent the decay products from recombining to reconstruct the initial state. Here we show the existence of deviations from exponential decay in open quantum systems under very general conditions. Our results are illustrated with the exact dynamics under quantum Brownian motion and suggest an explanation of recent experimental observations.

Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.

We show that the dynamics of particles in a one-dimensional harmonic trap with hard-core interactions can be solvable for certain arrangements of unequal masses. For any number of particles, there exist two families of unequal mass particles that have integrable dynamics, and there are additional exceptional cases for three, four and five particles. The integrable mass families are classified by Coxeter reflection groups and the corresponding solutions are Bethe ansatz-like superpositions of hyperspherical harmonics in the relative hyperangular coordinates that are then restricted to sectors of fixed particle order. We also provide evidence for superintegrability of these Coxeter mass families and conjecture maximal superintegrability.