We develop an approach to light-matter coupling in waveguide QED based upon scattering amplitudes evaluated via Dyson series. For optical states containing more than single photons, terms in this series become increasingly complex and we provide a diagrammatic recipe for their evaluation, which is capable of yielding analytic results. Our method fully specifies a combined emitter-optical state that permits investigation of light-matter entanglement generation protocols. We use our expressions to study two-photon scattering from a $\Lambda$-system and find that the pole structure of the transition amplitude is dramatically altered as the two ground states are tuned from degeneracy.

It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and 1-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.

Superconducting circuits are one of the leading quantum platforms for quantum technologies. With growing system complexity, it is of crucial importance to develop scalable circuit models that contain the minimum information required to predict the behaviour of the physical system. Based on microwave engineering methods, divergent and non-divergent Hamiltonian models in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been proposed to explain the dynamics of superconducting quantum networks coupled to infinite-dimensional systems, such as transmission lines and general impedance environments. Here, we study systematically common linear coupling configurations between networks and infinite-dimensional systems. The main result is that the simple Lagrangian models for these configurations present an intrinsic natural length that provides a natural ultraviolet cutoff. This length is due to the unavoidable dressing of the environment modes by the network. In this manner, the coupling parameters between their components correctly manifest their natural decoupling at high frequencies. Furthermore, we show the requirements to correctly separate infinite-dimensional coupled systems in local bases. We also compare our analytical results with other analytical and approximate methods available in the literature. Finally, we propose several applications of these general methods to analog quantum simulation of multi-spin-boson models in non-perturbative coupling regimes.

In the presence of symmetry, entanglement measures of quantum many-body states can be decomposed into contributions arising from distinct symmetry sectors. Here we investigate the decomposability of negativity, a measure of entanglement between two parts of a generally open system in a mixed state. While the entanglement entropy of a subsystem within a closed system can be resolved according to its total preserved charge, we find that negativity of two subsystems may be decomposed into contributions associated with their charge imbalance. We show that this charge-imbalance decomposition of the negativity may be measured by employing existing techniques based on creation and manipulation of many-body twin or triple states in cold atomic setups. Next, using a geometrical construction in terms of an Aharonov-Bohm-like flux inserted in a Riemann geometry, we compute this decomposed negativity in critical one-dimensional systems described by conformal field theory. We show that it shares the same distribution as the charge-imbalance between the two subsystems. We numerically confirm our field theory results via an exact calculations for non-interacting particles based on a double-gaussian representation of the partially transposed density matrix.

The frequency of the breathing mode of a classical two dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic confinement is fixed by the scale invariance of the Hamiltonian. Scale invariance is broken on the quantum mechanical level by introducing the two dimensional scattering length as a regulator. This is an example of a quantum anomaly in the field of ultracold atoms and leads to a shift of the frequency of the collective breathing mode of the cloud. In this work, we study this anomalous frequency shift for a two component Fermi gas in the strongly interacting regime. We measure significant shifts away from the scale invariant result that depend strongly on both interactions and temperature. We find qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations at zero temperature.

Decision of whether a Boolean equation system has a solution is an NPC problem and finding a solution is NP hard. In this paper, we present a quantum algorithm to decide whether a Boolean equation system FS has a solution and compute one if FS does have solutions with any given success probability. The runtime complexity of the algorithm is polynomial in the size of FS and the condition number of FS. As a consequence, we give a polynomial-time quantum algorithm for solving Boolean equation systems if their condition numbers are small, say polynomial in the size of FS. We apply our quantum algorithm for solving Boolean equations to the cryptanalysis of several important cryptosystems: the stream cipher Trivum, the block cipher AES, the hash function SHA-3/Keccak, and the multivariate public key cryptosystems, and show that they are secure under quantum algebraic attack only if the condition numbers of the corresponding equation systems are large. This leads to a new criterion for designing cryptosystems that can against the attack of quantum computers: their corresponding equation systems must have large condition numbers.

Fracton order is a new kind of quantum order characterized by topological excitations that exhibit remarkable mobility restrictions and a robust ground state degeneracy (GSD) which can increase exponentially with system size. In this paper, we present a generic lattice construction (in three dimensions) for a generalized X-cube model of fracton order, where the mobility restrictions of the subdimensional particles inherit the geometry of the lattice. This helps explain a previous result that lattice curvature can produce a robust GSD, even on a manifold with trivial topology. We provide explicit examples to show that the (zero temperature) phase of matter is sensitive to the lattice geometry. In one example, the lattice geometry confines the dimension-1 particles to small loops, which allows the fractons to be fully mobile charges, and the resulting phase is equivalent to (3+1)-dimensional toric code. However, the phase is sensitive to more than just lattice curvature; different lattices without curvature (e.g. cubic or stacked kagome lattices) also result in different phases of matter, which are separated by phase transitions. Unintuitively however, according to a previous definition of phase [Chen, Gu, Wen 2010], even just a rotated or rescaled cubic lattice results in different phases of matter, which motivates us to propose a new and coarser definition of phase for gapped ground states and fracton order. The new equivalence relation between ground states is given by the composition of a local unitary transformation and a quasi-isometry (which can rotate and rescale the lattice); equivalently, ground states are in the same phase if they can be adiabatically connected by varying both the Hamiltonian and the positions of the degrees of freedom (via a quasi-isometry). In light of the importance of geometry, we further propose that fracton orders should be regarded as a geometric order.

Author(s): Anton Frisk Kockum, Göran Johansson, and Franco Nori

In quantum-optics experiments with both natural and artificial atoms, the atoms are usually small enough that they can be approximated as pointlike compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation with which they interact. However, superconducting qubits coupled to a meandering transmissi...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 140404] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Yuan Cao, Yu-Huai Li, Wen-Jie Zou, Zheng-Ping Li, Qi Shen, Sheng-Kai Liao, Ji-Gang Ren, Juan Yin, Yu-Ao Chen, Cheng-Zhi Peng, and Jian-Wei Pan

Quantum entanglement was termed “spooky action at a distance” in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present ...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 140405] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Yuichiro Matsuzaki, Simon Benjamin, Shojun Nakayama, Shiro Saito, and William J. Munro

Quantum sensors have the potential to outperform their classical counterparts. For classical sensing, the uncertainty of the estimation of the target fields scales inversely with the square root of the measurement time T. On the other hand, by using quantum resources, we can reduce this scaling of t...

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 140501] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Qian Bin, Xin-You Lü, Li-Li Zheng, Shang-Wu Bin, and Ying Wu

“Mollow spectroscopy” is a photon statistics spectroscopy, obtained by scanning the quantum light scattered from a source system. Here, we apply this technique to detect the weak light-matter interaction between the cavity and atom (or a mechanical oscillator) when the strong system dissipation is i...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 043802] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Erik Hebestreit, René Reimann, Martin Frimmer, and Lukas Novotny

The interaction of an object with its surrounding bath can lead to a coupling between the object's internal degrees of freedom and its center-of-mass motion. This coupling is especially important for nanomechanical oscillators, which are among the most promising systems for preparing macroscopic obj...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 043803] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Satoshi Sunada

This paper theoretically and numerically studies the response characteristics of non-Hermitian resonant photonic systems operating near an exceptional point (EP), where two resonant eigenmodes coalesce. It is shown that a system near an EP can exhibit a non-Lorentzian frequency response, whose line ...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 043804] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Pierre-Élie Larré, Dominique Delande, and Nicolas Cherroret

We study the coherence of a disordered and interacting quantum light field after propagation along a nonlinear optical fiber. Disorder is generated by a cross-phase modulation with a randomized auxiliary classical light field, while interactions are induced by self-phase modulation. When penetrating...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 043805] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

A new theoretical framework connects the exponential growth of a cell population to the stochastic replication of individual cells within the population.

[Physics] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Categories: Physics

Author(s): S. Safaei, B. Grémaud, R. Dumke, L.-C. Kwek, L. Amico, and C. Miniatura

Through a combination of laser beams, we engineer a two-dimensional optical lattice of Mexican hat potentials able to host atoms in its ring-shaped wells. When tunneling can be ignored (at high laser intensities), we show that a well-defined qubit can be associated with the states of the atoms trapp...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 042306] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Gonçalo M. Quinta and Rui André

We propose an alternative classification scheme for quantum entanglement based on topological links. This is done by identifying a nonrigid ring to a particle, attributing the act of cutting and removing a ring to the operation of tracing out the particle, and associating linked rings to entangled p...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 042307] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

Author(s): Si-Hui Tan, Yingkai Ouyang, and Peter P. Rohde

We present a scheme for implementing homomorphic encryption on coherent states encoded using phase-shift keys. The encryption operations require only rotations in phase space, which commute with computations in the code space performed via passive linear optics, and with generalized nonlinear phase ...

[Phys. Rev. A 97, 042308] Published Thu Apr 05, 2018

We show that uniformly accelerated detectors can display genuinely thermal features even if the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition fails to hold. These features include satisfying thermal detailed balance and having a Planckian response identical to cases in which the KMS condition is satisfied. In this context, we discuss that satisfying the KMS condition for accelerated trajectories is just sufficient but not necessary for the Unruh effect to be present in a given quantum field theory. Furthermore, we extract the necessary and sufficient conditions for the response function of an accelerated detector to be thermal in the infinitely adiabatic limit. This analysis provides new insights about the interplay between the KMS condition and the Unruh effect, and a solid framework in which the robustness of the Unruh effect against deformations of quantum field theories (perhaps Lorentz-violating) can be answered unambiguously.

Photonic time bin qubits are well suited to transmission via optical fibres and waveguide circuits. The states take the form $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\alpha \ket{0} + e^{i\phi}\beta \ket{1})$, with $\ket{0}$ and $\ket{1}$ referring to the early and late time bin respectively. By controlling the phase of a laser driving a spin-flip Raman transition in a single-hole-charged InAs quantum dot we demonstrate complete control over the phase, $\phi$. We show that this photon generation process can be performed deterministically, with only a moderate loss in coherence. Finally, we encode different qubits in different energies of the Raman scattered light, demonstrating wavelength division multiplexing at the single photon level.