Pre- and post-selected (PPS) measurement, especially the weak PPS measurement, is a useful protocol for amplifying small physical parameters. However, it is difficult to retain both the attainable highest measurement sensitivity and precision with the increase of the parameter to be measured. Here, a modulated PPS measurement scheme based on coupling-strength-dependent modulation is presented with the highest sensitivity and precision retained for an arbitrary coupling strength. This idea is demonstrated by comparing the modulated PPS measurement scheme with standard PPS measurementv scheme, respectively, in the cases of balanced pointer and unbalanced pointer. By using the Fisher information metric, we derive the optimal pre- and post-selected states, as well as the optimal coupling-strength-dependent modulation without any restriction on the coupling strength. We also give the specific strategy of performing the modulated PPS measurement scheme, which may promote practical application of this scheme in precision metrology.

Time-quasiperiodic Majoranas are generalizations of Floquet Majoranas in time-quasiperiodic superconducting systems. We show that in a system driven at $d$ mutually irrational frequencies, there are up to $2^d$ types of such Majoranas, coexisting despite spatial overlap and lack of time-translational invariance. Although the quasienergy spectrum is dense in such systems, the time-quasiperiodic Majoranas can be stable and robust against resonances due to localization in the periodic-drives induced synthetic dimensions. This is demonstrated in a time-quasiperiodic Kitaev chain driven at two frequencies. We further relate the existence of multiple Majoranas in a time-quasiperiodic system to the time quasicrystal phase introduced recently. These time-quasiperiodic Majoranas open a new possibility for braiding which will be pursued in the future.

Single-photon switches and transistors generate strong photon-photon interactions that are essential for quantum circuits and networks. However, to deterministically control an optical signal with a single photon requires strong interactions with a quantum memory, which have been lacking in a solid-state platform. We realize a single-photon switch and transistor enabled by a solid-state quantum memory. Our device consists of a semiconductor spin qubit strongly coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. The spin qubit enables a single gate photon to switch a signal field containing up to an average of 27.7 photons, with a switching time of 63 ps. Our results show that semiconductor nanophotonic devices can produce strong and controlled photon-photon interactions that could enable high-bandwidth photonic quantum information processing.

The authors of the comment[Phys. Rev. A 97, 046101 (2018)] raise that the inconsistency in calculating some common quantum-speed-limit (QSL) bounds, which is presented in our paper [Phys. Rev. A 95, 052118 (2017)], does not exist in their paper [Phys. Rev. A 94, 052125 (2016)]. Therefore they insist that their criticism to some QSL bounds is still valid. We demonstrate all the QSL bounds mentioned in the comment are similar in essence. We also show the inconsistency which is presented in their original paper can not be used to support their criticism. Furthermore, we exhibit although the inconsistency presented in our paper is not a same one to which is presented by the authors of the comment, it exists and be unavoidable in their example. Accordingly, we believe the result in our paper is usable in numerical calculations.

The role of coherence in quantum thermodynamics has been extensively studied in the recent years and it is now well-understood that coherence between different energy eigenstates is a resource independent of other thermodynamics resources, such as work. A fundamental remaining open question is whether the laws of quantum mechanics and thermodynamics allow the existence a "coherence distillation machine", i.e. a machine that, by possibly consuming work, obtains pure coherent states from mixed states, at a nonzero rate. This question is related to another fundamental question: Starting from many copies of noisy quantum clocks which are (approximately) synchronized with a reference clock, can we distill synchronized clocks in pure states, at a non-zero rate? In this paper we study quantities called "coherence cost" and "distillable coherence", which determine the rate of conversion of coherence in a standard pure state to general mixed states, and vice versa, in the context of quantum thermodynamics. We find that the coherence cost of any state (pure or mixed) is determined by its Quantum Fisher Information (QFI), thereby revealing a novel operational interpretation of this central quantity of quantum metrology. On the other hand, we show that, surprisingly, distillable coherence is zero for typical (full-rank) mixed states. Hence, we establish the impossibility of coherence distillation machines in quantum thermodynamics, which can be compared with the impossibility of perpetual motion machines or cloning machines. To establish this result, we introduce a new additive quantifier of coherence, called the "purity of coherence", and argue that its relation with QFI is analogous to the relation between the free and total energies in thermodynamics.

Measurement incompatibility is the most basic resource that distinguishes quantum from classical physics. Contextuality is the critical resource behind the power of some models of quantum computation and a necessary ingredient for many applications in quantum information. A fundamental problem is thus identifying when incompatibility produces contextuality. Here we show that, given a structure of incompatibility characterized by a graph in which nonadjacent vertices represent incompatible ideal measurements, the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a quantum realization producing contextuality is that this graph contains induced cycles of size larger than three. This result completes one by Ramanathan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 050404 (2012)], points out the fundamental importance of the results of Ara\'ujo et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 022118 (2013)], and allows us to identify all experimental scenarios with quantum contextuality, unveiling new interesting cases.

We investigate the excitation of a quantum particle shuttled in a harmonic trap with weak springconstant colored noise. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model for the noise correlation function describes a wide range of possible noises, in particular for short correlation times the white-noise limit examined in Lu et al, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063414 (2014) and, by averaging over correlation times, "1/f ficker noise". We find expressions for the excitation energy in terms of static (independent of trap motion) and dynamical sensitivities, with opposite behavior with respect to shuttling time, and demonstrate that the excitation can be reduced by proper process timing and design of the trap trajectory.

Making a "which-way" measurement (WWM) to identify which slit a particle goes through in a double-slit apparatus will reduce the visibility of interference fringes. There has been a long-standing controversy over whether this can be attributed to an uncontrollable momentum transfer. To date, no experiment has characterised the momentum change in a way that relates quantitatively to the loss of visibility. Here, by reconstructing the Bohmian trajectories of single photons, we experimentally obtain the distribution of momentum change, which is observed to be not a momentum kick that occurs at the point of the WWM, but nonclassically accumulates during the propagation of the photons. We further confirm a quantitative relation between the loss of visibility consequent on a WWM and the total (late-time) momentum disturbance. Our results emphasize the role of the Bohmian momentum in giving an intuitive picture of wave-particle duality and complementarity.

The Clausius inequality (CI) is one of the most versatile forms of the second law. Although it was originally conceived for macroscopic steam engines, it is also applicable to quantum single particle machines. Moreover, the CI is the main connecting thread between classical microscopic thermodynamics and nanoscopic quantum thermodynamics. In this chapter, we study three different approaches for obtaining the CI. Each approach shows different aspects of the CI. The goals of this chapter are: (i) To show the exact assumptions made in various derivations of the CI. (ii) To elucidate the structure of the second law and its origin. (iii) To discuss the possibilities each approach offers for finding additional second-law like inequalities. (iv) To pose challenges related to the second law in nanoscopic setups. In particular, we introduce and briefly discuss the notions of exotic heat machines (X machines), and "lazy demons".

From its earliest days nearly a century ago, quantum mechanics has proven itself to be a tremendously accurate yet intellectually unsatisfying theory to many. Not the least of its problems is that it is a theory about the results of measurements. As John Bell once said in introducing the concept of `beables', it should be possible to say what is rather than merely what is observed. In this essay I consider the question of whether a universe can be a (nonlocal) beable and what that implies about the fundamental nature of that universe. I conclude that a universe that is a beable within the framework of certain theories, cannot also be fundamental.

We investigate the quantum evolution speed of a qubit in two kinds of finite-temperature environments. The first environment is a bosonic bath with Ohmic-like spectrum. It is found that the high temperature not only leads to the speed-up but also speed-down processes in the weak-coupling regime, which is different from the strong-coupling case where only exhibits speed-up process, and the effects of Ohmicity parameter of the bath on the quantum evolution speed are also different in the strong-coupling and weak-coupling regimes. Furthermore, we realize the controllable and stationary quantum evolution speed by applying the bang-bang pulse. For the second nonlinear bath, we study the quantum evolution speed of a qubit by resorting to the hierarchical equations of motion method beyond the Born-Markov approximation. It is shown that the performances of quantum evolution speed in weak-coupling and strong-coupling regimes are also different. In particular, the quantum evolution speed can be decelerated by the rise of temperature in the strong-coupling regime which is an anomalous phenomenon and contrary to the common recognition that quantum evolution speed always increases with the temperature.

We present a new graphical calculus that is sound and complete for a universal family of quantum circuits, which can be seen as the natural string-diagrammatic extension of the approximately (real-valued) universal family of Hadamard+CCZ circuits. The diagrammatic language is generated by two kinds of nodes: the so-called `spider' associated with the computational basis, as well as a new arity-$N$ generalisation of the Hadamard gate, which satisfies a variation of the spider fusion law. Unlike previous graphical calculi, this admits compact encodings of non-linear classical functions. For example, the AND gate can be depicted as a diagram of just 2 generators, compared to $\sim25$ in the ZX-calculus. Consequently, $N$-controlled gates, hypergraph states, Hadamard+Toffoli circuits, and diagonal circuits at arbitrary levels of the Clifford hierarchy also enjoy encodings with low constant overhead. This suggests that this calculus will be significantly more convenient for reasoning about the interplay between classical non-linear behaviour (e.g. in an oracle) and purely quantum operations. After presenting the calculus, we will prove it is sound and complete for universal quantum computation by demonstrating the reduction of any diagram to an easily describable normal form.

We analyze the photon correlations in an optomechanical system containing two nonlinear optical modes and one mechanical mode which are coupled via a three-mode mixing. Under a weak driving condition, we determine the optimal conditions for photon antibunching in the weak Kerr-nonlinear regime and we find that the analytical calculations are consistent with the numerical results. The photon blockade effect is attributed to destructive quantum interference in the two-photon excitation pathways created as a result of the three-mode interaction.

Sequential weak measurements of non-commuting observables is not only fundamentally interesting in quantum measurement but also shown potential in various applications. The previous reported methods, however, can only realize limited sequential weak measurements experimentally. In this Letter, we propose the realization of sequential measurements of arbitrary observables and experimentally demonstrate for the first time the measurement of sequential weak values of three non-commuting Pauli observables by using genuine single photons. The results presented here will not only improve our understanding of quantum measurement, e.g. testing quantum contextuality, macroscopic realism, and uncertainty relation, but also have many applications such as realizing counterfactual computation, direct process tomography, direct measurement of the density matrix and unbounded randomness certification.

We present an effective Eavesdropping scheme to attack the twin-field protocol of quantum key distribution [TF-QKD] proposed recently.

A general formalism to describe the dynamics of quantum emitters in structured reservoirs is introduced. As an application, we investigate the optical coherence of an atom-like emitter diagonally coupled via a link-boson to a structured bosonic reservoir and obtain unconventional dephasing dynamics due to non-Markovian quantum feedback for different temperatures. For a two-level emitter embedded in a phonon cavity preservation of finite coherence is predicted up to room temperature.

Here we show that to quantize any lumped element circuit, the circuit geometry must be included in a mathematical model of either the circuit fluxes or the circuit charges. By geometry of the circuit, we refer to the so-called parasitic inductances and capacitances that arise from the details of the circuit layout, which are well known to create noise in classical circuits. In contrast, the classical lumped element model describes only the topology of the circuit, which defines how different finite element variables are connected to one another by circuit components. By geometry we also refer to the fact that the quantum variables define the circuit geometry - some are outside the wire, some are inside the wire, and some are at boundary of the wire. Just as with classical circuits, these effects create noise; this noise arises in the form of high frequency components in the Hamiltonian that are difficult to accurately simulate using a lumped element model. The presentation is appropriate for undergraduate electrical and computer engineering students learning about quantum computing and physicists learning about electrical circuits.

We consider the superposition of two semiclassical solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a de Sitter universe, describing a quantized scalar vacuum propagating in a universe that is contracting in one case and expanding in the other, each identifying a opposite cosmological arrow of time. We discuss the suppression of the interference terms between the two arrows of time due to environment-induced decoherence caused by modes of the scalar vacuum crossing the Hubble horizon. Furthermore, we quantify the effect of the interference on the expectation value of the observable field mode correlations, with respect to an observer that we identify with the spatial geometry.

We theoretically study the effects of loss on the phase sensitivity of an SU(1,1) interferometer with parity detection with various input states. We show that although the sensitivity of phase estimation decreases in the presence of loss, it can still beat the shot-noise limit with small loss. To examine the performance of parity detection, the comparison is performed among homodyne detection, intensity detection, and parity detection. Compared with homodyne detection and intensity detection, parity detection has a slight better optimal phase sensitivity in the absence of loss, but has a worse optimal phase sensitivity with a significant amount of loss with one-coherent state or coherent $\otimes$ squeezed state input.

Particle creation by time-dependent boundary conditions is of special importance in variety of physics involving quantum fields. In this paper, we consider an idealized but fundamental system, in which the boundary condition in a finite or semi-infinite cavity for a $1+1$ dimensional free massless scalar field instantaneously changes from Neumann to Dirichlet or reversely. Then, we estimate the vacuum expectation value of energy-momentum tensor for the quantized scalar field to obtain it in analytic form for every case considered. It is revealed that two kind of non-renormalizable diverging flux can emanate from the point where the boundary condition changes, one of which has been overlooked in past studies. Such a thunderbolt-like flux would destroy or destabilize the system if its back-reaction is taken into account. The result in this paper can be a guideline in that most models of particle creation by time-dependent boundary conditions should reproduce it when the models have an instantaneous limit.