Entanglement of the Vacuum between Left, Right, Future, and Past: The Origin of Entanglement-Induced Quantum Radiation. (arXiv:1709.05757v2 [hep-th] UPDATED) Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-10-04 01:45

The Minkowski vacuum state is expressed as an entangled state between the left and right Rindler wedges when it is constructed on the Rindler vacuum. In this paper, we further examine the entanglement structure and extend the expression to the future (expanding) and past (shrinking) Kasner spacetimes. This clarifies the origin of the quantum radiation produced by an Unruh--DeWitt detector in uniformly accelerated motion in the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We also investigate the two-dimensional massless case where the quantum radiation vanishes but the same entanglement structure exists.

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Magic state parity-checker with pre-distilled components. (arXiv:1709.02214v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED) Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-10-04 01:45

Magic states are eigenstates of non-Pauli operators. One way of suppressing errors present in magic states is to perform parity measurements in their non-Pauli eigenbasis and postselect on even parity. Here we develop new protocols based on non-Pauli parity checking, where the measurements are implemented with the aid of pre-distilled multiqubit resource states. This leads to a two step process: pre-distillation of multiqubit resource states, followed by implementation of the parity check. These protocols can prepare single-qubit magic states that enable direct injection of single-qubit axial rotations without subsequent gate-synthesis and its associated overhead. We show our protocols are more efficient than all previous comparable protocols with quadratic error reduction, including the protocols of Bravyi and Haah.

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Peptides as versatile scaffolds for quantum computing. (arXiv:1708.09440v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED) Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-10-04 01:45

In this work we showcase the potential of peptides as versatile scaffolds for quantum computing and molecular spintronics. In particular, we focus on lanthanide-binding tags, which were originally developed in the field of biotechnology for the study of protein structure and dynamics. Firstly, we demonstrate quantum coherent oscillations in a Neodymium peptidic qubit. Then, employing bacterial biosynthesis, we investigate the possibility of increasing the number of qubits in the same molecular system, with the case studies being a double spin qubit with two distinct coordination environments, and an asymmetric chain of 9 spin qubits with a spin-spin separation of about 2 nm and in an arbitrarily chosen sequence of coordination environments. Finally, we take advantage of biochemical modification for the preparation of paramagnetic, chiral, Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111).Our experimental and theoretical characterization shows that this is a promising structure for spintronic applications, and in particular to improve on two state-of-the-art approaches to molecular spin qubits. We conclude with an overview of the challenges and new opportunities opened by this emerging field.

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Divergences in open quantum systems. (arXiv:1709.10095v2 [hep-th] CROSS LISTED) Quantum Physics - Wed, 2017-10-04 01:45

We show that for cubic scalar field theories in five and more spacetime dimensions, and for the $T = 0$ limit of the Caldeira-Leggett model, the quantum master equation for long-wavelength modes initially unentangled from short-distance modes, and at second order in perturbation theory, contains divergences in the non-Hamiltonian terms. These divergences ensure that the equations of motion for expectation values of composite operators closes on expectation values of renormalized operators. Along the way we show that initial "jolt" singularities which occur in the equations of motion for operators linear in the fundamental variables persist for quadratic operators, and are removed if one chooses an initial state projected onto low energies, following the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

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Eigenstate expansion of the quasistatic electric field of a point charge in a spherical inclusion structure

Author(s): Asaf Farhi and David J. Bergman

A point charge in the presence of a metallic nanosphere is a fundamental setup, which has implications for Raman scattering, enhancement of spontaneous emission of a molecule by an antenna, sensing, and modeling a metallic tip in proximity to a nanoparticle. Here we analytically expand the electric ...

[Phys. Rev. A 96, 043806] Published Tue Oct 03, 2017

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Synopsis: Twisting DNA Locates its Defects

APS Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 11:00

Single base-pair mismatches in DNA can be pinpointed by twisting the molecule until it buckles.

[Physics] Published Tue Oct 03, 2017

Categories: Physics

Decay of a Thermofield-Double State in Chaotic Quantum Systems. (arXiv:1709.10105v1 [cond-mat.str-el]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

Scrambling in interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium is particularly effective in the chaotic regime. Under time evolution, initially localized information is said to be scrambled as it spreads throughout the entire system. This spreading can be analyzed with the spectral form factor, which is defined in terms of the analytic continuation of the partition function. The latter is equivalent to the survival probability of a thermofield double state under unitary dynamics. Using random matrices from the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) as Hamiltonians for the time evolution, we obtain exact analytical expressions at finite $N$ for the survival probability. Numerical simulations of the survival probability with matrices taken from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) are also provided. The GOE is more suitable for our comparison with numerical results obtained with a disordered spin chain with local interactions. Common features between the random matrix and the realistic disordered model in the chaotic regime are identified. The differences that emerge as the spin model approaches a many-body localized phase are also discussed.

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Monogamy of Quantum Privacy. (arXiv:1709.10124v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

Quantum mechanics ensures that the information stored in a quantum state is secure and the ability to send private information through a quantum channel is at least as great as the coherent information. We derive trade-off relations between quantum privacy, information gain by Eve and the disturbance caused by Eve to the quantum state that is being sent through a noisy channel. For tripartite quantum states, we show that monogamy of privacy exists in the case of a single sender and multiple receivers. When Alice prepares a tripartite entangled state and shares it with Bob and Charlie through two different noisy quantum channels, we prove that if the minimally guaranteed quantum privacy between Alice and Bob is positive, then the privacy of information between Alice and Charlie has to be negative. Thus, quantum privacy for more than two parties respects mutual exclusiveness. Then, we prove a monogamy relation for the minimally guaranteed quantum privacy for tripartite systems. We also prove a trade-off relation between the entanglement of formation across one partition and the quantum privacy along another partition. Our results show that quantum privacy cannot be freely shared among multiple parties and can have implication in future quantum networks.

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Riemann surfaces of complex classical trajectories and tunnelling splitting in one-dimensional systems. (arXiv:1709.10144v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

The topology of complex classical paths is investigated to discuss quantum tunnelling splittings in one-dimensional systems. Here the Hamiltonian is assumed to be given as polynomial functions, so the fundamental group for the Riemann surface provides complete information on the topology of complex paths, which allows us to enumerate all the possible candidates contributing to the semiclassical sum formula for tunnelling splittings. This naturally leads to action relations among classically disjoined regions, revealing entirely non-local nature in the quantization condition. The importance of the proper treatment of Stokes phenomena is also discussed in Hamiltonians in the normal form.

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Complex action suggests future-included theory. (arXiv:1709.10179v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

In quantum theory its action is usually taken to be real, but we can consider another theory whose action is complex. In addition, in the Feynman path integral, the time integration is usually performed over the period between the initial time $T_A$ and some specific time, say, the present time $t$. Besides such a future-not-included theory, we can consider the future-included theory, in which not only the past state $| A(T_A) \rangle$ at the initial time $T_A$ but also the future state $| B(T_B) \rangle$ at the final time $T_B$ is given at first, and the time integration is performed over the whole period from the past to the future. Thus quantum theory can be classified into four types, according to whether its action is real or not, and whether the future is included or not. We argue that, if a theory is described with a complex action, then such a theory is suggested to be the future-included theory, rather than the future-not-included theory. Otherwise persons living at different times would see different histories of the universe.

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On the Time Dependence of Holographic Complexity. (arXiv:1709.10184v1 [hep-th]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We evaluate the full time dependence of holographic complexity in various eternal black hole backgrounds using both the complexity=action (CA) and the complexity=volume (CV) conjectures. We conclude using the CV conjecture that the rate of change of complexity is a monotonically increasing function of time, which saturates from below to a positive constant in the late time limit. Using the CA conjecture for uncharged black holes, the holographic complexity remains constant for an initial period, then briefly decreases but quickly begins to increase. As observed previously, at late times, the rate of growth of the complexity approaches a constant, which may be associated with Lloyd's bound on the rate of computation. However, we find that this late time limit is approached from above, thus violating the bound. Adding a charge to the eternal black holes washes out the early time behaviour, i.e., complexity immediately begins increasing with sufficient charge, but the late time behaviour is essentially the same as in the neutral case. We also evaluate the complexity of formation for charged black holes and find that it is divergent for extremal black holes, implying that the states at finite chemical potential and zero temperature are infinitely more complex than their finite temperature counterparts.

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Quantum simulation of general semi-classical Rabi model beyond strong driving regime. (arXiv:1709.10201v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We propose a scheme to simulate the interaction between a two-level system and a classical light field. Under the transversal driving of two microwave tones, the system Hamiltonian is identical to that of the general semi-classical Rabi model. We experimentally realize this Hamiltonian with a superconducting transmon qubit. By tuning the strength, phase and frequency of the two microwave driving fields, we simulate the quantum dynamics from weak to extremely strong driving regime. The resulting evolutions gradually deviate from the normal sinusoidal Rabi oscillations with increasing driving strength, in accordance with the predictions of the general semi-classical Rabi model far beyond the weak driving limit. Our scheme provides an effective approach to investigate the extremely strong interaction between a two-level system and a classical light field. Such strong interactions are usually inaccessible in experiments.

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Reference Pulse Attack on Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Local Local Oscillator. (arXiv:1709.10202v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We reveal a security loophole in the current state-of-art phase reference pulse sharing scheme for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution using a Local Local Oscillator (LLO-CVQKD). The loophole is associated with the amplitude of the phase reference pulses which Eve can manipulate to extract information which cannot be discovered by legitimate users. We call this new attack as the reference pulse attack. We have demonstrated the efficiency of our attack for different LLO-CVQKD transmission distances. Unity attack efficiency can be achieved at a transmission distance greater than 21.2 km in the case of a zero loss channel. The distance extends to 24.3 km where hollow-core fibre channels are used. We also propose possible countermeasures.

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Spectral singularity in composite systems and simulation of a resonant lasing cavity. (arXiv:1709.10238v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We investigate herein the existence of spectral singularities (SSs) in composite systems that consist of two separate scattering centers A and B embedded in one-dimensional free space, with at least one scattering center being non-Hermitian. We show that such composite systems have an SS at $k_{c}$ if the reflection amplitudes $r^{A}\left( k_{c}\right) $ and $r^{B}\left( k_{c}\right) $ of the two scattering centers satisfy the condition $r_{\mathrm{R}% }^{A}\left( k_{c}\right) r_{\mathrm{L}}^{B}\left( k_{c}\right) e^{i2k_{c}\left( x_{B}-x_{A}\right) }=1$. We also extend the condition to the system with multi-scattering centers. As an application, we construct a simple system to simulate a resonant lasing cavity.

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A significantly stable mode of the ultracold atomic wave packet in amplitude modulated parabolic optical lattices. (arXiv:1709.10268v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We show that a conspicuous wave packet of ultracold noninteracting Bosonic atoms emerges in a 1-dimensional parabolic optical lattice as in the setup of the Aarhus experiment [P. L. Pedersen ${\it et}$ ${\it al.}$, Phys. Rev. A ${\bf 88}$, 023620 (2013)], given the lattice height is harmonically modulated with a particular amplitude at a resonant frequency. We show that this wave packet, coined "${\it 4bandPWP}$" here, executes stable time-wise periodic motion for infinitely long time. We apply the Floquet theory to analyze the parameter dependence of ${\it 4bandPWP}$ in detail. Our analysis shows that it consists mainly of two principal Floquet eigenstates of the periodically driven Hamiltonian. The informative Husimi representation yields temporal slices of the phase space of ${\it 4bandPWP}$, visually identifying moments where the inter-band transitions take place. The provided data should aid the experiment in locating ${\it 4bandPWP}$.

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Exact density functional obtained via the Levy constrained search. (arXiv:1709.10284v1 [physics.chem-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

A stochastic minimization method for a real-space wavefunction, $\Psi({\bf r}_{1},{\bf r}_{2}\ldots{\bf r}_{n})$, constrained to a chosen density, $\rho({\bf r})$, is developed. It enables the explicit calculation of the Levy constrained search $F[\rho]=\min_{\Psi\rightarrow\rho}\langle\Psi|\hat{T}+\hat{V}_{ee}|\Psi\rangle$ (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 76 6062 (1979)), that gives the exact functional of density functional theory. This general method is illustrated in the evaluation of $F[\rho]$ for two-electron densities in one dimension with a soft-Coulomb interaction. Additionally, procedures are given to determine the first and second functional derivatives, $\frac{\delta F}{\delta\rho({\bf r})}$ and $\frac{\delta^{2}F}{\delta\rho({\bf r})\delta\rho({\bf r}')}$. For a chosen external potential, $v({\bf r})$, the functional and its derivatives are used in minimizations only over densities to give the exact energy, $E_{v}$ without needing to solve the Schr\"odinger equation.

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Detecting topological invariants in nonunitary discrete-time quantum walks. (arXiv:1709.10287v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We report the experimental detection of bulk topological invariants in nonunitary discrete-time quantum walks with single photons. The nonunitarity of the quantum dynamics is enforced by periodically performing partial measurements on the polarization of the walker photon, which effectively introduces loss to the dynamics. The topological invariant of the nonunitary quantum walk is manifested in the quantized average displacement of the walker, which is probed by monitoring the photon loss. We confirm the topological properties of the system by observing localized edge states at the boundary of regions with different topological invariants. We further demonstrate the robustness of both the topological properties and the measurement scheme of the topological invariants against disorder.

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Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states. (arXiv:1709.10294v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state $\rho$ of a finite size $N$. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to arbitrary two orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of $\rho$ and the entries of a unitary matrix $U$ relating both bases. The obtained results can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.

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Optimal resource states for local state discrimination. (arXiv:1709.10302v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

We study the problem of locally distinguishing pure quantum states using shared entanglement as a resource. For a given set of locally indistinguishable states, we define a resource state to be useful if it can enhance local distinguishability and optimal if it can distinguish the states as well as global measurements and is also minimal with respect to a partial ordering defined by entanglement and dimension. We present examples of useful resources and show that an entangled state need not be useful for distinguishing a given set of states. We obtain optimal resources with explicit local protocols to distinguish multipartite GHZ and Graph states; and also show that a maximally entangled state is an optimal resource under one-way LOCC to distinguish any bipartite orthonormal basis which contains at least one entangled state of full Schmidt rank.

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Coherence properties and quantum control of silicon vacancy color centers in diamond. (arXiv:1709.10321v1 [quant-ph]) Quantum Physics - Tue, 2017-10-03 00:54

Atomic-scale impurity spins, also called color centers, in an otherwise spin-free diamond host lattice have proven to be versatile tools for applications in solid-state-based quantum technologies ranging from quantum information processing (QIP) to quantum-enhanced sensing and metrology. Due to its wide band gap, diamond can host hundreds of different color centers. However, their suitability for QIP or sensing applications has only been tested for a handful of these, with the nitrogen vacancy (NV) strongly dominating this field of research. Due to its limited optical properties, the success of the NV for QIP applications however strongly depends on the development of efficient photonic interfaces. In the past years the negatively charged silicon vacancy (SiV) center received significant attention due to its highly favourable spectral properties such as narrow zero phonon line transitions and weak phonon sidebands. We here review recent work investigating the SiV centre's orbital and electron spin coherence properties as well as techniques to coherently control its quantum state using microwave as well as optical fields and we outline potential future experimental directions to improve the SiV's coherence time scale and to develop it into a valuable tool for QIP applications.

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