In this contribution we deal with several issues one encounters when trying to couple quantum matter to classical gravitational fields. We start with a general background discussion and then move on to two more technical sections. In the first technical part we consider the question how the Hamiltonian of a composite two-particle system in an external gravitational field can be computed in a systematic post-Newtonian setting without backreaction. This enables us to reliably estimate the consistency and completeness of less systematic and more intuitive approaches that attempt to solve this problem by adding `relativistic effects' by hand. In the second technical part we consider the question of how quantum matter may act as source for classical gravitational fields via the semiclassical Einstein equations. Statements to the effect that this approach is fundamentally inconsistent are critically reviewed.

In the presence of interactions, periodically-driven quantum systems generically thermalize to an infinite-temperature state. Recently, however, it was shown that in random kicked rotors with local interactions, this long-time equilibrium could be strongly delayed by operating in a regime of weakly fluctuating random phases, leading to the emergence of a metastable thermal ensemble. Here we show that when the random kinetic energy is smaller than the interaction energy, this system in fact exhibits a much richer dynamical phase diagram, which includes a low-energy pre-thermal phase characterized by a light-cone spreading of correlations in momentum space. We develop a hydrodynamic theory of this phase and find a very good agreement with exact numerical simulations. We finally explore the full dynamical phase diagram of the system and find that the transition toward full thermalization is characterized by relatively sharp crossovers.

Coupling a 1D quasiperiodic interacting system to a Markovian bath, we study the avalanche instability of the many body localized phase numerically, finding that many body localization (MBL) likely exists in pseudorandom quasiperiodic systems in the thermodynamic limit for a disorder strength $W>8$ (to be compared with $W>18$ in the corresponding randomly disordered case). We support our conclusion by additionally developing real space RG arguments, and provide a detailed comparison between quasiperiodic and random MBL from the avalanche instability perspective, concluding that the two belong to different universality classes.

We propose a class of generalizations of the geometric entanglement for pure states by exploiting the matrix product state formalism. This generalization is completely divested from the notion of separability and can be freely tuned as a function of the bond dimension to target states which vary in entanglement complexity. We first demonstrate its value in a toy spin-1 model where, unlike the conventional geometric entanglement, it successfully identifies the AKLT ground state. We then investigate the phase diagram of a Haldane chain with uniaxial and rhombic anisotropies, revealing that the generalized geometric entanglement can successfully detect all its phases and their entanglement complexity. Finally we investigate the disordered spin-$1/2$ Heisenberg model, where we find that differences in generalized geometric entanglements can be used as lucrative signatures of the ergodic-localized entanglement transition.

We present some basic inequalities between the classical and quantum values of free energy, entropy and mean energy. We investigate the transition from the deterministic case (classical mechanics) to the probabilistic case (quantum mechanics). In the first part of the paper, we assume that the reduced Planck constant $\hbar$, the absolute temperature $T$, the frequency of an oscillator $\omega$, and the degree of freedom of a system $N$ are fixed. This approach to the problem of comparing quantum and classical mechanics is new (see [35]--[37]).

In the second part of the paper, we simultaneously derive the semiclassical limits for four cases, that is, for $\hbar{\to}0$, $T{\to}\infty$, $\omega{\to}0$, and $N{\to}\infty$. We note that only the case $\hbar{\to}0$ is usually considered in quantum mechanics (see [21]). The cases $T{\to}\infty$ and $\omega{\to}0$ in quantum mechanics were initially studied by M. Planck and by A. Einstein, respectively.

Key generation efficiency, and security, in DPS-QKD improve with an increase in the number of path delays or time-bin superpositions. We demonstrate the implementation of super-position states using time-bins, and establish an equivalence with path-based superposition, thus yielding a simpler implementation of higher-order superposition states for differential phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD). We set up DPS-QKD, over 105 km of single mode optical fiber, with a quantum bit error rate of less than 15% at a secure key rate of 2 kbps. With temporal guard bands, the QBER reduced to less than 10%, but with a 20% reduction in the key rate.

Our recent letter "Cosmic Microwave Background Constraints Cast a Shadow On Continuous Spontaneous Localization Models" [arXiv:1906.04405] has recently been criticised in [G. R. Bengochea, G. Leon, P. Pearle, and D. Sudarsky, arXiv:2008.05285, see also arXiv:2006.05313]. In this reply, we explain why the arguments presented in those articles are either incorrect or a confirmation of the robustness of our results.

We investigate spectral properties of quantum graphs in the form of a periodic chain of rings with a connecting link between each adjacent pair, assuming that wave functions at the vertices are matched through conditions manifestly non-invariant with respect to time reversal. We discuss, in particular, the high-energy behavior of such systems and the limiting situations when one of the edges in the elementary cell of such a graph shrinks to zero. The spectrum depends on the topology and geometry of the graph. The probability that an energy belongs to the spectrum takes three different values reflecting the vertex parities and mirror symmetry, and the band patterns are influenced by commensurability of graph edge lengths.

In this work, we study the combined effects of noisy resource state and noisy classical communication on teleportation fidelity and its deviation. Basically, we consider a teleportation protocol, where a general two-qubit state in canonical form is used as resource, which of course, can be a noisy entangled state. Thereafter, to teleport an unknown qubit, Alice measures her qubits in Bell basis and convey the measurement outcome to Bob via noisy classical channel(s). In particular, we derive the exact formulae of optimal teleportation fidelity and corresponding fidelity deviation where the resource state and the classical communication, both of them can be noisy. We further find conditions for non-classical fidelity and dispersion-free teleportation within the present protocol. In this way, we identify the noisy environments where it is possible to achieve the dispersion-free teleportation without compromising the non-classical fidelity. We also exhibit scenarios where the increase of entanglement in the resource state, may degrade the quality of teleportation. Finally, we discuss on minimum classical communication cost required to achieve non-classical fidelity in our protocol.

The Continuous Spontaneous Localisation (CSL) theory in the cosmological context is subject to uncertainties related to the choice of the collapse operator. In this paper, we constrain its form based on generic arguments. We show that, if the collapse operator is even in the field variables, it is unable to induce the collapse of the wavefunction. Instead, if it is odd, we find that only linear operators are such that the outcomes are distributed according to Gaussian statistics, as required by measurements of the cosmic microwave background. We discuss implications of these results for previously proposed collapse operators. We conclude that the cosmological CSL collapse operator should be linear in the field variables.

The efficient calculation of the centrality or "hierarchy" of nodes in a network has gained great relevance in recent years due to the generation of large amounts of data. The eigenvector centrality (aka eigencentrality) is quickly becoming a good metric for centrality due to both its simplicity and fidelity. In this work we lay the foundations for solving the eigencentrality problem of ranking the importance of the nodes of a network with scores from the eigenvector of the network, using quantum computational paradigms such as quantum annealing and gate-based quantum computing. The problem is reformulated as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) that can be solved on both quantum architectures. The results focus on correctly identifying a given number of the most important nodes in numerous networks given by the sparse vector solution of our QUBO formulation of the problem of identifying the top-$\tau$ highest eigencentrality nodes in a network on both the D-Wave and IBM quantum computers

Classical sensors for spectrum analysis are widely used but lack micro- or nanoscale spatial resolution. On the other hand, quantum sensors, capable of working with nanoscale precision, do not provide precise frequency resolution over a wide range of frequencies. Using a single spin in diamond, we present a measurement protocol for quantum probes which enables full signal reconstruction on a nanoscale spatial resolution up to potentially 100\,GHz. We achieve $58\,\mathrm{nT/\sqrt{Hz}}$ amplitude and $0.095\,\mathrm{rad/\sqrt{Hz}}$ phase sensitivity and a relative frequency uncertainty of $10^{-12}$ for a $1.51\,\mathrm{GHz}$ signal within $10\,\mathrm{s}$ of integration. This technique opens the way to quantum spectrum analysis methods with potential applications in electron spin detection and nanocircuitry in quantum technologies.

We consider the dynamics $t\mapsto\tau_t$ of an infinite quantum lattice system that is generated by a local interaction. If the interaction decomposes into a finite number of terms that are themselves local interactions, we show that $\tau_t$ can be efficiently approximated by a product of $n$ automorphisms, each of them being an alternating product generated by the individual terms. For any integer $m$, we construct a product formula (in the spirit of Trotter) such that the approximation error scales as $n^{-m}$. Our bounds hold in norm, pointwise for algebra elements that are sufficiently well approximated by finite volume observables.

We propose and demonstrate a method to characterize a gated InGaAs single-photon detector (SPD). Ultrashort weak coherent pulses, from a mode-locked sub-picosecond pulsed laser, were used to measure photon counts, at varying arrival times relative to the start of the SPD gate voltage. The uneven detection probabilities within the gate window were used to estimate the afterpulse probability with respect to various detector parameters: excess bias, width of gate window and hold-off time. We estimated a lifetime of 2.1 microseconds for the half-life of trapped carriers, using a power-law fit to the decay in afterpulse probability. Finally, we quantify the timing jitter of the SPD using a time to digital converter with a resolution of 55 ps.

In general, for a bipartite quantum system $\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d}$ and an integer $k$ such that $4\leq k\le d$,there are few necessary and sufficient conditions for local discrimination of sets of $k$ generalized Bell states (GBSs) and it is difficult to locally distinguish $k$-GBS sets.The purpose of this paper is to completely solve the problem of local discrimination of GBS sets in some bipartite quantum systems.Firstly three practical and effective sufficient conditions are given,Fan$^{,}$s and Wang et al.$^{,}$s results [Phys Rev Lett 92, 177905 (2004); Phys Rev A 99, 022307 (2019)] can be deduced as special cases of these conditions.Secondly in $\mathbb{C}^{4}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{4}$, a necessary and sufficient condition for local discrimination of GBS sets is provided, and a list of all locally indistinguishable 4-GBS sets is provided,and then the problem of local discrimination of GBS sets is completely solved.In $\mathbb{C}^{5}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{5}$, a concise necessary and sufficient condition for one-way local discrimination of GBS sets is obtained,which gives an affirmative answer to the case $d=5$ of the problem proposed by Wang et al.

We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the thermodynamic performance of a minimal three-qubit heat-bath algorithmic cooling refrigerator. We analytically compute the coefficient of performance, the cooling power and the polarization of the target qubit for an arbitrary number of cycles, taking realistic experimental imperfections into account. We determine their fundamental upper bounds in the ideal reversible limit and show that these values may be experimentally approached using a system of three qubits in a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond.

We calculate the operator complexity for the displacement, squeeze and rotation operators of a quantum harmonic oscillator. The complexity of the time-dependent displacement operator is constant, equal to the magnitude of the coherent state parameter, while the complexity of unitary evolution by a generic quadratic Hamiltonian is proportional to the amount of squeezing and is sensitive to the time-dependent phase of the unitary operator. We apply these results to study the complexity of a free massive scalar field, finding that the complexity has a period of rapid linear growth followed by a saturation determined by the UV cutoff and the number of spatial dimensions. We also study the complexity of the unitary evolution of quantum cosmological perturbations in de Sitter space, which can be written as time-dependent squeezing and rotation operators on individual Fourier mode pairs. The complexity of a single mode pair at late times grows linearly with the number of e-folds, while the complexity at early times oscillates rapidly due to the sensitivity of operator complexity to the phase of unitary time evolution. Integrating over all modes, the total complexity of cosmological perturbations scales as the square root of the (exponentially) growing volume of de Sitter space, suggesting that inflation leads to an explosive growth in complexity of the Universe.

Simulating fermionic systems on a quantum computer requires a high-performing mapping of fermionic states to qubits. The key characteristic of an efficient mapping is its ability to translate local fermionic interactions into local qubit interactions, leading to easy-to-simulate qubit Hamiltonians. Improvements in the locality of fermion-qubit mappings have traditionally come at higher resource costs elsewhere, such as in the form of a significant number of additional qubits. We present a new way to design fermion-qubit mappings by making use of the extra degree of freedom: the choice of numbering scheme for the fermionic modes, a feature all mappings must have. This allows us to minimse the average Pauli weight of a qubit Hamiltonian -- its average number of Pauli matrices per term. Our approach leads to a rigorous notion of optimality by viewing fermion-qubit mappings as functions of their enumeration schemes. Furthermore, finding the best enumeration scheme allows one to increase the locality of the target qubit Hamiltonian without expending any additional resources. Minimising the average Pauli weight of a mapping is an NP-complete problem in general. We show how one solution, Mitchison and Durbin's enumeration pattern, leads to a qubit Hamiltonian for simulating the square fermionic lattice consisting of terms with an average Pauli weight 13.9% shorter than previously any previously known. Adding just two ancilla qubits, we can reduce the average Pauli weight of Hamiltonian terms by 37.9% on square lattices compared to previous methods. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our techniques to polynomially reduce the average Pauli weight by exhibiting $n$-mode fermionic systems where optimisation yields patterns that achieve $n^{\frac{1}{4}}$ improvement in average Pauli weight over na\"ive enumeration schemes.

We consider a quasi-probability distribution of work for an isolated quantum system coupled to the energy-storage device given by the ideal weight. Specifically, we analyze a trade-off between changes in average energy and changes in weight's variance, where work is extracted from the coherent and incoherent ergotropy of the system. Primarily, we reveal that the extraction of positive coherent ergotropy can be accompanied by the reduction of work fluctuations (quantified by a variance loss) by utilizing the non-classical states of a work reservoir. On the other hand, we derive a fluctuation-decoherence relation for a quantum weight, defining a lower bound of its energy dispersion via a dumping function of the coherent contribution to the system's ergotropy. Specifically, it reveals that unlocking ergotropy from coherences results in high fluctuations, which diverge when the total coherent energy is unlocked. The proposed autonomous protocol of work extraction shows a significant difference between extracting coherent and incoherent ergotropy: The former can decrease the variance, but its absolute value diverges if more and more energy is extracted, whereas for the latter, the gain is always non-negative, but a total (incoherent) ergotropy can be extracted with finite work fluctuations. Furthermore, we present the framework in terms of the introduced quasi-probability distribution, which has a physical interpretation of its cumulants, is free from the invasive nature of measurements, and reduces to the two-point measurement scheme (TPM) for incoherent states. Finally, we analytically solve the work-variance trade-off for a qubit, explicitly revealing all the above quantum and classical regimes.

Many quantum algorithms involve the evaluation of expectation values. Optimal strategies for estimating a single expectation value are known, requiring a number of state preparations that scales with the target error $\varepsilon$ as $\mathcal{O}(\varepsilon^{-1})$. In this paper we address the task of estimating the expectation values of $M$ different observables, each to within additive error $\varepsilon$, with the same $\varepsilon^{-1}$ dependence. We describe an approach that leverages Gily\'{e}n et al.'s quantum gradient estimation algorithm to achieve $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{M}\varepsilon^{-1})$ scaling up to logarithmic factors, regardless of the commutation properties of the $M$ observables. We prove that this scaling is worst-case optimal in the high-precision regime if the state preparation is treated as a black box, even when the operators are mutually commuting. We highlight the flexibility of our approach by presenting several generalizations, including a strategy for accelerating the estimation of a collection of dynamic correlation functions.