Author(s): Dan Garisto

A novel method for measuring nanoparticle size could have applications in industry and basic materials science research.

[Physics 15, 130] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Ryan Wilkinson

Cosmological constraints can be improved by applying machine learning to a combination of data from two leading probes of the large-scale structure of the Universe.

[Physics 15, s111] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Categories: Physics

Author(s): Peter Høyer and Janet Leahy

The defining feature of memoryless quantum walks is that they operate on the vertex space of a graph and therefore can be used to produce search algorithms with minimal memory. We present a memoryless walk that can find a unique marked vertex on a two-dimensional lattice. Our walk is based on the co…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022418] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Author(s): Guo Xuan Chan and Xin Wang

Long-range interaction between distant spins is an important building block for the realization of a large quantum-dot network in which couplings between pairs of spins can be selectively addressed. Recent experiments on the coherent oscillation of logical states between remote spins facilitated by …

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022420] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Author(s): Lijun Huang, Zhi Tan, Honghua Zhong, and Bo Zhu

We propose a fast, robust, and long-distance quantum state transfer (QST) protocol via a splicing Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) chain, where the interchain couplings vary with the change in the phase parameter and the single or splicing SSH chain can be designed by adjusting it. It is found that the ex…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022419] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Author(s): G. J. Delben, A. L. O. dos Santos, and M. G. E. da Luz

We investigate the quantum control of two qubits interacting with a Markovian environment and evolving as an X state. The control is implemented via a simple applied field, whose profile is determined by means of the piecewise time-independent quantum control method. The goal is to make either the p…

[Phys. Rev. A 106, 022417] Published Fri Aug 19, 2022

Quantum communication is often investigated in scenarios where only the dimension of Hilbert space is known. However, assigning a precise dimension is often an approximation of what is actually a higher-dimensional process. Here, we introduce and investigate quantum information encoded in carriers that nearly, but not entirely, correspond to standard qudits. We demonstrate the relevance of this concept for semi-device-independent quantum information by showing how small higher-dimensional components can significantly compromise the conclusions of established protocols. Then we provide a general method, based on semidefinite relaxations, for bounding the set of almost qudit correlations, and apply it to remedy the demonstrated issues. This method also offers a novel systematic approach to the well-known task of device-independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions with unentangled devices. Finally, we also consider viewing almost qubit systems as a physical resource available to the experimenter and determine the optimal quantum protocol for the well-known Random Access Code.

We study the regularity properties of fermionic equilibrium states at finite positive temperature and show that they satisfy certain semiclassical bounds. As a corollary, we identify explicitly a class of positive temperature states satisfying the regularity assumptions of [J.J. Chong, L. Lafleche, C. Saffirio: arXiv:2103.10946 (2021)].

We first show that every operation possesses an unique dual operation and measures an unique effect. If $a$ and $b$ are effects and $J$ is an operation that measures $a$, we define the sequential product of $a$ then $b$ relative to $J$. Properties of the sequential product are derived and are illustrated in terms of L\"uders and Holevo operations. We next extend this work to the theory of instruments and observables. We also define the concept of an instrument (observable) conditioned by another instrument (observable). Identity, state-constant and repeatable instruments are considered. Sequential products of finite observables relative to L\"uders and Holevo instruments are studied.

We investigate the coherence and non-Markovianity of a quantum tunneling system whose barrier is fluctuated by a telegraph noise, and its energy gap is modulated by Gaussian noise. With the help of averaging method, the system dynamics are analytically derived, and the analytical expression for coherence measure and non-Markovianity for the very limited parameter regimes for both initially coherent and non-coherent states are obtained. We observe non-Markovian dynamics in a situation where the Kubo number is high. It is also found that there is no strong relation between the coherence of the system and non-Markovianity dynamics except in a region in which these two tend to change their behavior at the intermediate noise color for two initial states.

By no fast-forwarding theorem, the simulation time for the Hamiltonian evolution needs to be $O(\|H\| t)$, which essentially states that one can not go across the multiple scales as the simulation time for the Hamiltonian evolution needs to be strictly greater than the physical time. We demonstrated in the context of the semiclassical Schr\"odinger equation that the computational cost for a class of observables can be much lower than the state-of-the-art bounds. In the semiclassical regime (the effective Planck constant $h \ll 1$), the operator norm of the Hamiltonian is $O(h^{-1})$. We show that the number of Trotter steps used for the observable evolution can be $O(1)$, that is, to simulate some observables of the Schr\"odinger equation on a quantum scale only takes the simulation time comparable to the classical scale. In terms of error analysis, we improve the additive observable error bounds [Lasser-Lubich 2020] to uniform-in-$h$ observable error bounds. This is, to our knowledge, the first uniform observable error bound for semiclassical Schr\"odinger equation without sacrificing the convergence order of the numerical method. Based on semiclassical calculus and discrete microlocal analysis, our result showcases the potential improvements taking advantage of multiscale properties, such as the smallness of the effective Planck constant, of the underlying dynamics and sheds light on going across the scale for quantum dynamics simulation.

This paper presents a first end-to-end application of a Quantum Support Vector Machine (QSVM) algorithm for a classification problem in the financial payment industry using the IBM Safer Payments and IBM Quantum Computers via the Qiskit software stack. Based on real card payment data, a thorough comparison is performed to assess the complementary impact brought in by the current state-of-the-art Quantum Machine Learning algorithms with respect to the Classical Approach. A new method to search for best features is explored using the Quantum Support Vector Machine's feature map characteristics. The results are compared using fraud specific key performance indicators: Accuracy, Recall, and False Positive Rate, extracted from analyses based on human expertise (rule decisions), classical machine learning algorithms (Random Forest, XGBoost) and quantum based machine learning algorithms using QSVM. In addition, a hybrid classical-quantum approach is explored by using an ensemble model that combines classical and quantum algorithms to better improve the fraud prevention decision. We found, as expected, that the results highly depend on feature selections and algorithms that are used to select them. The QSVM provides a complementary exploration of the feature space which led to an improved accuracy of the mixed quantum-classical method for fraud detection, on a drastically reduced data set to fit current state of Quantum Hardware.

Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a hybrid quantum-classical technique that leverages noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) hardware to obtain the minimum eigenvalue of a model Hamiltonian. VQE has so far been used to simulate condensed matter systems as well as quantum chemistry of small molecules. In this work, we employ VQE methods to obtain the ground-state energy of LiCoO$_2$, a candidate transition metal oxide used for battery cathodes. We simulate Li$_2$Co$_2$O$_4$ and Co$_2$O$_4$ gas-phase models, which represent the lithiated and delithiated states during the discharge and the charge of the Li-ion battery, respectively. Computations are performed using a statevector simulator with a single reference state for three different trial wavefunctions: unitary coupled-cluster singles and doubles (UCCSD), unitary coupled-cluster generalized singles and doubles (UCCGSD) and k-unitary pair coupled-cluster generalized singles and doubles (k-UpCCGSD). The resources in terms of circuit depth, two-qubit entangling gates and wavefunction parameters are analyzed. We find that the k-UpCCGSD with k=5 produces results similar to UCCSD but at a lower cost. Finally, the performance of VQE methods is benchmarked against the classical wavefunction-based methods, such as coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) and complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI). Our results show that VQE methods quantitatively agree with the results obtained from CCSD. However, the comparison against the CASCI results clearly suggests that advanced trial wavefunctions are likely necessary to capture the multi-reference characteristics as well as the correlations emerging from high-level electronic excitations.

Pre-shared entanglement can significantly boost communication rates in the high thermal noise and low-brightness transmitter regime. In this regime, for a lossy-bosonic channel with additive thermal noise, the ratio between the entanglement-assisted capacity and the Holevo capacity - the maximum reliable-communications rate permitted by quantum mechanics without any pre-shared entanglement - scales as $\log(1/{\bar N}_{\rm S})$, where the mean transmitted photon number per mode, ${\bar N}_{\rm S} \ll 1$. Thus, pre-shared entanglement, e.g., distributed by the quantum internet or a satellite-assisted quantum link, promises to significantly improve low-power radio-frequency communications. In this paper, we propose a pair of structured quantum transceiver designs that leverage continuous-variable pre-shared entanglement generated, e.g., from a down-conversion source, binary phase modulation, and non-Gaussian joint detection over a code word block, to achieve this scaling law of capacity enhancement. Further, we describe a modification to the aforesaid receiver using a front-end that uses sum-frequency generation sandwiched with dynamically-programmable in-line two-mode squeezers, and a receiver back-end that takes full advantage of the output of the receiver's front-end by employing a non-destructive multimode vacuum-or-not measurement to achieve the entanglement-assisted classical communications capacity.

We propose a cooling scheme to prepare stationary entanglement of neutral atoms in the Rydberg blockade regime by combination of periodically collective laser pumping and dissipation. In each cycle, the controlled unitary dynamics process can selectively pump atoms away from the non-target state while maintaining the target state unchanged. The subsequent dissipative process redistributes the populations of ground states through the engineered spontaneous emission. After a number of cycles, the system will be eventually stabilized into the desired steady state independent of the initial state. This protocol does not rely on coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms or fine control of Rydberg interaction intensity, which can in principle greatly improve the feasibility of experiments in related fields.

Thouless pumping, not only achieving quantized transport but also immune to moderate disorder, has attracted growing attention in both experiments and theories. Here, we explore how particle-particle interactions affect topological transport in a periodically-modulated and tilted optical lattice. Not limited to wannier states, our scheme ensures a dispersionless quantized transport even for initial Gaussian-like wave packets of interacting bosons which do not uniformly occupy a given band. This is because the tilting potential leads to Bloch oscillations uniformly sampling the Berry curvatures over the entire Brillouin zone. The interplay among on-site potential difference, tunneling rate and interactions contributes to the topological transport of bound and scattering states and the topologically resonant tunnelings. Our study deepens the understanding of correlation effects on topological states, and provides a feasible way for detecting topological properties in interacting systems.

Rapid ongoing progress in quantum information science makes this an apt time for a Solvay Conference focused on The Physics of Quantum Information. Here I review four intertwined themes encompassed by this topic: Quantum computer science, quantum hardware, quantum matter, and quantum gravity. Though the time scale for broad practical impact of quantum computation is still uncertain, in the near future we can expect noteworthy progress toward scalable fault-tolerant quantum computing, and discoveries enabled by programmable quantum simulators. In the longer term, controlling highly complex quantum matter will open the door to profound scientific advances and powerful new technologies.

Isolated, micro-meter sized diamonds are grown by micro-wave plasma chemical vapour deposition technique on Si(001) substrates. Each diamond is uniquely identified by markers milled in the Si substrate by Ga+ focused ion beam. The morphology and micrograin structure analysis indicates that the diamonds are icosahedral or bi-crystals. Icosahedral diamonds have higher (up to $\sigma_\mathrm{h}$ = 2.3 GPa), and wider distribution ($\Delta\sigma_\mathrm{h}$ = 4.47 GPa) of hydrostatic stress built up at the microcrystal grain boundaries, compared to the other crystals. The number and spectral shape of SiV- color centers incorporated in the micro-diamonds is analysed, and estimated by means of temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements, and Montecarlo simulations. The Montecarlo simulations indicate that the number of SiV- color centers is a few thousand per micro-diamond.

The relation between projective measurements and generalized quantum measurements is a fundamental problem in quantum physics, and clarifying this issue is also important to quantum technologies. While it has been intuitively known that projective measurements can be constructed from sequential generalized or weak measurements, there is still lack of a proof of this hypothesis in general cases. Here we rigorously prove it from the perspective of quantum channels. We show that projective measurements naturally arise from sequential generalized measurements in the asymptotic limit. Specifically, a selective projective measurement arises from a set of typical sequences of sequential generalized measurements. We provide an explicit scheme to construct projective measurements of a quantum system with sequential generalized quantum measurements. Remarkably, a single ancilla qubit is sufficient to mediate a sequential weak measurement for constructing arbitrary projective measurements of a generic system.

The simplest approach to deal with light excitations in direct-gap semiconductors is to model them as a two-band system: one conduction and one valence band. For such models, particularly simple analytical expressions are known to exist for the optical response such as multi-photon absorption coefficients. Here we show that generic multi-band models do not require much more complicated expressions. Our length-gauge analysis is based on the semiconductors Bloch equations in the absence of all scattering processes. In the evaluation, we focus on two-photon excitation by a pump-probe scheme with possibly non-degenerate and arbitrarily polarized configurations. The theory is validated by application to graphene and its bilayer, described by a tight-binding model, as well as bulk Zincblende semiconductors described by k.p theory.